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The American 

Journal of Urology 

and Sexology 

with which have been consolidated 

The American Practitioner 


The Pacific Medical Journal 








• < 

Index to Volume XIII. 



' Dreams — Their Structure, Meaning and Interpretation. By Samuel 

A. Tannenbaum, M. D 1 

Sexual Abstinence. By Professor A. Blaschko 22 

Illegitimacy: Its Causes and Cure. By George Panebakcr 26 

Eugenics, Sexual Sin, Ignorance and Superstition. By W. C. Gates, 

M.D 34 


The Jukes in 1915 41 

Prussia Subsidizes School Teachers with Children. Fritz Lenz 42 

Extragenital Chancres. Dr. H. N. Cole 43 

Why Do Women Become Mothers? Leta S. Hollingworth 44 

Psycho-Sexual Gleanings 44, 45 

A Copy of a Forbidden Book. H. C. UthoflF 45 


Sex Worship and Symbolism of Primitive Races. Sanger Brown II., 

M.D 47 

Rational Sex Ethics. W. F. Robie, A.B., M.D 47 

Slavery of Prostitution. Maude E. Miner 47 

The Way Life Begins. Bertha Chapman Cady and Vernon Mosher 

Cady ; 48 



Jealousy: Its Prevention and Cure. By William J. Robinson, M.D... 49 

What Do We Mean by Normal? By E. S. Shepherd 64 

The Sexual Disorders of Men. By Prof. Dr. Med. R. Kafemann 70 

Sexual Dangers to Which Women Are Exposed by the War. By 

Dr. L. Fraenkel 82 


The Prostitution of Young Girls in Munich during the Year of War, 

1915. Judge Rupprecht 85 

Magic and Sexual Morality. Prof. L. T. Hobhouse 87 

No Decent Woman Feels Insulted by Man's Admiration. Robert 

Michels 87 

Samuel Butler on Complete Abstinence from — Meat 87 

Changes in Our Personality 89 

Solitude. George Hirth 90 

Virginity and Marriage 90 

Activity in German Eugenics 91 

Puritanism in Ancient Japan 91 

• • 


INDEX lii 

Monogamy 92 

Chastity. Mrs. Gallichan 93 

I A Catholic Priest on Sexual Ethics. Father Karl Jentsch 93 

No Cloud without a Silver Lining. Walter M. Gallichan 93 

Two Famous Courtesans ; 93 

/ Continence. E. S. Bax 94 

1 Asceticism. E. B. Bax 94 

■ The Crim€ Against the Unborn. Mrs Gallichan 94 

Conventional Morality. Havelock Ellis 95 

Determination of Sex. Rev. M-elville Fisher, M.D 95 

Not a Physical Necessity. S. Reid Spencer 96 



Dreams: Their Structure, Meaning and Interpretation. By Samuel 

A. Tannenbaum, M.D 97 

Woman's Alleged Physical and Mental Inferiority. By Dr. Franz 

Schacht 114 

Unusual Wet-Nnrses. By Ploss-Bartels 124 

One Man's Sex History. By H. H. H 131 


Dr. Johnson on Sex Equality 135 

Extragenital Chancres. Dr. H. N. Cole 135 

Courtesans and Prostitutes. Geo. Hirth 137 

Coitus Interruptus and Prolongatus 138 

First Pregnancy Too Soon. Robert Michels 138 

DiflFerences in the Degrees of Consciousness of Sexuality. Weininger 139 

Avoid Sudden Initiation into Sex Mysteries. Robert Michels 139 

Misogyny 141 

Should Mrs. and Miss Be Discarded ? Robert Michels 141 

Liberators Come from the Non-Oppressed. Robert Midhels 142 

Famous Men of Small Size 142 

Cranial Conformation of Immigrants to the United States. Jean Finot 143 

Cranial Changes. Jean Finot 143 

Differences in the Sexual Impulses. Weininger 143 

Distribution of Masturbation 144 

Sex Irritability of Woman. Weininger 144 

The Purity of All Love. Lester F. Ward 144 

Moral Codes. L. F. Ward 144 


Dreams: Their Meaning, Structure and Interpretation. By Samuel A. 

Tannenbaum, M.D 145 

The Relations between Sexual Abstinence and Health. By Prof. 

Dr. Anton Nystrom 160 

Sexual Abstinence in Women 168 

Theses for the Discussion of Sexual Abstinence. By Dr. Magnus 

Hirschfeld and Dr. Iwan Bloch 171 

Cases of Abnormal and Insane Jealousy. Dr. M. Friedman 174 

Distinctions between tiie Male and the Female Sex Instinct. By Dr. 

Ludwig Reisinger 178 

An "Internal Secretion." By WUliam F. Waugh, M.D 180 



Maternity Superstitions of Filipinos. Elsie P. McCloskey 186 


The Cause of Frigidity in Woman. Walter M. Gallichan 183 

The Libertine Does Not Know Woman. Robert Michels 184 

Free Love An Exploded Theory. Robert Michels 184 

BIRTH-CONTROL BIBLIOGRAPHY. Compiled by William J. Rob- 
inson, M.D. New York, 1917 185-192 



Dreams: Their Meaning, Structure and Interpretation. By Samuel A. 

Tannenbaum, M.D 193 

Female Exhibitionism. A Psychosexual Study. By B. S. Tahncy, 

M.D 212 

Sexual Abstinence. By Dr. L. Loewenfeld 223 


A Case of Continued Priapism. Dr. Albert E. Mowry 228 

Genital Mutilation. Dr. W. W. Houser 230 

Two Views of Marriage. Auguste Comte 230 

A Civilization Built on Sand. Havelock Ellis 230 

Male Superiority. Lester F. Ward 231 

The Source of Woman's Power. Walter Heape 231 

You Can't Fool Nature. Walter Heape 231 

To-day a Crime, To-morrow a Duty. Prof. Nystrom 232 

BIRTH-CONTROL BIBLIOGRAPHY. Compiled by William J. Rob- 
inson, M.D. 1917 233-240 



Our Sexual Misery: Some Informal Remarks. By William J. Rob- 
inson, M.D 241 

Abortion or Intentional Miscarriage. By Ploss and Bartels . 256 


A Persistent Hymen. Dr. Thomas 275 

Connection of the Fine Arts with Love. Lester F. Ward 275 

A Case of Foot-Fetichism. A. Moll 276 

A Primipara at 46. Dr. Seeley Andrews 276 

A Case of Masturbatory Perversion 277 

Abnormal Development of Female Genitals. Dr. W. A. Newman 

Dorland 277 

Congenital Absence of Vagina and Uterus. Dr. Cuthbert Powell.. 278 

The Prostitute's Independent Life. Havelock Ellis 278 

Mental Masturbation. Dr. R. F. Schrenk-Notzing 279 

The Love of Life in the Aged. J. J. Rousseau 279 


A Human Document J. J. J 279 

BIRTH-CONTROL BIBLIOGRAPHY. Compiled by William J. Rob- 
inson, M.D. 1917 281 



A Journal with a Mission 288 

The Sex Instinct in Woman : What the People Know About It 288 



The Social Evil — Whx) is to Blame? By a Sexual Psychologist.... 289 

Psycho- Analysis. By Samuel A. Tannenbaum, M.D. 315 

Sypbilophobia. By Victor G. Vedci. M.D 321 

Two Questions of Justice Relating to Sexual Offenders. By W. Ray 

Jones, A.B., M.D 325 


Deafness and Parenthood. Dr. E. A. Fay 326 

A Case of Satyriasis. Lentz 327 

A Case of Female Masturbation. Dr. R. T. Morris 327 

Results of Weaker Sexuality in Women. Dr. Arnold Lorand 327 

Normal Sexual Gratification. Prof. G. M. Beard 328 

Consequences of Sexual Continence 328 

BIRTH-CONTROL BIBUOGRAPHY. Compiled by William J. Rob- 
inson, M.D. 1917 329 



Sexual Hypochondriasis. By Sir James Paget 337 

Marriage : A Pessimist's View. By Prof. R. Kaufman 353 

The Sex Ideas of Some People. — ^A Remarkable Letter 364 

Country Conditions. By a High School Principal 368 


Chancre of tiie Eye. Dr. W. G. Cameron 370 

Mental Derangement Occurring at the Beginning of Menstruation. 

Buisson and Girard 371 

Acute Urinary Retention. Dr. Qaude Hoffman 372 

The Fear of Death. J. J. Rousseau 372 

Sexual Diversions of Pope Alexander VI. Joh. Burchardi 373 

Physiological Differences between the Male and the Female. Eduard 

von Hartmann 373 

The Single Standard Untenable. Eduard von Hartmann 374 

The Higher Expression of Sex-Love. Gideon Dietrich 374 

Sex-Love a Self -Fertilizing Power. Gideon Dietrich 375 

A Qevcr Judge in a Case of Rape. Cervantes 375 

The Importance of the Sexual Glands 376 

The Instinct of Procreation. Maudsley 376 

An Old Writer on the Consequences of Abstinence. Dr. Wieckard 376 

Abstinence a Cause of Nervousness. A. Moll 376 

^A Sadistic- Masochistic Relationship between Two Children. Zola.. 377 
On Faithfulness in Men and Wk>men: A Misogynist's View. 

Weininger 378 

Genius and Marriage. Henry T. Finck 379 

Marriage on Approval. J. F. Nisbet 380 

Why He Did not Marry. Walt Whitman 380 

Marriage Bleeding from a Thousand Wounds. Robert Michels 381 

Man Naturally Polygamous and Varietist. Robert Michels 382 

Love: Its Definition, its Origin, and its Nature. Prof. Lester F. 

Ward 383 




The Unconscious in Our Daily Life. By Samuel A. Tannenbaum, 

M.D 385 

Incest in Modem Civilization. By Dr. Hermann Rohleder 406 

Our Sex Code. By S. Reid Spencer 412 


Transmission of Syphilis. Dr. Udo J. Wile 414 

A Case of Induration of the Penis. Dr. Henry Morris 416 

Plastic Induration of the Penis. Drs. Chas. A. Waters and J. A. 

C. Colston 417 

Masturbation among Female Sewing Machine Operators. Pouillet 418 

Radium in Carcinoma of the Bladder. Dr. B. S. Barrmger 418 

"Smoker's Patches" in the Mouth. Landouzy 419 

Two Cases of Aspermatism. Dr. V. D. Lespinasse 420 

A Case of Persistent Priapism. Dr. Abr. L Wojbarst 420 


Inventions Accredited to Women. Jean Finot 421 

Women in Science. Jean Finot 421 

Pitfalls of Pubescence. Wm. A. Hsunmond 422 

Rural Morals of Yore. Laukard 423 

The Cause of Prostitution. Wfeininger 423 

Sex Life of the Ants. Jean Finot 424 

The New Woman. Jean Finot 424 

Maternal Descent. William I. Thomas 424 

Sexual Love and the Mbral Code. Lester F. Ward 424 

Determination of Sex. Dr. J. S. Freeborn 425 

The Anthropological Significance of Masturbation 426 

Maleness and Femaleness. Waldeyer 426 

An "Irrevocable" Decree. Dr. S. Weir Mitchell 426 

No Enemy but Herself. Mrs. Gallichan 426 

Determined by Her Own Personality. Annie Riley Hale 427 

Prudery and Pruriency. Ernst Belf ord Bax 427 

Luther's Liberal Views Regarding Marriage 427 

Selfish Bachelors. Henry T. Finck 427 

The "Ascetic" Attitude. B. P. McCarthy More 428 

An Exploded Idea. W. L. George 428 

Empty Headed Men Afraid of Clever Women. Henry S. Harrison. . . 428 

Why is Indissolubility of Marriage Unpopular. B. P. McCarthy More 428 




The Unconscious in Our Daily Life. By Samuel A. Tannenbaum, 

M.D 433 

Biography of a Passive Pederast. By R. W. Shufeldt, M.D 451 

Another "Tragic" Disharmony. By F. D 461 

Army Psychology — The Sexual Instinct and the War. By Major H. 

Viry, M.D 465 


Would Romeo and Juliet Have Divorced? Max Nordau 468 

Larger Field of the Sexual Life in Woman. Weininger 469 

The Limitation of Offspring. Lester F. Ward 469 

INDEX vii 

The Immorality of Some Morality. Mrs. C. G. Hartley-Gallidian 470 

Hebephrenia. Dr. Wm. A. Hammond 470 

Different Effects of Love. Diderot 471 

Stupidity. Sdiopenhauer i 471 

The Role of Sex. Havelock EHis 471 

Littie Hands. UHian Bell 471 

Animal and Human Impregnation. W. E. D. Stokes 472 

Thoughtless Marriages. W. E. D. Stokes 473 

A Case of Sexual Precocity. A. Moll 473 

What is True of the Mare is True of Ae Woman. W. E. D, Stokes 474 

On Transmission of Peculiarities. W. E. D. Stokes 474 

Wrong Methods and Right Methods in Handling Prostitution 474 

What Women Demand from Men. Weininger 475 

Abnormal Symptoms from Abistinence. Prof. Beard 475 

Psychic Erotism. Dr. T. J. McGillicuddy 475 

Masturbation at the Age of 9 — Nocturnal Pollutions — ^Ascarides — Cured 

in Eight Days 476 

A Bialogkal Fact. Henry T. Findc 476 

Individual Preference. Schopenhauer 477 

Wbman's SjAere. Henry T. Finck 478 

"Only" Females. H. J. Mozans > 478 

The Sex Glands and Talent. Arnold Lorand 479 

Venus and Bacchus. Arnold Lorand 479 

Chastity is Praiseworthy. Robert Michels 480 



Man, Woman, and Morals. By the Rev. A. E. Whatham 481 

The Psychopathology of Prostitution. By Morris J. Karpas, M.D 496 


The Gauge of Civilization. Rubin 508 

Woman and Matfiematics 508 

A Frenchman on Otto Weininger. Jean Finot 508 

Women as TOiers of the Soil. C. Vallaux 509 

Different Degrees of Sex-Love. Gideon Dietrich 509 

The Biological Laws of Sex. Walter Heape 509 

The Equality of Sexes 510 

Woman's Strength Lies in Her Femaleness 510 

Monogamy and Sex Ethks. Max Nordau 510 

Masculine Women. Henry T. Finck 514 

Woman and Criminality. Weininger 514 

Menstruation. Jean Finot 514 

The Effects of Pregnancy upon Wbman 515 

The Voluptuousness of Man and of Woman 515 

The Swapping of Wives Among the Romans 516 

A Notable Difference Between Boys and Girls. Hans Gross 517 

The Lady Who Dared.— A Eugenic Tale. W. E. D. Stokes 517 

The Uniformity of the Laws of Heredity. Prof. W. Johannsen 517 

Premature Amatory Sentiments in Celebrated Persons. A. MoU 518 

The Endless Chain. Richet 518 

Civilized and Savage Sexuality. Otto" Stoll 518 

Civilization and Personal Beauty. Henry T. Finck 518 

Social Darwinism. Achille Loria 519 

Darwin Himself Opposed to "Social Darwinism" 519 

Some Silly Saying on Marriage and Women 519 

A Cosmetic Hint. Kant 520 

viii INDEX 

Permanence in Sex Relations. Elsie Qews Parsons 520 

The Unpopularity of New Propositions. J. Howard Moore 521 

The Future of Sex Relationship. Elsie Qews Parsons 521 

Bad EflFecU of Hate in Marriage. B. P. McCarthy More 521 

Progress a Delusion and a Snare. Eduard von Hartmann 522 

Love and Maternity. Prof. Mobius 523 

Free Love. Sebastian Faure 523 

Health and Disease. Buddha 523 

Sexuality and Eroticism. Wcininger 524 

Some More of Weininger's Stuff 524-526 



The Unconscious in Our Daily Life. By Samuel A. Tannen- 

baum, M.D 527 

The Medical Supervision of Prostitution in Paris during the War. 

By Dr. L. Butte 547 


The Diagnosis and the Treatment of Prostatitis. Dr. B. A. Thomas 551 

Gonorrheal Keratosis. Dr. J. Montpellier 552 

Sepsis in Its Relationship to the Genito-Urinary Tract. Dr. B. A. 

Thomas 553 


A Curious Case of Heredity. Ribot 554 

Napoleon's View on Marriage 554 

Prohibition of Polygamy. Bertrand Russell 554 

Natural Nudity. Bebel 555 

The Oneida Report 555 

The Monogamic Marriage. Letourneau 555 

Telegonic Observations in Animal, and Plant Life. J. F. Nisbet.... 556 

A Sad Commentary on Our Conventional Morality. Dr. Hegerisch 557 

Prostitution a Natural Phenomenon. Dr. Oscar A. H. Schmitz 557 

The Significance of Sex. Henry Thomas Moore 558 

Lust and Love. John Allen Godfrey 558 

Mercy to Beasts but Cruelty to Human Beings. A. Baker Read.. 559 

Love, the World's Mainspring. QiflFord Howard 559 

Human Half-Breeds. Dr. Jean Baptiste de Lacerda 560 

Marriage in Africa. Pastor Mojola Agbcbi, D.D 560 

The Female Bust. Frank P. Davis 561 

Solomon's Catalogue of Female Charms 561 

Religious Prostitution. Dr. Sanger Brown 561 

Sexual Excess. Dr. Henry^Maudsley 562 

Woman's Chief Economic Asset: Sex- Attraction. C. P. Gilman.. 562 

Competition between the Sexes. Ellen Key 562 

The Bed-Rock of Sex-DifTerentiation. G. K. Chesterton 562 

Herbert Spencer on Sex-DifTerentiation 563 

Woman's Passivity in Love. Marro 563 

Spencer's Biological Law 563 

Woman the Predominant Partner in Reproduction. Mrs. Gallichan 563 

Amor and Odor. Dr. J. N. Mackenzie 564 

Aphrodisiacs and the Nose. Frank P. Davis 564 

The Sex- Passion. Edward Carpenter 564 

The Frigida. Malchow 564 

Sexual Insensibility in Women. A. Moll 565 

Prostitution a Eugenic Factor. Casper L. Redfield 565 

Professional Prostitutes versus "Respectables." 565 

The Voice of Sexual Instinct. Frank P. Davis 566 

Friendship. Weininger 566 

Inverted Sexual Attraction 566 

UJ-mi1\./«-»A^l t AVAf PK 

The American 


Journal of Urology 
and Sexology 

with whkh has been oonsolidated 

The American Practitioner 



Obstiiiate G>ii8tipatioii of 

Infants and Young Chfldren 


While INTEROL is neidier a food nor a tonic, it is undoubtedly of service 
in diese conditions because it supplies lubrication in the large bowel, facili- 
tating both peristalsis and evacuation. Thus there is less likelihood of intes- 
tinal stasis Vfith its resulting fermentation, putrefaction and autotoxemia. 

INTEROL moves the child's bowels without the enervation, irritation, 
griping, or after-constipation of castor oil — and is *'easy to take.*' 

INTEROL is a paHicahr kind of "mineral oiU" and is not "taken from the same 
barials as the rest of them": (I ) there is no discoloration on the H8SO4 test — abso- 
hite freedom from "lighter" hydrocarbona— so that there can be no ruial disturbance; 
(2) no dark discoloration on the lead-oxide-sodium-hydroadde test — absolute freedom 
mm sulphur compounds — so that there can be no gastro-intestinal disturbance from 
dus source; (3) no action on litmus — absolute neutrality; (4) no odor, even when 
heated; (5) no taste, even when warm. Almost any child can "take" INTEROL. 

INTEROL bookUt on nqvMt: abo Utamtora on *OlwtiMto Ctwwliiwuk a of twStM^ 

VAN HORN and SAWTELU ISancI 17 East 40lfa Street. New York City 



Entered N T Poat Offloe as Seeond Claw Matter. 
UwjLOGic Publishing Association, 12 Mt. Morris Park W., New York. 


The H.K.Mulfonl Company Leads 

ill the Manuiactiire of Standardized and Physiologically 
Tested Pharmacentioal and Biological Ph>dncts 

The U. S. P. IX. requiires bioloiical assay for cannabis and 
its preparations and solution pituitary extract, and recommends 
biological assay for aconite, digitalis, squill, strophanthus and 
tiieir preparations. 

Tears before the U. & P. recognized physological stand- 
ardization biologic assays were carried out in the Mulford 
Laboratories in tiie standardization of aconite, apocynum, can- 
nabis, convallaria, digitalis, epinephrine, ergot, gelsemium, lobelia, 
pituitary extract, squill, strophaiithus, veratrum, and others. 

In addition to chemical and physiological standardization* 

Galenical preparations liable to deteriorate, such as ergot, digi- 
talis and strophanthus, are preserved in the Mulford Vacules 
(vacuum ampuls). 

The U. S. P. IX. requires 
standardization of 

15 tinctures 
11 fluidextracts 
4 solid extracts 
8 powdered extracts 

or 38 

The H. K. Mulford Ck>mpany 

29 tinctures 
51 fluidextracts 
24 solid extracts 
20 powdered extracts 

or 124 

The H. K. Mnliord Company requires the standardization 
of more than three times as many Galenical prenarations as is 
required by the U. S. P. 

Your patients' interests and your own are protected when 
you specify Mulford products. 

IL K. MULFORD COMPANY, Philadelphia, U. & A. 

Copyright, 1917, by Dr. Williftm J. Robinson. 


SMbscripHons amd all eommuniealions relating to tkt bujimfu or Mtofial 
dfpartment, tschanges, amd books for reviiw, should be addrtutd to THE 
AMERICAN JOURNAL OP UROLOGY, 12 Aft. Morris Park Wsst, Niw 
York City. 



Dreams — Their Structure, Meaning and Interpretation, By Samael 

A. Tannenbaum, M.D 1 

Sexual Abistinence. By Professor A. Blaschko 22 

Illegitimacy: Its Causes and Cure. By George Panebaker *• 26 

Eugenics, Sexual Sin, Ignorance and Superstition. By W. C. Gates, 
M.D : : 34 


The Jukes in 1915 41 

Prussia Subsidizes School Teachers with Children. Fritg Lens 42 

Extragenital Chancres. Dr. H. N. Cole 43 

Why Do Wtomen Become Mothers? Leta S. Hollingworth 44 

■- *^. 

Psycho-Sexual Gleanings 44, 45 

A Copy of a Forbidden Book. H. C. UtfaofiF 45 


Sex Worship and Symbolism of Primitive Races. Sanger Brown IL, 

M.D. 47 

Rational Sex Ethics. W. F. Robie, A.B., M.D 47 

Slavery of Prostitution. Maude E. Miner 47 

The Way Life Begins. Bertha Chapman Cady and Vernon Mosher 
Cady 48 

Published monthly by ^e Urologic Publishing AssodatioB. 
12 Mt Morris Park West, New York, N. Y. 



Treatment of 



William J. Robinson, M. D. 

CMef of the Department of Genho-Urinary Diieases and Dermatology. Bronx Hospital and 
Dispensary; Editor The American Journal of Urology, Venereal and Sexual Diseases; 
Editor of The Critic and Guide: Author of Sexual Problems of Today, Never 
Told Tales, Practical Eugenics, etc.; President of the American Society 
of Medical Sociology, President of the Northern Medical So- 
ciety, Ex-President of the Berlin Anglo-American Med- 
ical Society, Fellow of the New York Aca- 
demy of Medicine, etc, etc. 

Unquestionably and incomparably the best^ simplest and most tliorough 
book on the subject in the English language. 


Part I — Masturbation. Its Prevalence, Causes, Varieties, Symptoms, 
Results, Prophylaxis and Treatment. Coitus Intemiptus and Its BflFects. 

Part II— Varieties, Causes and Treatment of Pollutions, Spermatorrhea, 
Prostatorrhea and Urethrorrfaea, 

Part III — Sexual Impotence in the Male. Every phase of its widely vary- 
ing causes and treatment, with illuminating case reports. 

Part IV — Sexual Neurasthenia. Causes, Treatment, case reports, and its 
relation to Impotence. 

Part V— Sterility, Male and Female. Its Causes and Treatment 
Part VI — Sexual Disorders in Woman, Including Frigidity, Vaginismus, 
Adherent Clitoris, and Injuries to the Fexnale in Coitus. 

Part VII— Priapism. Etiology, Case Reports and Treatment 

Part VIII— Miscellaneous Topics. Including: Is Masturbation a Vice?— 
Two Kinds of Premature Ejaculation.— The Frequency of Coitus. — ^^Use. 
less** Sexual Excitement — ^The Relation Between Mental and Sexual Activity. 
-—Big Families and Sexual Vigor. — Sexual Perversions. 

Part IX— Prescriptions and Minor Points. • 

Sixth adition revised ^uid enlarged. 
Cloth bound, 422 pages. Postpaid, $3.00. 



Dr. Robinson's Never Told Tales, $1.00. Sexual Problems of To-Day, $2.00. 


Voi- XIII. JANUARY, 1917. No. 1. 

For Ths AmuCAir Jouknal ov Ukology amo Ssxoi/wt. 


Their Structure, Meaning and Interpretation. 

Br Samubi* a. Takkskbaum, M. D., Nbw Yo&k. 

Introductory. — From time immemorial man has shown keen in- 
terest in that tnun of thoughts, images, and fantasies that pass 
through his mind during sleep and which we call his dreams. As 
far back as we have any record, poets, theologians, and philoso- 
I^rs devoted themselves with much zeal and enthusiasm to the in- 
terpretation of dreams {OneirocrUicism) both as an art and as a 
science. Many of those ancient thinkers had noticed that dreams 
often gave indications of future events and from this many con- 
cluded that all dreams had a prophetic functicm and that it was 
lawful to interpret them. Galen and Hippocrates attached medical 
significance to dreams and were influenced by them in the treatmait 
of patients. All classes of people have at all times attached great 
importance to their dreams and regulated their conduct by them, 
and even today take their dreams greatly to heart and even gamble 
with the aid of numerals dreamt by them. Theologians always at- 
tached great significance to dreams and found in them proofs of the 
immortality of the soul and of the truth of witchcraft. To others 
dreams were an important avenue to self-knowledge, as had been 
taught by Zeno, 

We shall refer briefly to a few of the more important theories 
that have been advanced from time to time to account for dreams. 
Democritus (460-357 B. C.) supposed that the images of corpor- 
eal beings floating in the atmosphere attacked the soul during sleep 
and thus produced the maze of ideas characteristic of dreams. 
Plato (427-847 B. C.) taught that dreams were emanations from 


the Divinity. Aristotle's (884-822 B. C.) theory, startingly like 
that of some modem scientists, was that dream visions are the re- 
sult of the impressions made upon the soul or on some part of the 
body by external objects. One of his disciples, the peripatetic 
philosopher Dicaearchus, regarded dreams as being symbolic pro- 
phecies. Posidonius (185-151 B. C.) taught that in dreams, man, 
owing to his likeness to the Deity, looks into futurity and that 
through them the gods commune with mortals. Herophilus, an 
Alexandrian physician of the fourth century B. C, divided dreams 
into those that were inspired and those which resulted from the 
soul's forming an image of what was beneficial to it. The neo- 
platonlst Porphyry referred dreams to the agency of good and bad 
demons, the one foreshadowing the evils to come and the other 
inflicting those misfortunes. TertuUian described dreams of four 
kinds: those that were due to the agency of demons, those that 
proceeded from Grod and were in the nature of prophecies, those 
that resulted from intense mental application to particular objects, 
and those which were due to ecstasy. "The christian Cicero,** 
Lactantius, also taught that dreams owed their origin to divine 
agency and were sent as revelations of impending good or evil. As 
late as the 17th Century the belief was. widely current that during 
sleep certain evil spirits, succubi and incubi, consorted with men and 
women sexually. The role that dreams played in the doctrines and 
persecutions of the Roman Catholic and other churches is one of 
the most painful chapters in the history of civilization. Women 
bore the brunt of these persecutions because of the obvious re- 
lationship between dreams and sexuality and because of the position 
occupied by women in the Middle Ages. In those days of belief in 
witchcraft and in the demoniacal origin of hysteria ; of grave doubts 
as to woman*s possession of a soul; of belief in the existence of 
witches, vampires, succubi, incubi, werwolves, etc., and their ability 
to leave their mortal bodies at night and cohabit in dreams with 
those whose souls they wished to destroy, the hysterica who escaped 
being burnt at the stake was fortunate indeed. 

With the rise of the modem scientific spirit these theological 
theories gave place to naturalistic explanations. Professor Haven, 
for instance, supposed that prophetic dreams are the result of a 
highly excited nervous system by virtue of which the mind becomes 
susceptible, in some mysterious way, to impressions from far distant 
scenes, places, and events and thus becomes cognizant of the future. 


Dr. Cromwell somewhat more rationally says that ^^Dreams take 
place only when the sleep is unsound, and arise, first, from partial 
returns of activity of the brain itself, when ideas revive in it which 
at some previous time it has entertained; . . . secondly, from 
impressions made upon or arising within one or more of the organs 
having the power to excite the brain to sensation." Erasmus Dar- 
win, on the other hand, attributed dreams to a perpetual flow of 
ideas as a result of painful or pleasurable sensations. Dr. Dungli- 
son, in his "Human Physiology^** concludes that dreaming is the 
expression of the involuntary activity of certain organs in the 
brain whilst others are resting. Another theory attributes dreams 
to the activity of those parts of the brain that have escaped the 
trammels of sleep. 

Recently a more strictly scientific temper has marked the study 
of dreams and the conviction is pretty general that dreams are not 
due to the visitation during sleep by beneficent or malevolent 
spirits, but are natural phenomena presenting many interesting 
problems the solution of which would be of great practical and 
theoretical value. A few of the recent investigators concede to 
dreams a symbolic meaning, whereas others, denying this, explain 
the many peculiar features of dreams as the result of the lawless 
and haphazard activity of disconnected groups of brain cells. A 
very interesting point of view is that which regards dreams as a 
reversion during sleep to a primitive type of thought. But the 
theory most generally accepted and brilliantly championed by Have- 
Jock Ellis {'*The World of Dreams,** 1911, a book with which every 
psycho therapeutist should be thoroughly familiar) is that dreams 
are invented by sleeping consciousness to account for the waves of 
emotion from various parts of the organism which assail the mind 
during sleep and which are themselves the transformations of the 
numerous sensations that reach the brain from within and without 
the body during sleep. In other words, the incoming sensations are 
misinterpreted by the mind as emotions, and then the mind invents 
a theory to account for these emotions. This theory is very attract- 
ive and, to a superficial view, very plausible, but careful considera- 
tion shows that it fails to explain just those problems that most 
challenge explanation. 

To most psychologists of the dominant schools dreams are 
a casual and meaningless by-product of mental functioning, un- 
worthy of serious study. Most of the recent text-books on psy- 


chology do not once mention the subject. The reasons for this 
c(Hitemptuous attitude are to be found, we think, in the difficulties 
associated with a study that must be almost wholly subjective, the 
vulgar identification of oneirocriticism with fortune telling, the 
failure to realize the universality of the law of psychic detenninism« 
and — this is perhaps the crux of the matter — ^the intimate relation 
between dreams and sexuality. 

In the course of his psycho-analytic investigaticms of neurotics 
Professor Freud noticed that now and then his patioits would 
spontaneously narrate their dreams as they recurred to memory and 
then proceed to recall a stream of associated ideas and reminiscences ; 
some of these dreams repeated the patiait's symptoms, others seem- 
ed to be the make-believe fulfilment of certain wishes, and others 
appeared as the realizaticm of certain fears, but all seemed to be 
associatively connected with thoughts that were of the utmost re- 
lative importance. Having thus accidentally, empirically, discover- 
ed that dreams had a profound meaning, that there "was much rea- 
son in them, that they were not worthless, lawless, and senseless 
waste products, he studied his own dreams in exactly the same 
manner as his patients had analyzed their symptoms, and lo! a new 
world stood revealed before him, — the world of the unconscious! 
Realizing the importance and significance of his discovery he tried 
and re-tried his conclusions over and over again before he finally 
published them to the world. Since then his followers have not 
only corroborated his conclusions but been able to extend them to 
other sciences, e. g., folk-lore and comparative religion. As a re- 
sult of these labors, Freud has not only overturned the current 
views and shown that dreams are entitled to a legitimate place in 
our psyche and perform a useful function, but has completely re- 
volutionized our knowledge of the structure and functions of the 
mind. Dreams have an exact and ascertainable psychic history and 
definite functions, obey certain laws, and deserve to be ranked 
among the highest and most interesting phenomena of the psychic 

Dream Characteristics. — Before we proceed to a detailed con- 
sideration of Freud's conclusions about dreams we deem it advisable 
briefly to summarize the generally accepted characteristics of these 
sleep fantasies. Many persons say they never dream; others that 
they rarely dream, and others that they dream all the time. Most 
persons know that they dream a great deal more than they can 


recall. It is not at all unusual to hear one say that he dreamt all 
night but recalls nothing of his dreams or only a very minute f rag^ 
ment and that very indefinitely. Not infrequently a very vivid 
dream contains some element that is quite confused, cloudy or un- 
certain. It often happais that a person recalls a dream perfectly 
CD awakening and completely forgets it later. The reverse of this 
also occurs: on awakening the person is quite sure that he had a 
dreamless sleep, but during the day some trifling incident or coin- 
cidence recaUs a very vivid dream. We all know how easily dreams 
are forgotten. 

Almost all writers on dreams have noticed how constantly re- 
cent events or incidents, especially those of a trivial nature, recur in 
dreams. In fact the popular conception of dreams is that they are 
the continuation of the thoughts and interests of the day. This is 
perhaps due to the frequency with which difficult problems have 
been solved during sleep. That this popular notion does not re- 
present the truth is certain from the fact that the minor, unimport- 
ant, recent incidents are represented in the dreams much more fre- 
quently than important ones. 

Everybody has noticed how very absurd and illogical many 
dreams are. The exactest scholars may have the silliest dreams, 
and prosaic personages may have the most poetical. In the visions 
of sleep the sick are well, the stupid are witty, the dull are bril- 
liant, the untalented are gifted, the plain and h<miely are beautiful, 
^ruth and falsehood, reality and fiction, are mingled in the wildest 

The quickening of the memory for long since forgotten events, 
especially those in early childhood, is one of the best-known char- 
acteristics of dreams. As a result of this hypermnesia one may 
recall in his dreams incidents of his youth with all their original 
truth and vividness. 

The unethical character of dreams has long attracted the at- 
tention of investigators. There is hardly any crime or perversity 
that a person, even the most moral, may not be guilty of in a 
dream without feeling even the least prickings of conscience. The 
moral sense is strangely perverted; where one should condemn he 
approves, where censure he commends, where punish he rewards, 
and vice and versa. 

One of the most striking and important characteristics of 
the dream world is its egocentricity. The dream centers around 


the dreamer's self. The fantasy deals solely with his affairs, his 
interests and his desires. Persons and things are introduced into 
dreams only as they serve the dreamers' purposes. 

In the world of dreams time, space, and realities are disre- 
garded. Impossible things become easy ; fantasies become realities ; 
the old are young again and distances are abolished ; the dead are 
alive and the living are dead ; inanimate objects are animate and an 
individual may have several personalities in one dream ; the laws of 
the physical world are annihilated, etc. 

The kaleidoscopic character of dream imagery, the employment 
of symbolism in dreams, the incongruity between the dream in- 
cidents and the emotions evoked by them, and other important 
dream traits will be discussed in detail later. 

Definition. — As a result of his researches, Freud defines dreams 
as the disguised [and imaginary] ftUplment of repressed wishes 
[during sleep.] . Rank formulates this somewhat more elaborately 
and precisely thus: Dreams as a rule represent, on the basis and 
with the assistance of repressed, infantile sexual material, the 
[imaginary] fulfillment [during sleep] of various present wishes 
(which are usually of an erotic nature) in a masked and symbolic 

Manifest Dream vs. Latent Dream Content. — Freud found 
that if he permitted his patients to communicate to him their "free 
associations" to their dreams or to the separate elements of their 
dreams, he would become the repository of extremely important 
thoughts for which the dream elements seemed to be substitutes. 
No matter how meaningless, lawless, disconnected, unintelligible, 
illogical, absurd or incongruously emotioned a dream may be, the 
thoughts behind it are invariably extremely significant, important, 
logical, well connected and correctly motived. Freud therefore calls 
the dream that is remembered after one awakes from sleep the 
manifest dream, and the great mass of thoughts that is brought 
out by the process of free associations, the latent dream content. 
The failure to observe the distinction between the manifest dream 
and the latent content is responsible for much of the misunder- 
standing and hostile criticism of Freud's theories. 

The (manifest) dream is a much condensed and allegorical 
summary of the underlying thoughts which constitute the latent 
content ; in other words, it is a kind of illustrated rebus the solution 
of which reveals an important body of ideas and other mental 


processes. The connection between a particular dream element and 
the thought behind it may be nothing more than an extremely 
superficial association, such as a similarity in sound, a play on 
words, etc Such associations are identical with those observed in 
other mental phenomena, e. g., in witticisms, the fantasies of hyster- 
ics, the ravings of the insane, etc. The recognition of this prin- 
ciple is one of the essentials of dream interpretation. 

Owing to the fact that each element in the (manifest) dream 
may, and usually does, lead to a large number of ideas, reflections, 
reminiscences, the latent dream thoughts are many times more vol- 
uminous than the dream itself. 

For purposes of illustration I select the analysis of a hysteric- 
al woman's dream as reported by Dr. Wilhelm Stekel, the most 
brilliant dream-critic that the Freudian school has produced. (Cf. 
*'Die Sprache des Travme$,*' by W. Stekel, Wiesbaden, 1911). 

Dream 1. — ^'^In a dance-hall I observed several men in black 
dress-suits dancing with one woman. I approsuihed an elderly 
gentleman and inquired, **don't you dance?" and he replied, "no; 
I am too old for that." Then I saw a funeral cortege in which 
everything was snow-white. I made the sign of the cross too late 
and was reprimanded by the people for it. Subsequently every- 
thing turned out satisfactorily." 

Explanation and Analysis. — ^^The patient was a woman of 82, 
happily married, the mother of two charming children. Notwith- 
standing the absence of any reason for being nervous she was sud- 
dently affected with Apprehension Hysteria. While walking along 
a certain pnHnenade the place suddenly seemed to be strikingly 
altered and quite strange to her. Everjrthing seemed so different 
and so remote that it did not seem to be the promenade she was 
so familiar with. The following night she awoke, without the re- 
collection of having dreamt anything, with a distressing feeling of 
apprehension and trembling. Her knees shook, her thighs 
trembled; a shivering spread over her whole body and a profuse 
sweat broke out. She was overcome with a feeling that her heart 
must break and that something terrible must happen to her. She 
must die now or become insane. The following few days she was 
fearfully depressed, could not sleep without the use of veronal and 
had several attacks of apprehension. Since then an inexplicable 
feeling that she is very unhappy and terrible anxiety. She can't 
remain alone even for a second. "If things continue this way," 


she says to herself, ^^yau*U have to do something; you can't possibly 
endure it." She left Vienna and sought refuge in a sanitarium 
(where she was treated for ^^neurasthenia"). There she suffered 
from insommia, terrifying dreams of being assaulted, dixsiness [a 
sense of confusion], seeing some people double, diarrhea, crying 
speUs, vesical tenesmus, cKsgust at the sight of meat, general ir- 
ritability, absence of all relish for food, loss of flesh, pains in the 
head and spots before the eyes. She was indifferent to everything 
about her, even to her husband and her children. Then she began 
to ask herself whether the things she saw and felt were real, whether 
it was not aU a dream. A very distressing symptom she had was 
a feeling as if her backbone had been sawed away. The fear of 
insanity grew to such proportions that she kept constantly testing 
her logical faculty.' 

^In this condition she sought the aid of Dr. Stekel. She as- 
serted that she had married her husband for love but for all that 
never enjoyed sexual congress. She can gratify her libido only 
by resorting to fantasies of being assaulted by several men. [Maso- 
chism.] This is told us by the first sentence in the above dream. 
[Dancing is one of the most frequent dream symbols for coitus.] 
The men wearing black dress-suits stand for men dressed in white, 
i. e., naked men, as her subsequent associations show. The second 
scene in the dream, that relating to the elderly man who will not 
dance, discloses her great and carefully cherished secret. Before ( !) 
her marriage she had had an affair with an elderly gentleman who 
practiced cunnilingus with her. She had be^i a typical demi- 
vierge. On the day on which she had her first attack of apprdien- 
sion the recollection of this man had suddenly flitted through her 
mind swift as a shadow. The allusion to the black dress-suit recalls 
another youthful trauma. One night her brother, wearing a black 
dress-suit, returned home from a ball in a state of intoxicated ex- 
hilaration and attempted to rape [^^assault"] her; she resisted him 
with all her might, but while she did so she became conscious of 
having had an emission and ever after that she thought of herself 
as hopelessly impure. But the most important thing in the dream 
is the funeral procession in which, as she says, her husband and 
her children, to aU of whom she has become indifferent, are being 
borne to their last resting place.' 

^The sudden occurrence of the neurosis points to a recoit 
traumatic experience. As a matter of fact the analysis brings out 


that she has fallen in love with her husband's senior partner. The 
inquiry whether the elderly gentleman will dance [==coire] refers 
to him. She has been thinking about the death of this man's wife. 
[Cf. the funeral procession.] At the time of the outbreak of the 
neurosis this rival had fallen sick with pneumonia. ^^Everything 
turned out satisfactorily'' [in the dream] means that her rival and 
her husband died and she married the man she loved. The feeling 
that everything is so far from her corresponds to the idea that she 
is far removed from her ideal. Everything seems so strange to her 
because she feels herself estranged from her husband and her child- 
ren. She had transferred her affections from her husband upon his 
partner. We see then that the dream contains all that brought 
about the neurosis and may be regarded as a condensed summary 
of her unconscious fant€isies. (It may not be amiss to add that 
rapid improvement of the patient's condition set in immediately 
after she had communicated these facts to the analyst, which was 
within fourteen days after she had commenced treatment.)' [**Die 
Sprache des Traiumes^** pp. 474-476.] 

The Latent Content. — The more one occupies himself with the 
analysis of the dreams of the healthy as well as of the neurotic the 
more does one realize the force of the dictum that dreams never 
deal with trifles. Free association to the differait dream elements 
invariably leads to a large number of thoughts of a very intimate 
and personal nature such as the dreamer is ashamed or averse to 
communicate to another or even to acknowledge to himself. These 
latent thoughts^ of which the dream elements are representatives, 
are desires, appetites, and wishes of so objectionable and painful a 
nature that the dreamer will not accept them to his waking con- 
sciousness (unless his resistances have been overcome) and therefore 
relegates them to the unconscious. 

The material constituting the latent content is derived from 
various sources ; the conscious, the f oreconscious, and the unconscious 
spheres. Even that derived from the conscious sphere may deal 
with matters of such a nature, e. g., present cares and worries, that 
it requires the greatest sacrifice on the part of the subject to com- 
municate them to the investigator. That derived from the fore- 
conscious usually deals with his day-dreams and fantasies, his am- 
bitions, his loves and hates, his selfish purposes, etc. In addition 
to these all dreams reproduce smaller or larger fragments of recent 
and old experiences. It is customary to call these remnants of 


recent experiences, i. e., some incident of the twenty-four or thirty- 
six hours preceding the dream, the dream m<iter. The reminiscences 
of old matters that are evoked by the process of free association 
usually go back to early childhood. Such infantile material finds 
representation in every dream and is almost always directly or 
indirectly related to something in the piycho-iexual life of the 
child. This is the matter that the unconscious contributes to the 

An important source for material for a dream is furnished by 
the external and internal sensory stimuli which reach the brain dur- 
ing sleep. Many recent dream-critics have tried to explain dreams 
as being wholly the result of the sleeper's attempt to interpret these 
sensations. The chief objections to this theory, most ably cham- 
pioned by Ellis, are that such misinterpreted sensations can be 
demonstrated only in few dreams, that the theory does not explain 
why the interpretation takes the particular form that it does, and 
why all dreamers do not interpret corresponding sensations the 
same way. If flying-dreams are the result of the numbing of the 
cutaneous nerves during sleep why do we not all dream of flying, 
and why are the circumstances accompanying the flight different 
with each dreamer? According to Freud the sensory stimuli that 
reach the sleeper's mind are taken up into the dream only if they 
can be employed as vehicles for the expression of unconscious 
wishes. These noctural sensations may serve as dream inciters but 
they do not explain the dream. 

Wishes of all kinds are represented as fulfilled in dreams. 
These wishes may be of a conscious, foreconscious, or unconscious 
nature, but usually they partake of the characters of all three. In 
women these desires are almost invariably of an erotic or sexual 
nature, whereas in men they often pertain to success in some par- 
ticular line of activity, e. g., politics, business, literature, etc. 
Narcism (==self-love) is a prominent feature in men's dreams and 
eroticism in women's. 

Functional symholsy i. e. symbols expressive of the manner of 
the mind's working during the dream or of the matter employed in 
the dream-making process, are a frequent constituent of dreams. 
Thus a person may represent the fact that he is awaking by 
dreaming that he is going from a dark museum (=the realm of 
the imconscious, i. e. sleep) into a vast sun-lit orchard (==:the realm 
of consciousness, i. e. waking life.) 


Dream 2. A lady dreams that suddenly there appears from a 
bright clear sky a gigantic and magnificent bird like an eagle, of 
a bluish color, with wings spread, bearing in its beak a beautiful 
golden-haired baby which it deposits on a small island in a vast 
blue sea. 

The interpretation of this dream is manifold. When she least 
expected it (i. e. ^'from a clear sky") she met a lovar, whom she 
flatteringly describes as an eagle, and was very happy. The ^blue 
bird" stands for happiness. Her greatest desire in life is for a 
beautiful gtdden-haired baby. The vast blue sea is her soul. The 
baby is a reproduction of herself and in it she lives again and is 
restored to her beloved mother. 

Classifications of Dreams. — With regard to the relationship 
of the manifest dream to the latent content, dreams may conven- 
iently be divided into the frflowing five varieties : 

1. Infantile dreams, — ^The dreams of healthy young children 
are usually very short and simple and represent the fulfilment of 
those childish desires not gratified during the day. In their dreams 
diildren have their hearts' desire. These dreams are so sensible 
and intelligible that they need no interpretation. Of them it may 
be said that the manifest content coincides with the latent content. 
Such dreams occur not infrequently in healthy adults and their 
occurrence is per se sufficient to disprove the theories that dreams 
are the results of the lawless and dissociated activity of disconnect- 
ed groups of brain cells or the misinterpretation of somatic sensa- 
tions. If an ungratified wish of the day may result in a dream in 
which a child has his wish fulfilled there is no reason why the same 
phenomenon may not occur in adults. 

2. Many dreams of adults are logicdl and intelligible^ but 
none the less curious and surprising and seemingly anything but 
the fulfillment of wishes. Very often these dreams cannot offhand 
be associated with the dreamer's waking thoughts. Dream 1 is a 
dream of this kind. 

8. Most dreams of adults are Slogicai^ disconnected, or ab- 
surd, and do not fit into the waking thoughts. It is because of 
these dreams that dreams are so often compared with the ravings 
of the insane and that the study of dreams has been neglected. 

4. Convenience Dreams. — ^This is a very common kind of 
dream which occurs in children and in adults. In it some bodily need 


e. g., for food, for drink, etc, is represented as satisfied. A person 
who goes to sleep after having eaten salted fish dreams that he is 
drinking large draughts of delicious cold water from a brook. By 
thus satisfying his thirst the dreamer is kept from awaking. Such 
dreams tend to prove the truth of two of Freud's most important 
propositions : One, dreams are the preservers of sleep; two, dreams 
are trish futfUments. If the intensity of the need is such that 
dreaming is not enough to satisfy it the sleeper awakes. The same 
thing happens if a pain or irritation is too great to be dreamt 
away . 

Analysis proves, however, as Rank has shown, that even these 
convenience dreams, though representing the fulfilment of actual 
desires, are constructed and interpretable according to the prin- 
ciples applicable to the usual dreams and that they fetch their 
being from old unconscious material. * It is not insignificant, finally, 
that this kind of dream occurs most frequently just before wak- 
ing ; evidently something is striving to prolong sleep. 

5. Apprehension Dreams. — ^There are many dreams of child- 
ren and adults in which the dreamer experiences great mental dis- 
tress (fear, a sense of inability, helplessness) and which seem to 
contradict the theory that dreams tend to preserve sleep. Not 
unusually the dreamer awakes in terror, bathed in perspiration, 
panting for breath, the heart palpitating. In other frightful 
dreams events of such terrible nature occur that the dreamer cannot 
be convinced that dreams are imaginary wish fulfilments. But 
this need not surprise us ; the same thing is true of many neurotic 
symptoms. The fallacy in this deduction lies in the failure to 
realize that the wish fulfilment is to be found in the latent thoughts, 
not in the manifest dream. Freud has abundantly shown that ap- 
prehension dreams are the representation of repressed sexual de- 
sires which have not been sufficiently disguised. The fear or terror 
does not emanate from the idea with which it is linked in the mani- 
fest dream, but belongs to something in the latent content from 
which it has been displaced. Analysis will also show that the ap- 
prehension is frequently the reaction to or substitute for repressed 
desire, exactly as in the case of many phobias. The occurrence in 
dreams of some undesired misfortune, e. g., the death of a beloved 
relation, may be only the means to the fulfilment of a wish in the 
latent content. We shall return to this subject later. 

DREAMS - 18 

Dream 8. I dreamt that a chiropodist with a pair of tre- 
mendous shears with one snip removed a very painful com from 
my small toe. 

Explanation, — ^I went to bed suffering from a very painful 
com on the little toe and thinking Fd have to ocmsult a chiropodist 
notwithstanding my distrust of the antisepsis of chiropodists. In 
the dream, which occurred immediately after falling asleep, the 
chiropodist quickly and painlessly removes the com. This is an 
obvious wish fulfilment and shows one of the ways in whidi somatic 
sensaticms may be dealt with by the unconscious. 

Dream 4. A four year old child dreams that the bed is too 
small for her. 

Explanation. — On going to bed the child was impressed with 
the great size of the bed and the disproportion betweoi her and the 
bed. In the dream her wish to be big and grown up is realised 
to such an extent that the bed is small for her. 

Dream 6. A man dreams that he is one of troupe of athletes 
giving an exhibition of acrobatics on the vaudeville stage. 

Explanation. — ^The man went to bed with a very painful car- 
buncle on the back of his neck which prevented him from moving his 
neck. The unconscious says to him: go on sleeping; you have no 
pain and your neck is not stiff, as is proved by the fact that you 
are capable of performing marvellous acrobatic feats. 

Dream 6. A man dreams that has wife is menstruating. 

Explanation. — ^He went to bed worrying whether his wife was 
pregnant. The unomscious relieves him of worry; his wife is 
menstruating. This is a good illustration of the fact that even 
very simple dreams need a little interpretation. It is no exaggera- 
tion to say that in adults even these simple dreams are almost al- 
ways overdetermined, i. e. have more than one meaning and repre- 
sent the fulfilment of more than one wish. 

Dream 7. A woman dreams that she is having coitus with a 

Explanation. — ^The word "horse" always makes this woman 
smile sensuously and suggests to her a very large phallus. Even 
in her childhood she watched horses with interest, and on one oc- 
casion she compared her father's phallus with that of a horse. A 
few days before the dream she had coitus in an unusual position 


which she described as "horse fashion." The night of the dream 
she had participated in a dance which had greatly aroused her 
sexual passion. The dream fulfills a number of her wishes. 

AU these dreams furnish striking corroboration of the ego- 
centric nature of dreams. Dream 7 also illustrates the workings 
of the Oedipus complex. 

The Wish in Dreams. — Sleep is the world of dreams. It has 
been ably and brilliantly maintained that one of the most important 
causes for sleep is the desire to dream, to get away from the harsh 
world of realities, disappointments, and failures. That in the 
world of dreams our wildest wishes are fulfilled is implied in the 
use of such every-day phrases as "not even in my dreams," "I would 
not even dream of such a thing," etc., to express the apparently 
Queen Mab, the fairies' midwife, gallops night by night in state 

Through lovers' brains, and then they dream of love; 

O'er courtiers' knees, that dream on court'sies straight; 

O'er lawyers' fingers, who straight dream on fees; 

O'er ladies' lips, who straight on kisses dream; 

Sometime she gallops o'er a courtier's nose, 

And then dreams he of smelling out a suit; 

Sometime she driveth o'er a soldier's neck, 

And then he dreams of cutting foreign throats. 

There is no limit to the wishes that may be fulfilled in our 
dreams. In them examinations are passed with honors, enemies 
vanquished, wealth attained, rivals foiled, heroic deeds accomplish- 
ed, cares dispelled, and the beloved dead restored to life and health. 
Dreams are the realm of youth, beauty and power. From another 
point of view we may say that dreams are the realm of unlimited 
desires. It is a secret world whither no watchful guardian of th^ 
peace can foUow us and where no eye can spy upon us. In addition 
to fulfilling those desires from our waking life of which we are 
well aware and which we are ready to admit to ourselves and to 
others, dreams fulfill for us desires of another kind, the repressed 
desires, i. e., those desires the existence of which we are ashamed 
to acknowledge even to ourselves and of the existence of which we 
may not even be aware. In most of the dreams of adults these for- 
bidden or condemned desires reach fulfilment in some disguised 
form so that we hardly recognize them as our desires. In one 
dream a wicked desire — "good" desires are never repressed — is 


brought to fulfilment by being converted to its opposite; in anoth- 
er, by some covert illusion; in a third, by a symbolic substitute. 
We see the same thing in neurotic symptoms. Exaggerated or 
forbidden love is expressed by hate ; hate by exaggerated solicitude; 
a word in a dream may be an allusion to some person or incident, 
and an apparently innocent act may be the symbolic equivalent 
for adultery or murder. 

Studied from the point of view of wish fulfilments dreams may 
be thus classified: 

1. Dreams in idiich unreprested wishes are fulfilled in an 
undiiguUed form. These are the dreams of young children and, 
now and then, of adults. 

S. Dreams in which repressed wishes are fulfilled in ^guised 
forms. This includes the vast majority of the dreams of adults. 
In them the wish can be discovered only by a careful analysis and 
will be found to be one of which the individual was once conscious 
and which he voluntarily or automatically repressed. The repress- 
ed desires in these dreams are almost always of a sexual ch* erotic 
nature, but of such dynamic potency that they will not stay re- 

8. Dreams in which repressed wishes appear undisguised or 
insufficiently disguised. Most of these dreams are accompanied 
with or terminate in an outbreak of fear, terror, or apprehension 
from whidi the dreamer awakes. The fear and Uie consequent wak- 
ing puts an end to the dream and keeps the dreamer from realizing 
the nature of the repressed desire that was coming to the surface 
of consciousness. If a dream is sufficiently disguised it never gives 
rise to apprehension. 

We conclude then that no matter what other desires a dream 
may fulfiU in the manifest or latent ccmtent, the latter almost al- 
ways also contains sexual material as an essential constituent of 
the dream which thus also fulfills some erotic desire. Many dreams 
which on the surface show nothing of a sexual nature terminate in 
a poUution or are accompanied with erections and sexual sensations. 
The sexual content can often be proved only by taking into con- 
sideration the dreamer's history or his symbolisms. The reason for 
the occurrence of all sorts of sexual desires in dreams is to be found 
in the constancy and intensiveness with which these impulses are 
repressed throughout the individual's evolution and in the conse- 
quent non-gratification of these unquenchable desires. It is only 


when the moral ego has relaxed its watchfubiess, e. g. during 
sleep, that these forbidden desires have an opportunity to mani* 
fest themsdyes. Litemal metabolic processes keep these cravings 
alive, but our morality takes no cognizance of this and provides no 
outlet for them. The unfulfilled desires of the day link themselves 
with such desires in the unccmscious with which they are directly 
or assodatively related and augment their energy; and, on the 
other hand, the stirring desires in the unconscious re-enforoe the 
unfulfilled desires of the day to sudi an extent that they too can 
penetrate into sleeping consciousness. Without the unomscious 
constituent no dream would come about. The conscious or fore- 
consdous desires can enter into a dream only if they become as- 
sociated with unconscious desires. 

The sexual desires that find gratification in dreams are those 
that are considered normal as wdl as those that are ccmsidered 
abnormal. Inasmuch as the psycho-sexual life of childhood suffers 
more repression than anything else in the life of civilized man, it is 
chiefly the so-called ^^partial impulses" and the other sexual com- 
ponents that are fulfilled in dreams. A careful analysis of the free 
associations or latent cont^it and an interpretation of the symb<Js, 
although the latter is not essential, wiU bring to light the dream- 
er's desire for one or more sexual perversions, sado-masodiism, 
fetichism, inversions, etc. Where these appear, and even without 
them, the Oedipus complex — or ^^Electra complex" in the case of 
females — can be found in the vast majority of the dreams of 
most neurotics and in many normals. In our dreams we are child- 
ren again and can enjoy unmolested the polymorph-erotic impulses 
of infancy. It has been well said, in the light of these facts, that 
dreams are the myths of the individual just as myths are the 
dreams of the race. 

There are, of course, also desires of a non-sexual nature, e. g., 
the commission of crimes, the indulgence in narcotics, etc., that in- 
dividuals living in a civilized community must or choose to repress, 
which find expression or fulfillment in dreams in a disguised or sym- 
bolic form. An avowed atheist may so manifest his true piety and 
a professed libertine his concealed morality. An overt homosexual 
may also show decided heterosexuality in his dreams. So that it 
is not in accordance with the facts to say that dreams are always 
in the service of what is forbidden and condemned by society, that 
Evil alone is the Master Builder of dreams. 


There is one wish that is jn-esent in all dreams, vis. : the wuh 
to deep. Just as a neurotic symptom is a compromise between an- 
tagonistic desires, so a dream is a compromise betweoa conflicting 
desires one of which is the wish to sleep. That is why Freud main- 
tains, amtrary to the general view, that dreaming preserves sleep. 
The unpleasant, painful thoughts, the unacted desires, are not 
permitted to readi ocmsciousness and disturb sleep. The intrusion 
into consciousness of the many unf ulfiUed desires of the day would 
keep the would-be sleeper awake. The truth of this is incontest- 
ably established by the dreams of young children, the infantile 
dreams of adults, and by the occurr^ice of dreams in which the 
sleeper is freed from sleep-disturbing pains. 

Tbe Censor.— Our experience with neurotics has shown that 
certain symptoms are the disguised expression of certain desires 
which fcHT various reasons the. individual wiU not acknowledge or 
admit to his consciousness. In this regard many dreams are ident- 
ical with symptoms. The agent responsible for the disguise is, in 
both cases, the Censor — by whidi we mean that function of the 
psyche whidi keeps watch between the unconscious and the fore- 
conscious (or conscious) spheres, represses ideas unacceptable to 
consciousness, keeps the lid down on ideas (desires) painful and 
opposed to our moral, religious, esthetic, or ethical ideals, and 
disguises those unconscious urges that cannot be kept back from 
entering omsciousness. The object of all this is obviously to 
shield the ego from as much pain as possible, to raise the individ- 
ual in his self-esteem, and to enable him to adapt himself to his 
environment. As a matter of convenience it is customary to person- 
ify the censor and to speak of it as a sort of watchman whose 
function it is to prevent the entry of unwelc(Hne intruders into his 
sleeping master's mansion and to sound the alarm if such uninvited 
guests succeed in breaking into the house. Unfortunately, owing 
to the relaxation of the watchfulness of the censor at certain times, 
e. g., when the ego is asleep or under the influence of certain nar- 
cotic influences (alcohol, morphine, etc.), the undesired visitors, i. e. 
the r^ressed desires, succeed in slipping through the gates and 
usurping the mansion of consciousness. Then the censor sends a 
warning and the sleeper awakes in a state of excitement and 
alarm with many of the physical manifestations of fright (Pavor 
Noctumui). In other cases, in the vast majority of instances, the 
censor is not so completely off his guard as the preceding condition 


implies and then the intruding guests get by him if they are suf- 
ficiently disguised to deceive him as to their nature and mission. 
If they appear to him as "harmless," "innocent," or "good" wand- 
erers of the night he opposes no obstacles to their sportive merry- 
making. In other words, if the unconscious desires are not suffi- 
ciently disguised the dreamer awakes rather than become conscious 
of them ; whereas if they are sufficiently disguised for him not to 
recognize their true nature he goes on sleeping and dreaming. 

The reason for the relaxation of the censor's watchfulness 
during sleep is perhaps to be found in the fact that the ego realizes 
that there is then no danger or probability of the forbidden de- 
sires being converted into deeds. 

Manifestatiotis (A the Censor.—*- By this time it must be quite 
apparent to the reader that the transformation of the latent con- 
tent into the manifest dream is brought about by the necessity for 
placating the censor who will not permit the individual's rest to be 
disturbed by his condemned and tabooed desires. Failing to elim- 
inate these desires or to keep them in abeyance in their hidden 
recesses, the censor accomplishes a ccmipromise between the ego- 
ideal and the latent desires and permits the latter to wander forth 
and disport themselves — for dreaming is only make believe — in 
disguise. Owing to the fact that modem civilization is so largely 
the product of the repression of the sexual impulses and their 
sublimation, these impulses are more constantly subjected to dis- 
guise than any other impulses. That is why the latent content of 
our dreams shows sexual ideas so much more often than the mani- 
fest dream. This synibolization of the erotic impulses and motives 
is one of the several manifestations of the activity of the censor. 

8. Condensation. — ^The condensation or fusion of different 
latent dream thoughts into one figure or dream element is an ex- 
cellent method of disguise and deception which we shall consider 

S. Displacement. — Another way of concealing the meaning of a 
dream is to displace emotions from the ideas to which they bdiong 
to others to which they do. not belong. This too we shall discuss 

4. Secondary Elaboration. — ^After awaking it is not unusual 
to attempt to discover the meaning of the dream. We probably 
all do this at times. In this attempted interpretation one easily 
introduces additions and other alterations into the recollected 


dream. Freud calls this "secondary elaboration'' and very wisely 
says that a comparison and analysis of the different versions that 
a dream assumes with each repetition will show that these altera- 
tions are the work of the censor and are intended to cover up or 
fortify weak spots in the dream disguise. 

5. Doubt. — ^We have probably all experienced the phenomen- 
on of being m doubt about some part of a dream or even the 
whole of it. Patients often say, "I am not sure that I did not 
invent this circumstance or this detail, or whether the whole dream 
is not an invention.'' Freud has tau^t us that this too is only 
one of the methods employed by the censor to disguise the underly- 
ing dream thoughts, the latent content. The law of psychic de- 
termininn should su£Sce to teach us that the doubt, like neurotic 
doubt, has a meaning and serves a definite and ascertainable pur- 
pose. The doubtful element being the weak spot in the dream dis- 
guise the awakened censor seeks to reject it; and the practical 
psycho-analyst, knowing this, must therefore concentrate his special 

attention upon such weak spots. 

6. The Dream in a Dream. — Persons often remark with con- 
siderable surprise that they dreamt that they were dreaming. The 
explanation of this very interesting phenomenon we also owe to the 
genius and industry of Professor Freud. The censor, realizing 
that owing to a diminution of his customary vigilance certain par- 
ticularly objectionable unconscious ideas were about to reach con- 
sciousness in an insufficiently disguised form, calms the sleeper with 
the assurance that it's "only a dream." Consciousness is still at 
the helm and the emerging repressed thoughts are divested of their 
significance. Very often the sleeper awakes from a dream which 
threatens to be particularly painful with the ejaculation, "thank 
Grod, it's only a dream!" When the sleeper does not awake from 
such a dream in which the unconscious idea has, as it were, out- 
witted the censor, the latter redeems himself (as the preserver of 
sleep) by assuring the sleeper that he Is only dreaming. Not in- 
frequently, as Stekel remarks, a dream within a dream is a wish 
fulfilment within a wish fulfilment. From all of which it follows 
that these dreams deserve the psycho-analyst's special attention. 

7. Forgetting Dreams. — ^There is no more striking character- 
istic of dreams than the case with which they are wholly or parti- 
ally forgotten. The reasons for this are no doubt several. In the 
first place, the dreamer pays little attention to his dream and is 


indifferent about recollecting it. Owing to the absorbing interests 
of the day which assert themselves immediately upon the awaken- 
ing from sleep, the dream has no opportunity to associate itself 
with other psychic matter or to imbed itself in the memory. Then 
too the dreamer has grown so accustomed to consider dreams un- 
worthy of serious attention that he makes no attempt to store them 
up. But notwithstanding all this it is a universal experience that 
dreams, even very foolish, illogical, and "meaningless** ones, are 
treasured up in the memory for a very long time although the 
dreamer had paid no particular attention to them and had consid- 
ered them forgotten. Who has not had the experience of sudden- 
ly recalling a forgotten dream of the preceding night or even 
further back? This has led Freud to the conclusion that the 
real reason for the forgetting of dreams or dream details is the 
activity of the censor. Experience has taught him that if certain 
resistances are overcome the dream is restored to consciousness 
and that these recovered dreams or parts of dreams always deal 
with very significant and important matters. The forgetting of 
a dream or dream element is therefore only another instance of 
the censor's repressing function. 

8. Apprehension Dream. — Because of the many identities in 
structure, meaning, and psychic characteristics between dreams 
and psychoneurotic symptoms, Jones has very appropriately des- 
cribed dreams as the neurotic symptoms of the normal personage 
and neurotic sjrmptoms as the dreams of the psychoneurotic 
patient. This suggestive and epigrammatic statement finds ex- 
cellent corroboration in the analysis of the fear, or terror, with 
which many sleepers awake from their dreams. In dreams, as 
in neurotic symptoms, this apprehension is the substitute for, or 
reaction to, repressed libido. When a repressed sexual or criminal 
wish is about to enter the sleeper's consciousness in an insuffi- 
ciently disguised form the dreamer, i. e. the endopsychic censor, 
reacts to it with fear. The censor has failed to preserve sleep 
but he has saved the sleeper from the realization of his con- 
demned desire and the consequent self-reproach. 

Dream 8. A very nervous woman dreams that her bed-room 
is overrun with snakes; whichever way she turns she sees the 
ugly, venomous reptiles gliding quickly across the floor, over the 
bed, over the closets, etc.; she tries to whack them on the head 
but they elude her. In despair and disgust she awakes and hears 
a mighty pile-driver at work across the street. 


Explanation. — ^A cmnplete analysis of this dream would re- 
quire a book, as it embraces almost the whole life history of this 
unfortunate hysteric. She is a very sensuous and charming young 
woman who h€is for years battled with temptation. Every man 
with whom she found employment sooner or later tried to rape 
or seduce her. She expresses this in the dream by seeing a snake, 
the symbol for a phallus, wherever she turns. The male organ 
fills her with disgust exactly as the snakes in the dream do. She 
enjoyed arousing the sexual passion of the men she met. This 
dream also furnishes an excellent illustration of how the mind 
makes use of external stimuli to serve its purposes. 

9. Awaking. — ^There are many dreams from which the sleeper 
awakes without any emotion of ^ fear or anxiety. In these cases 
the caisor arouses the sleeper in time to prevent the dream from 
taking a certain coiirse. Such dreams show that consciousness 
does not altogether surrender its superintendence over the psychic 
activities during sleep. So it happens that when the dreamer 
realizes that his dream is not going to terminate to his liking he 
either changes the dream picture or awakes and thus frustrates 
the coming dream picture. Not infrequently these dreams term- 
inate in a pollution. When this does not happen, the dreamer 
falls asleep again and dreams the same dream again but in a 
somewhat altered form ; he may do this several times until he finds 
a satisfactory solution of his problem. Ferenczi suggests that 
this phenomenon probably furnishes the explanation for Freud's 
empirical dictum that all the dreams of a night relate to the same 
subject matter and deal with the same problems. 

Dreamless Sleep. — The experience of all psycho-analysts and 
the reasoning of most modem psychologists (cf. "The Frequency 
of Dreams," by Prof. C. E. Seashore, The Scientific Monthly^ 
May, 1916) have brought about the conviction that there is no 
dreamlesi sleep, that in all probability aU persons dream aU the 
time that they are asleep and very much of the time that they are 
awake. From what has preceded it is certain that the failure 
to recall a dream is no proof that one did not dream. Som- 
nambulists and persons who speak aloud, laugh, or cry in their 
theoretical considerations, ably summed up by Professor Seashore 
in the valuable paper referred to above, tending to establish the 
dreams often deny that they dreamt. There are numerous 


continuity of dream-life. Hypnotism can bring back to memory 
dreams that had been forgotten. The experiments of Maury 
and others also tend to prove that during sleep there is a con- 
tinuous stream of dreams. It happens not at all infrequently 
that a person awakes at night from a very vivid dream, goes over 
it several times so as to make sure he'll recall it in the morning, 
and yet can't recall a word of it the following day. 

[To be continued.] 

Translated for American Journal of Urology and Sexology 

By Pbofessoe A. Blaschko, Beeijn 

SEVERAL reasons can be given for the fact that the ques- 
tion of sexual abstinence was not much discussed and that 
many even denied categorically its injurious consequences. 
In the first instance, patients of this kind seldom consult a physician, 
for as the troubles are not very annoying, in the majority of 
cases, the patient, as a rule, thinks it is not necessary to ask the 
advice of the doctor; further, many physicians are conspicuously 
indifferent as to the etiology of diseases; this is chiefly true in 
regard to the last generation, which was under the influence of the 
anatomical-pathological school : one was satisfied to make the diag- 
nosis of a disease without tracing its cause ; this fact impressed me 
very much during my investigations of professional eczemas and 
leprosy. Further, it must be taken into consideration, on one side, 
the aversion of the physician to ask questions in regard to sexual 
disorders, on the other side, the bashfulness of the patient to make 
a clear breast. As to the often mentioned mendacity of abstinents 
I must state, that my experience taught me the reverse. In the 
majority of cases the physician is unable to get information in re- 
gard to the sexual life of such patients, if his inquiries are not 
made with much intelligence and delicacy. Yet, has he once gained 
their confidence, the confessions bear, as a rule, the stamp of truth- 
fulness. Undoubtedly, many a physician is not able to put himself 
in the place of patients who difi^er from him, he cannot understand 
their inner life of feelings and emotions. He often sees untruth- 
fulness when he cannot reconcile the facts with his own feelings. 

Further, many physicians are under the suggestive influence of 
ofiicial and chiefly ecclesiastical morality, others yield to the pres- 


sure of public opinion which frowns at an open discussion of such 
matters, although, tete-d-t^te, the injuries caused by sexual abstin- 
ence are admitted. 

All these circumstances combined were for a long time the 
cause that the question as to the injurious effects of abstinence was 
either ccmipletely ignored or discussed in a one-sided and biased 
attitude. It is only the sign of a reaction towards the preceding 
period that to-day almost too much noise is made in the discussion 
of this question and many views are advanced which cannot stand 
the light of a critical analysis. This is just the reason for our 
selection of this subject; we are of the opinion that by an objective- 
ly conducted and tluNrough discussion the interest for this import- 
ant proposition will be roused and our problem solved by a more 
precise method. 

As at the convention in Mannheim the foundation was laid 
for constructive, efficient and progressive activities in sexual peda- 
gogics, we hope that the discussions of to-day will be the starting 
point for an extensive as wdl as an even prof ounder conception of 
the problem of sexual abstinence. 

To give too great an importance to details in a systematiza- 
tion of sexual types, sis Loewenfeld does, is not justified, according 
to my opinion. The practicability of sexual abstinence is deter- 
mined by the intensity of the sexual instinct as well as the intensity 
of the will power which both may vary to the most extreme degree. 

As a young physician I was acquainted with a man and his 
wife who during a happy married life of 40 years had never any 
sexual intercourse. (I disclosed the virginity of the woman by an 
examination of a tumor of the womb). On the other hand, we find 
persons who are not satisfied unless they have sexual intercourse 
every day of the year. If the sexual instinct is weak it requires no 
great will-power to keep up abstinence ; yet for an intense instinct 
strong energy is often not sufficient. 

The individual differences which are very much greater than 
the often discussed sexual differences, affect not only the intensity 
of the sexual instinct and the intensity of the will power (the latter 
is generally inherited and can be modified by education only within 
certain limits), but also the beginning of the sexual development 
which varies extensively according to race, family, milieu and nutri- 
tion. These individual differences determine also the reaction upon 
a voluntary or forced abstmence. 


That sexual abstinence in certain individuals can be sublimated, 
i. e.y transraluated into intellectual and artistic potencies, is un- 
doubtedly true, but only in a small number of instances. 

The majority of dbstinents it affected by morbid ditturbances 
from the lightest to the most serious degree. These latter cases are 
not very numerous. 

Abstinence is to be found as seldom among the agricultural 
population of the country as among the workingmen in the city. 
The same is the case amongst the higher classes, as Meirowsky*s 
statistics show. The enormous frequency of masturbators diminish- 
es still more the number of abstinents amongst them. As masturba- 
tion does not afford the same amount of inner satisfaction as normal 
sexual intercourse does, individuals who practice abstinence and 
masturbate only occasionally (except cases of an aggravated mas- 
turbation with pathological consequences), can be counted as ab- 

I want to present my observations of two instances of serious 
diseases which were caused by abstinence: 

Case 1. N. N., University student, of socially and ethically 
prominent family, brought up in an inteUectual atmosphere, without 
an hereditary taint, graduated from gymnasium at 18, living with 
his parents during the first two Semesters at the university of his 
native town ; he moves to a larger imiversity in a metropolitan city 
and comes in touch with the usual academic life: Sexual excitement, 
first weak and then stronger; often slight depressions, inability to 
work; once in a while light moods of melancholy. Patient has no 
desire for extra-matrimonial sexual intercourse and not the slight- 
est idea that his troubles are caused by abstinence. Admonitions of 
his father and the house physician to shun extra-matrimonial inter- 
course produce peculiar anxiety and compulsion ideas. He believes 
that it is sinful to touch a woman. The fixed idea that he had im- 
moral relations with girls, women and children develops gradually. 
This produces agoraphobia. While under the parental roof, but 
chiefly in the country and the moimtains, his condition is better, 
but shortly before and after examination the compulsion ideas re- 
turn in a more intense degree. At this time the patient learns from 
a physician that abstinence might be the cause of his troubles and 
could perhaps be removed through sexual intercourse. He cannot 
make up his mind to follow this advice. A year later he does it 
and the whole psychosis is wiped out of existence at one stroke. Six 


months later, gonorrhea with epididymitis and prostatitis : abstin- 
ence for a year and a recurrence of the entire complex of moods and 
ideas. Cure on resumption of sexual intercourse. 

Case *. Woman, 86 years old, not psychopathic, of healthy 
stock, married at 5K to an elderly man of weak potency. C<^abita- 
tions oftener during the first years, later less frequently. The woman 
who was formerly not nervous, is very excitable and irritable at 
times ; she has compulsion ideas of a non-sexual character. Aggra- 
vation of her condition before each menstruaticm. Improvement 
after each cohabitation. 

Of course, diseases of such a serious nature occur not frequent- 
ly; the nervous system may be particularly irritable, without any 
hereditary taint or a psychopathic disposition . But just this is so 
very frequently the case with the young people of our metropolitan 
cities to whom such instances chiefly apply. The number of the 
so-called healthy persons — so much talked of — who endure abstin- 
ence well, is not considerable. Minor morbid disturbances are of 
course more frequent and affect largely the nervous system. One 
ought not to underestimate the seriousness of these functional dis- 
turbances. Feeble persons and individuals who from religious and 
ethical motives or on account of fear of infection shun ante-matri- 
monial sexual intercourse, suffer often considerably. It is also pos- 
sible, according to my opinion, that these functional disturbances 
may cause organic injuries ; to select one instance out of my pro- 
fessional experiences : the disappearance of obstinate lesions of Acne, 
which had been unyielding to every form of treatment, on the 
taking up of regular sexual intercourse (a fact observed by every 
dermatologist) demonstrates that abstinence has also oftentimes an 
unfavorable influence on the process of metabolism. More frequent, 
of course, are purely functicmal disturbances which produce, in the 
majority of cases, such disagreeable effects that the patient, spon- 
taneously, employs the nearest means at hand — sexual intercourse. 
The motive is here not only the hedonistic but also the instinctive 
tendency to free with the most simple and expedient remedy the 
system of somatic as wdl as psychic disturbances which derange the 
equilibriiun and deteriorate the health of the individual. If I am 
hungry, I eat ; if I have no food at hand, I go out to get it and then 
eat it without minding its inferior quality. This explains how in 
the majority of cases the period of satiety follows soon after the 
full development of the sexual instinct. Not even the fear of infec- 


tion is able to deter those who know full well the dangers of extra- 
matrimonial intercourse, for that tantalizing feeling does really and 
actually exist, while the venereal infection, bad as it may be, is 
only a remote possibility and of little consequence — if the individual 
considers it at all. 

Sport, physical labor and deflection of the mind towards other 
things though oftentimes efficient and salutary, are after all only 
palliatives, but no remedies. On the other hand, sexual abstinence 
is eo ipso not an end, but — ^volimtarily applied — only a means — 
during the prepubertial period — to aid the development towards a 
full maturity; abstinence may also be applied as a pedadogical 
tool by which the will is strengthened ; further, it may be used as a 
preventive against venereal infection; it is in the majority of 
cases a coercive measure which becomes a calamity when it is en- 
forced for a long time. 

Contributed to American Journal of Urology and Sexology 

By George Panebakeb 

ILLEGITIMACY means the state of being bom out of lawful 
wedlock. Another name for illegitimacy is bastardy, from 
batard: bastard — an old French word denoting the "Son of 
bast," i. e., pack-saddles as opposed to a child of the lawful 
marriage bed. 

The word bastard was first given to William the Conqueror, 
duke of Normandy. 

The baton sinister (or bar sinister) is the heraldic indication 
of illegitimacy. It is a bar (or band) drawn from the upper comer 
of a shield at the left (sinister) to the opposite base at the right 

Bastards as described by Blackstone are such children as are 
not bom either in lawful wedlock or within a competent time after 
its termination. 

Most continental systems of marriage law defined a bastard 
as a child bom of a woman who was not married to the father at 
the time of conception and who was never married thereafter to him. 

Bastards are incapable of inheriting real property. They 
can have no other heirs than those of their own bodies. Illegitimate 
children have no claim on their reputed fathers for support, except 
in special cases decreed by the law or court. 



In the State of Illinois a woman who gives birth to an illegiti- 
mate child is entitled to $550 payable in ten years ; $100 must be 
paid for the first year and $50 for each year of the nine succeeding 
years. Not long ago it was proposed to present a bill which would 
make the father of the child responsible for its welfare until the 
child reached an independent age. It was also proposed to give 
an illegitimate child all the rights and claims of a legitimate diild. 

A peculiarity of the status of bastardy is that a bastard being 
fiUtu fwIUut (nobody's child) the consent of his father and mother 
to his marriage is not required. In many countries children bom 
out of wedlock may be legitimized by the subsequent marriage of 
their parents. In England the brutal principle is upheld: ^K)nce 
a bastard, always a bastard." 

Under the Code Napoleon the search for the father is for- 
bidden (**La recherche de la paternity est interdite^*). 

The proportion of illegitimate births in different countries 
varies {rom 2 to 16 per cent of the total births. 

Illegitimate Births per 1000 Births (still-bom excluded) : 

1896—1900 1901—1905 

England and Wales 41 40 

Scotland 68 64 

Ireland 86 «6 

Denmark 96 101 

Norway 74 

Sweden 118 

Finland 66 

Russia 27 

Austria 141 

Hungary 90 94 

Switzerland 45 

Germany 90 84 

Netherlands 27 28 

Belgium 80 68 

France 88 88 

Portugal 121 

Spain 49 44 

Italy 62 56 

As to the illegitimacy rate in the United States and Canada we 
have no trustworthy figures. 

Above figures cannot be taken as a simple index of morality 


because local customs and traditions have a great influence. The 
phenomenon shows so many variations in different localities, ^vm 
where the same factors seem to prevail, that ccmclusions cannot be 

^^In some countries marital infidelity may be far more frequent 
than in others, and coexist with a low ratio of births out of mar- 
riage*' (A. Leffingwell, "Illegitimacy and the Influence of Seasons 
upon Conduct." London, 1892). 

Besides, racial, climatic and social differences as well as the 
influence of legislation must be taken into consideration. Thus in 
Bavaria marriage was formerly forbidden to all who were not mem- 
bers of a trade guild, or possessed of a considerable amount of 
property. While this restriction was in force, 22 per cent of the 
births were illegitimate, but since it was repealed the proportion has 
sunk to 11.8 per cent. This still abnormally high percentage may 
be explained by the fact that the customs engendered during the 
period of restrictions are still operative. 

However, in a number of villages of a certain district in the 
Bavarian mountains, since times immemorial the custom prevails 
that a girl does not marry before she has given birth to one or two 
children. Before he leads a girl to the altar the sturdy peasant 
boy wants to be sure that she is a good breeder. The antenuptial 
children are always legitimized and no questions asked as to who is 
the father. Customs are stronger than laws. 

Altogether, in Grermany illegitimacy is treated with greater 
leniency than, e. g., in Anglo-SeuLon countries. In Germany most 
of the wet-nurses are unmarried mothers; even in families where 
otherwise one is very particular in sexual matters, the "feed-moth- 
er'* (wet-nurse) is treated as a member of the household and eats 
together with the family. As a rule, they are healthy, kindhearted 
and thrifty girls, and an honest labourer or respectable artisan is 
happy to marry one of them. 

In Italy unmarried motherhood is regarded as an awful mis- 
fortune and such a girl can find no husband. The cause of this 
attitude cannot be found in a higher moral standard but in an 
ancient superstitious reverence for **virginity'' and in customs en- 
gendered by economic conditions. 

The rigid chastity of the Gypsy girls in England and Spain as 
well as in Europe generally is well known; a lapse would lead to 
certain death. Clannishness and early marriages account for this 


In Scotland the percentage of illegitimacy is high ; subsequent 
loaitiage of the parents legitimizes bastards; public opinion is 
lenient in such cases. 

VHiat are the causes of illegitimacy? 

Poverty, ignorance, and the contamination of great cities are 
generally supposed to be the principal factors in the production 
of vice and crime, but statistics prove that this hypothesis cannot 
be applied to illegitimacy nor can climate, race, or religion account 
for this phenomenon. 

Poverty cannot be adduced as a causative factor of iUegitimacy 
since it least manifests itself where destitution and want have fixed 
their strongest hold. Poor Ireland steeped in the deepest misery for 
centuries shows a lower percentage of illegitimacy than England 
and Scotland. Nowhere can a relation be shown between the in- 
digence of a people and the prevalence of illegitimacy. 

The following figures show how many illegitimate children 
were bom annually, 1878-1887, to each thousand unmarried wo- 
men between the ages 16-46. 

Eng. & Waleb 

Proportionate Scale 

Rate of Illegitimacy 


It is a generally adopted idea that the sons and daughters of 
the sunny South are more ardent in temperament than, for instance, 
the blond, blue-eyed Scandinavians, but in Sweden and Denmark 
we find a higher rate of illegitimacy than in Spain and Italy. 

No theory can be evolved from a racial basis when we find 
Sweden with as high an average as Austria, and each of them with 
more than twice the average of Italy and Spain. (It is a remark- 
able fact that in the year 1861 more than one-half of the entire 
births in Vienna were illegitimate). 

Religion which never had any connection with morality cannot 
be taken as a determining factor in producing illegitimacy. For 
example, the figures for Catholic Ireland and Catholic Austria are 
quite different ; Scotland, the land of strictest Sabbath-keeping and 
purest Calvinism exhibits almost double the illegitimacy of England 
every year. Nor can relation between the prevalence of prostitution 
and illegitimacy be shown anywhere. 

Is education no promoter of virtue and no barrier to illegi- 
timacy? Many countries where popular education is widely diffused 


amon^ all classes show a higher rate than others with a very low 
education, standard. Germany with her highly developed system of 
popular education surpasses barbarous Russia by 6S per cent and 
illiterate Italy by 28 per cent of illegitimate births. Sweden is by 
77 i)er cent in advance of Ireland. 

Even in the same country and under the same laws we find that 
chastity and education are not invariably associated. 

In those departments of France where ignorance is most dense 
the percentage of illegitimacy is low. 

In Scotland, **the countries which show the highest proportion 
of illegitimacy are the countries which are in the highest condition 
as to education, while, on the other hand, the countries which pro- 
duce the fewest illegitimate births are those where education is at 
the lowest ebb." (Reg. Gren. Report for Scotland, for the year 

This was written 56 years ago, but no change in the annual 
phenomenon has been observed. — Illiteracy is no cause of illegitim- 

The contamination of great cities has been adduced as a con- 
tributing cause, but statistics prove that there is more illegitimacy 
in certain agricultural and rural districts and in secluded villages 
"far from the madding crowd" than in great cities and the cen- 
ters of commerce and manufacture. 

There are certain sections of England and Wales where every 
sixth or eighth child is a "bastard." 

In three English counties adjoining each other, the rate of 
illegitimacy seems to increase in the proportion to their distance 
from London ; this peculiarity goes back many years. 

There is a district which is distinguished by the longest name 
in Great Britain : Llanf ihangelytraethan ; in this sylvian retreat for 
many years about one in every seven children is a bastard. 

It is interesting to read what the historian Froude has to say 
on this subject: "Illegitimacy in Hayti is so imiversal that it al- 
most ceases to be a fault, for a fault implies an exception, and in 
Hayti it is the rule. Young people make experiments with one 
another before they enter into any closer connection. So far they 
are no worse than in our English Islands where the custom is equal- 
ly general." 

Westergaard writes of Denmark : "With regard to the peasant 
population of the rural districts it was found that of a 



hundred first-bom children no less than 89 were bom under seven 
months after marriage to which must be added nine per cent bom 
between seven and nine months after marriage. 

A great nimiber of brides who were not pregnant at marriage 
had already had illegitimate diildren with the bridegroom or oth- 
ers ; so that it may be assumed that in two-thirds of the marriages 
(childless marriages excepted), the bride had had children while un- 
married, or was pregnant at the marriage.^ (Westergaard, "Mar- 
riage Statistics of Denmark.") 

Illegitimacy is one of the most difficult of social problems. In 
general it can be said that proclivity to illegitimacy is principally 
due to ancestral tendencies coming from pre-historic times. 

It seems that in a country where the standard of living is low 
and early marriages are the rule the illegitimate birthrate will be 
low. The greatest liability to illegitimate births is not early in the 
life of unmarried womanhood, but between S5 and 85 years. Every 
impediment to marriage tends to increase illicit relationship. Sta- 
tistics show the highest rates of illegitimacy are found where uarch 
for paternity is allowed. In those parts of the German Empire 
where formerly the code Napoleon was in force, the rate of illegitim- 
acy rose instantaneously and considerably after the introduction of 
the new civil code which allows the search for paternity. Under 
French law the girls were cautious while now they go after the men 
and seduce them in order to get husbands, or at least some sort of 

In all civilized countries a growing tendency is noticeable to 
dispense with all ceremonies and simply to go housekeeping. Dr. 
Bertillon has estimated that in the year 1890 in Paris there were 
probably not lesp than 80,000 homes where the parents were living 
in harmony and educating their children, married in every sense of 
the word, except that they refused to obtain either the sanction of 
the church or state. Yet the children are illegitimate. 

Illegitimacy is a product of the legislature. It is in the power 
of the State to erase from its statute book every distinction of 
birth and make all children legitimate. This can be done and it has 
been done. After her ascension to the throne of England, Mary, 
natural daughter of Henrv VIII, by the first Act of her reign erased 
the stigma against herself. 

After the thirty-years' war State and Church in Germany 
winked at polygamous relations and all children therefrom were 


legitimized. In ITOTy Iceland having become almost depopulated 

by an epidemic, the King of Denmark issued a proclamation making i 


legitimate all children bom thereafter in the island; no unmarried 
mother was to be deemed to have lost her reputation until her 
progeny exceeded six. During the present war the legislatures of 
France and Germany have made steps in the right direction. France 
has erased the bar-sinister and in the German Empire the law knows 
only "legitimate children" and "children." 

Experience teaches that among the first-bom children of law- 
ful marriage the female sex preponderates while the first fruits of 
illegitimate relations are mostly boys. [?] 

The alleged inferiority of illegitimate children is a myth. 
The greater morality among illegitimate babies is caused by the 
economic condition of the mother. The fact that so many juvaiile 
delinquents are bastards must be sought in the milieu and not in 
any innate criminal tendencies. Illegitimacy per se is not danger- 
ous, but the environment of neglect which attends it is ; bastards 
who are placed in a favorable environment often succeed in life 
better than legitimate children in the same environment. 

At the International Congress of Hygiene and Demography 
held in London, in 1891, Dr. Carlsen of Copenhagen, presented a 
paper showing certain statistical investigations concerning the 
idiots and feeble-minded of the Danish population: "imbecility is 
scarcer among illegitimate than among legitimate children." 

In 190S Paul Lagrange asked a number of prominent writers 
and scholars about their opinions of illegitimacy. Their replies 
were published in La Revue of Paris. 

Max Nordau wrote: "The law which stigmatizes a child bom 

out of wedlock is barbarous and stupid All children are 

bom according to the same natural laws which is prior and superior 
to all man-made laws No hyjwcrisy of a vicious, coward- 
ly and cruel society is more detestable than that which brands with 
the sign of infamy the innocent children of parents who scom the 
sham decency of people who by their adherence to law want to make 
others believe in their virtue !" 

Lombroso declared : "It is a noteworthy fact that many men of 
genius were natural children : Themistocles, Charles Martell, Will- 
iam the Conqueror, Boccai;cio, Alexander Famese, the duke of Ber- 
wick whom Montesquieu called The Perfect Mofiy Dupanloup, Emile 
de Girardin." (The latter was the most brilliant name in French 


journalism for 40 years. He gained his positi<xi in literature by 
his genius and despite his openly acknowledged illegitimate origin). 

Marcel Prevost wrote: ^If there are any differences between 
legitimate and illegitimate children they are created by law; the 
severity of the latter cannot be justified under any consideration." 

J. H. Rosny and many others expressed similar opinions. 

It is worth knowing what Lincoln thought about illegitimacy. 
*^ he spoke of his mother, dwelling on her characteris- 
tics and mentioning or aiumerating what qualities he inherited 
from her. He said among other things that she was the iUegitimate 
daughter of Lucy Hanks and a well-bred Virginian farmer or 
planter. He agreed that from this last source came his power of 
analysis, his logic, his mental activity, his ambition, and all the 
qualities that distinguished him from the other members and de- 
scendants of the Hanks family. His theory in discussing the 
matter of hereditary traits had been that for certain reasons illegiti- 
mate children are oftentimes sturdier and brighter than those bom 
in lawful wedlock ; and in his case, he believed that his better nature 
and his finer qualities came from tiiis broad-minded Virginian. 
During and after the Presidential campaign of 1860, Lincoln re- 
peatedly refused to furnish any details regarding his progenitors." 
(Hemdon, Life of Abraham Lincoln), 

Miss Mulock, author of **John Halifax^ gentleman** writes in 
her book **i4 Wo7nan*$ Thoughts about Women" 

"No one can have taken any interest in the working-classes 
without being aware how frightfully common among them is what 
they term "a misfortune." . . . Another fact, stranger still to 
account for, is that the women who thus fall are by no means the 

worst of their station Many of them are of the very best — 

refined, intellig^t, truthful, and affectionate. VHiether their very 
superiority makes them dissatisfied with their own rank, so they 
fall easier victims to the rank above them, or whether other virtues 
can exist and flourish entirely distinct from and after the loss of 
what we are accustomed to believe the indisputable virtue of our 
sex-chastity, I cannot explain it; I can only say that it is so — ^that 
some of my most promising village girls have been the first to come 
to harm; and some of the best and most faithful servants I ever 
had, have been girls who have fallen into shame . . . . " 


It will not be amiss to listen to old Dr. Paul Mobius, of Leip- 
zic. He writes : "We could have more mothers and more happiness 
if we did not recognize only children that are bom in lawful wed- 
lock. One ought to be more broad-minded. All honor to a girl that 
says : 'Hhis is my chUd, for which I care; who the father is, is no- 
body* s husinessr Cut out your lie about the Christian state; the 
state is as unchristian as it could be. Our life is steeped in un- 
charitableness and hypocrisy !" 

Destroy our iniquitous economic system and most children will 
be well-bom! 

Contributed to American Journal of Urology and Sexology 



By W. C. Gates, M. D. 

THE prevalence of prostitution, venereal disease, abortion, 
divorce and other evils, prove that modem civilization 
has not solved the problem of the proper relation of 
the sexes. 

Birth ccmtrol clinics and sporadic, so-called ^^Eugenic Mar- 
riages," show that some of our people are learning the letter "A" 
in the alphabet of sexology. 

Before expressing certain ideas which have occurred to me, it 
may be wise to re-state certain self-evident truths: 

First, the primary fundamental passion actuating everything 
that has life, is the sustenance of life. 

Second, and practically equalling it in intensity, is the re- 
production of life. 

Stated in different terms, the life of the individual depends 
upon a digestive system; the life of the race or species depends 
upon a sexual system. 

Nature has wisely decreed that the act of taking nourishment 
and the act of reproduction shall bring pleasure to the individual. 

From a strictly biologic standpoint, as soon as the male has 
impregnated the female, his responsibility to nature ceases and he 
is at liberty to seek out and impregnate other females. VHiere his 
responsibility ceaseg^ that of the female begins, for it is her duty 
to bear, protect and rear the young. 


Up to this point sexual attraction has been the only force 
operative between the two sexes, but from this point on, sexual 
antagonisms arise. The respcmsibility of each sex to nature is so 
radically different that it cannot but result in sharp conflicts. A 
careful study of anthropology or the reading of Heape's Sex 
Antagonisms, will convince any careful student. 

Man's natural tendency is to look for others whom he may 

The woman has found that if she can bind the male to her 
and her interests, she and her offspring stand a much better chance 
of survival. To the woman's constant effort to improve her condi- 
tion is largely due all the progress our race has ever known. 

The type of man who has most readily yielded to her influence 
has been rewarded by the increased survival of his offspring. This 
is one of nature's eugenic methods. There is no question that the 
monogamous marriage is the ideal, but in spite of all our preten- 
tions, no race of people the world has ever seen practices it. Differ- 
ent races of people have established different sexual customs, fol- 
lowing the lines of least resistance and merely drifted into the 
methods now practiced. 

No careful scientific study, backed up by experiments on any 
appreciable scale, has yet been made. 

To support his physical life, man has tried to eat almost 
every substance in the known world and in his sexual life, his 
efforts have been almost as varied. 

The experience of the savage individual is very limited and his 
natural tendency is to abuse or ridicule those whose customs are 
strange to him. 

I know several people who fairly rave at the idea of eating 
oysters, calling them vile and filthy; I know others who enjoy eat- 
ing oysters above anything else, but rave at those who eat snails, 
while nearly all whom I have ever met expressed disgust at the 
idea of eating grasshoppers, although it has been a common food 
of many tribes of people around the Mediterranean for centuries 
past, so much so that the Bible speaks of them as the diet of John 
the Baptist. 

For many ages we have concentrated all our efforts to train 
the race as to the different foods and food supplies. Nothing per- 
taining to food and its preparation has ever been concealed or kept 
secret. This being the case and such violent prejudices existing 


among our people over simple articles of diet, how much more 
violent, unjust and unreasonable are those prejudices when aroused 
over a strange sex relationship among a race so densely ignorant 
of the subject as our own. 

It would be so absolutely impossible to compel all races or all 
people of one race to adopt a single uniform standard of living, 
that the idea is ridiculous. It is just as much an impossibility to 
get people to conform to a single sexual standard under our pre- 
sent civilization. 

Here is the next great problem that our civilization must 
master: the race has drifted along, bound down by traditions, 
ignorance and superstition until conditions are becoming intoler- 
able and it is time for careful scientific study. 

Forel bitterly attacks the church and its influence. There is 
no question but what the influence of the Church has seriously re- 
tarded the solving of this problem, just as it has retarded civiliza- 
tion in other times and on greater questions. For instance, when 
scientists first began to teach that the world was round, the church 
taught that it was flat and burned those who differed with it at the 
stake. But the church has changed; not only on that, but on 
other great questions. It is probably the greatest social machine 
in the world today and could be the greatest instrument of good in 
solving this sexual problem if it would study it {rom a scientific 

Bloch, in "TA^ Seamed Life of Our Time,** condenms the in- 
stitution of marriage. Just the mention of this fact makes the 
average man rave just as hard as though he had been offered 
grasshoppers for dinner; but Bloch's arguments are worthy of 
very careful consideration. 

Statistics prove that less than fifty per cent of marriages are 
satisfactory and a still smaller number lead to happiness of both 

Our papers are full of divorce suits ; prostitutes are on every 
corner and venereal diseases are very common. 

Every year sees an increased number of physicians claiming 
that practically all diseases of a nervous nature are due to sexual 
starvation or aberration ; our insane asylums are filled with patients 
who are suffering from a psychic trauma of a sexual nature. All 
this suffering is of such a coarse nature that it is recognized by 
every eye, but there are hundreds of cases of most exquisite torture 
which are not seen or recognized by the public. 


One of my patients, a maiden lady of forty-five, a nervous and 
physical wreck, tells me that she has had ardent sexual longing 
since the age of eight years. The one desire of her life has been 
children and repeatedly I have seen her weep in a perfect abandon- 
ment of grief because she had no diildren. While the desire for 
children has been the greatest, the desire for actual sex relations 
has been very strong. Of a deeply religious nature, brought up in 
a strict church association, taught to regard all these desires as 
sinful, as a girl she shunned the companionship of young people 
because her desires were so great that she was afraid she might be 
tempted and yield. She has never found a mate. She has exerted 
all her energy in fighting a perfectly natural desire. Her nervous 
trouble both she and I believe to be entirely due to this cause. She 
is now unable to earn her own living and will soon become a public 
charge. Her pastor tells her that she has obeyed the divine command 
and lived a life of righteousness. I cannot see it that way. She 
has disobeyed a law of nature and nature has inflicted the pen- 
alty. She has broken Grod's law and kept only weak, egotistical 
man's translation and misinterpretation thereof. 

All admit that the libertine and prostitute are sinners; they 
break the laws of Grod and man by going to excess and are just- 
ly punished. The man who overeats breaks the laws of God, but 
not of man. He also is punished with gout, Bright's Disease, etc. 
Those who go to the other extreme are just as much sinners. The 
individual who denies himself sufficient nourishment, suffers from 
weakness, degenerations and bodily ailments. He has disobeyed a 
law of God and suffers the penalty. 

So, in my opinion, this lady, by denying her sexual nature, 
is just as much a sinner as the prostitute and has suffered just as 
severe a penalty. She has broken Grod's law instead of obeying 

This is but one of hundreds of cases which may be seen in 
any psychopathic clinic today. 

There is scnnething wrong with a society which produces so 
many unfortunate results. 

Some years ago a young lady of twenty-two, from our better 
classes, came into my o^ce. She told me that she had no reason 
to believe but what she was a normal, healthy woman in every 
respect and with healthy desires and impulses. She stated that at 
times her sexual desire was keen, that she enjoyed going out with 


young people; that in their gatherings certain young men were 
very attractive to her, that she was beonning afraid to be out in 
their company for fear that desire and opportunity might come 
together and cause her to yield, and that they were not a class of 
men with whom she would care to have a relationship. 

She stated very frankly that she wanted to make the most out 
of her life; that she had no suitable chance for a mate at that 
time; that it took so much of her energy to fight her inclinations 
that it was hardly worth the struggle; she had recently become 
acquainted with a man whom she respected; whom she thought 
would honor and protect her in every way ; she wanted to be posi- 
tive that he had no venereal diseases and she wanted information on 
birth control, stating that she much preferred to establish a re- 
lationship with a man of that character than to take chances of 
yielding in a gust of passion to a man whom she could not respect. 

I admire and respect this girl because she faced her problem 
squarely, thought it out carefully and decided for herself what she 
would do with her life. She is holding a high salaried position and 
doing most excellent work. 

Besides these two cases, I see many girls who follow the line 
of least resistance. Some die; some have abortions produced and 
others live with illegitimate offspring. 

There is no use in condemning and fighting the ignorance and 
superstition in the church, €issailing marriage or raving against the 
views of this, that and the other individual. 

Fighting over mere opinions will not get us anything but 
heartaches. The one thing to do is to know the truth. I would 
like to see a chair of sexology established in every university in 
this great land of ours ; I would like to make it a criminal offense 
for any man to stand in the pulpit or attempt to teach or instruct 
others on sexual questions until he had at least read the works of 
men who have devoted their lives to the scientific study of these 
subjects. I would like to make it a capital offense for any judge 
or lawyer to try a case, in which there was a sexual element, with- 
out first having studied these works. 

Every little while our newspapers expose some colony of sex- 
ual preverts ; a group of people who, under the cloak of some kind 
of religion, live together and practice all sorts of sexual orgies ; the 
Hanish Cult in Chicago is an example. 

VHien these things are exposed by the papers, most of our 



people take them as a joke, bat if one should establish a colony 
for the scientific study of sexual relations and eugenics, I suppose 
the majority of than would be out with a club; still, I believe it 
would be well worth trying. 

Suppose some of our extremists should start such a colony? 
Volunteers are easy to obtain for almost any kind of a proposition ; 
the sure-death parties in the Russo-Japanese War never lacked 
volunteers. For a project of this kind, out of the volunteers offer- 
ing, one could call those most fitted, those free from all diseases, 
especially of a venereal nature, and get a good stock with which 
to begin. 

Suppose one of the most radical of our sexologists should try 
a colony on this plan ; all property to be owned by the state ; every 
individual taught birth control from childhood up; the sex re- 
lationship to be free and as much attention paid to pleasure in that 
as our race now pays to the pleasure in eating. 

When a woman desired' a child, she should register that fact 
before an officer of the association and either choose who should be 
the father of the child or ask advice of judges appointed for that 
purpose. After such registration, she should associate with no 
other man and there would be no question as to the paternity. As 
soon as pregnancy was established, the state should give her title 
to a home ; after the birth of each child, she should receive a small 
pension from the state, as well as a percentage of the earnings of 
the father. The franchise should rest with women who had bom 
children and men who had attained to a certain degree of produc- 
tion or accomplished some great good for the colony. 

It is claimed that our present ideas of virtue and sexual mor- 
ality have arisen only where man has accumulated an amount of 
individual property which he wished to transmit to his children and 
that they do not exist among tribes where the property is owned 
exclusively by the females. 

It is also claimed that a plan of this kind would do away with 
the evik now existing. Whether other evils would arise to take 
their place, it is hard to say. Sexual excess would probably not be 
as common as at present and it would be just as promptly punish- 
ed by the infallible laws of nature. It is also claimed that children 
would develop much better than at present if permitted to imitate 
their elders and the physicians would not see the many cases of 
faulty development, infantile uterus, inability to lactate and sexual 
frigidity which exist in our present society. 


Although this is an extreme suggestion, the establishment of 
such a colony would be an interesting experiment and nowhere near 
as revolting to our present standards and ideas of sex morality as 
those of the Hanish Colony and those of numerous other colonies 
of religio-sexual perverts which exist in different parts of our 

If some of our great philanthropists would establish a well 
endowed foimdation for the study of human sexuality and scienti- 
fic eugenics, I believe our race and civilization would greatly profit 

Cattle breeders, extending their experiments over many gener- 
ations, develop a breed of cattle, whose milk is exceedingly rich in 
butter fat ; other breeds whose milk contains very little butter fats, 
but is very rich in caseine; still others that give very little milk, 
but run entirely to beef. They do not get these results from 
single and scattered matings. It would be an easy matter, breeding 
through a sufficient number of generations, to establish a race of 
people nine feet high and of corresponding proportions, or a race 
of people less than four feet in height. I think it would be an 
easy matter to produce a race of people all sentiment and emotion, 
or a race of people in whom there was little or no sentiment and 
governed by pure reason. 

The question for the foundation for scientific eugenics to de- 
termine would be the selection and breeding of a race of people 
which would be best adapted for existence on this earth ; a happier 
race than the present one, free from prostitution, venereal diseases, 
divorce, etc; a race in which the pleasure to be obtained in the 
sexual relation will receive as much care, thought and study as our 
race now expends on the pleasures of eating. The pleasure attend- 
ing the one function is no more sinful than that attending the 
other. Our present treatment of this particular phase of the sub- 
ject is both inconsistent and ridiculous. 

The present attempts at eugenic matings are as amusing and 
interesting as a child's attempts at learning its first letters al- 
though just as necessary. 

I hope that our race will learn this alphabet as rapidly as the 
child learns the other. 




Erery student of hereditary degeneracy it acquainted with tfa^ 
''Jukes,*' a family whidi for generations has fiUed priscMis and 
almshouses and entailed emMrmous sums of money to the State. In 
1874, the New York Prison AModation appointed R. L. Dugdale 
to make a study of the jails of the state. In one nxnintain county 
he found six blood relatives in prison for various offencea They 
bdonged to a long lineage, reaching back to the early colonists. 
In 1877, Mr. Dugdale published the history of this clan to which 
he gave the fictitious name of '^Juke.'* The progeny traced untfl 
f the year 1874, stretches over seven generations. They all were the 

descendants of Max, the j<^y hunter and bibulous fisher, who was 
t horn about 1780. He had numerous children and grandchfldren 

most of whom were and became the parents of criminals and paup- 
^ ers. There was Lem, the stealer of sheep ; Lawrence, the gunman ; 

I Delia, the harlot ; Bell who had three children by various negroes ; 

Margaret, ^Hhe mother of criminals,*^ whose bastard son became the 
ancestor of the distinctly criminal line. Dugdale had described 709 
individuals who lived largely on the industry of cement mining in 
their country. As this was abandoned with the introduction of 
Portland cement, almost the entire clan emigrated. Recently the 
Eugenics Record Office intrusted Arthur H. Estabrook with the 
task of bringing the study of the ^ Jukes" up to date and of des- 
cribing his findings in a book. The author found the entire clan 
scattered over 14 States. For the past 180 years they had increased 
from five sisters to a « family numbmng S,094 people, of whom 
1,268 were living in 1916. The Eugenics Record Office sought to 
determine what influence forty years had on the "Jukes** after 
they had left their original home with its bad environment and 
where, on account of their reputation, they were handicapped in 
business and social relations. Among the later "Jukes" who had 
onigrated to Connecticut, New Jersey, and Minnesota, there were 
found the same feeblemindedness, indolence, licentiousness and 
dishonesty which had distinguished the older "Jukes" in their orig- 
inal home. For wherever they went, they tended to marry persons 
like themselves. Some of the "Jukes," however, had married into 
better stocks and thereby improved the quality of the germ-plasm 
from whidi sprang good and prosperous citizens. A more numer- 



ous class is composed of steady, hard-working persons who toil from 
day to day at semi-skilled or imskilled labor and make no deep im- 
pression on the community, but rear their children as well as thej 
can, endeavoring at least to raise them to the parental social levd. 
There remains the scum of society represented among the "Jukes.** 
These are inefficient and indolent, unwilling or unable to take ad- 
vantage of an opportunity. In them the writer sees the real social 
problem of the "Jukes** today. In bringing about improvements, 
Dr. Estabrook regards heredity and their environment as the prin- 
cipal agencies. Heredity, whether good or bad, has its complemental 
factor in environment. The two determine the behavior of the in- 
dividual. No matter to what degree of perfection the standard of 
the environment be raised, the response of the individual will still 
depend on its constitution. The author declares cousin-matings to 
be undesirable, since they produce defective offspring irrespective 
of the parents* somatic make-up. Studying the cases of 118 
"Jukes** who have been in penal institutions. Dr. Estabrook came 
to the conclusion that penal servitude as a cure for crime is a failure 
because feebleminded persons cannot be made normal by any kind 
of pimishment. In the writer's opinion, the eradication of crime in 
defective stock, depends upon the elimination of mental deficiency. 
To bring this about, two methods are apparent. One is the perman- 
ent custodial care of the feebleminded men and all feebleminded 
women of childbearing age. The other is the sterilization of those 
whose germ-plasm contains the defects which society wishes to 
eliminate. However, public sentim^it does not favor sterilization, 
although it would interfere with the real liberty of the individual 
less than custodial care. Out of the 600 living feebleminded and 
epileptic "Jukes** there are now only three in custodial care. It is 
estimated that at the end of fifty years the defective germ-plasm 
would be practically eliminated by the segregation of all the six 



As the teachers represent a physical and mental selection from 
the race, it seems that the Prussian government has taken a step in 
the direction of national eugenics, for as Fritz Lenz reports (Arch, 
f. Rassen u. Gesellschafts-Biologie XL Journal of Heredity) tax 
concessions have been made to the teachers in public schools, based 


on the number of their children. The premium goes as high as 
2,100 marks ($525), in which the dwelling or allowance for dwell-' 
ing is not included. For the first and second child under 15 years, 
6 marks; for each additicmal child S marks a month is allowed. 
These sums will be paid from the naticmal treasury, the local au- 
thorities not being called on for any contribution so that they will 
not be able to discriminate against teachers with large families. 
This subsidy will be increased after the war, especially for the 
third and fourth child, so that it will be financially possible for the 
teachers to abandon the two-child system which has become so 
widespread among them. 


Dr. H. N. Cole, Cleveland (J. A.M. A., Dec. 16, 1916), defines 
an extragenital chancre as a primary luetic lesion on other parts of 
the body than the genitals. He reports a series of sixty-one cases 
of his own observation in private practice and in the clinic of the 
Lakeside Hospital. The ages of the patients ranged from ft months 
to 65 years. Thirty-three of the patients were married and twenty- 
eight were single. The chancres occurred on the lips in forty-three 
of the cases, and there were three chancres of the tonsil and one of 
the tongue, making a total of forty-seven. Infection occurred in 
connection with the teeth in five instances, and bites were responsible 
in four cases. Other cases from the use of infected vessels, drink- 
ing cups, etc., kissing, and barber shops are briefly reported. There 
were ten cases of chancre of the hand due to towels, pin prick, gy- 
necologic examinations by doctors, etc. Late diagnosis occurred 
thirty-seven times in this series of sixty-one cases. Many of the 
cases were due to the common drinking cup and there should be 
stringent laws, well enforced, requiring the boiling of all dishes, 
glassware and silverware in restaurants, frequent sterilization of 
brushes and razors in barber shops, and closer supervision of public 
towels and soap. Any patients in a dangerous infectious condition 
in families or in the service of the public, especially the latter, 
should be under ccmtrol for a sufficient length of time to remove the 
danger of transmitting the infection. Physicians should be special- 
ly careful. Of the t«i patients infected on the hands five were 
doctors, and the profession as well as the public must be educated 


as to the gravity of the disease, and medical schools should give 

more time in their curriculum to the diagnosis and handling of 

early syj^iilis. Stringent supervision should be exercised over 

restaurants, hotels, soda fountains, etc., and Cole makes the general 

statement that all patients should be suspected of syphilis, and no 

vaginal, oral or rectal examination should be made without ^oves. 

« « « 

The ignorance and awkwardness of which some males are 
guilty during the first night would be amusing, if they did not 
have occasionally such tragic consequ^ices. They may be forgiven 
as they are proofs of the man's inexperience. But the brutality 
during the first night for the results of which we are sometimes 

consulted is utterly damnable. No animal is ever guilty of it. 

« « « 

Unfaithfulness in a wife is a sin; disloyalty is a crime. A 
husband may forgive the former; he never forgives the latter. — 


« « « 

We wonder if it will ever be known how many patriotic volun- 
teers go to war eagerly and cheerfully — because they prefer the un- 
certainties of war to the certainties of their homes : the daily dis- 
harmonies, the dreary drudgery, the domestic dulness and hopeless- 

« « « 

Many a man prefers to face a cannon to the constant nagging 
of his wife. 


Mrs. Leta S. Hollingworth (Am. Jotir. Sociology) believes 
that there is no verifiable evidence to show that a maternal instinct 
exists in women of such all-consuming strength and fervor as to im- 
pel them voluntarily to seek the pain, danger and exacting labor 
involved in a high birth-rate. In the writer's opinion, the pressure 
of insidious forces has made women bear children for the preserva- 
tion of tribal or national existence and for purposes of aggrandize- 
ment. She thinks that her sisters are now on the eve of being 
emancipated, and that henceforth they will bear few children unles/ 
they get adequate compensation ^ther in money or in fame. 


'Minds that are cooped up in sexless isolation are often afflict- 
ed with morbid imaginings and an unhealthy curiosity with regard 


to the more human world. The monastic folk were pnnie to a di- 
sease that they called "Accidia/* The life was very dull, very nar- 
row and led to introspection. What wonder that a woman should 
sometimes hanker to dip her spoon into the world's pot, and smell 
the stew, though she was not suffered to taste it" (Warwick Deeping 
'*The Red Samr*). 

Abstinence is defeat; moderation is victory — Mangasarian. 

*Turitanism is not morality, but a psychic disorder.'' 

"For my father Fd rather have a robust burglar than a con- 
sumptive bishop*" — ^Professor Smith, University of Minnesota. 

Prof. Smith does not agree with the view that man's breed can 
be improved by stock-farm methods : "So long as men love beauty 
and women love strength, the human instinct wcm't go far wrong." 

There is not a stable form for sexual morality for all times 
and all peoples. Sheer biological necessity, quite apart from ethical 
ideas, has chiefly determined human sexual relationships through- 
out the stages of man's development. — ^Walter M. Gallichan. 

When the emotions are sitting as judges, facts make poor 


Dear Dr. Robinson : I notice in one of your books reference to 
a work entitled Geburten Rueckgang tmd Geburten Regehmg by 
Prof. Grotjahn of the medical faculty of Berlin University. The 
writer who refers to this work speaks as if he had actually read it. 
That leads one to wonder how he came into the possession of such 
a devilish piece of scientific literature. Did he make a special jour- 
ney to Germany and bring it with him to this country? Did he 
order it directly from Germany? Did he induce any one else to 
order the book for him? In any case he has violated section 245 
of the United States penal code, which tells us very plainly what 
sort of scientific information is under the ban in this country, as 
follows : 

"Whoever shall bring or cause to be brought into the United 


States or any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, from any 
foreign country . . . any obscene, lewd, or lascivious, or any 
filthy book, pamphlet, picture, paper, letter, writing, print, or oth- 
er matter of indecent character, or any drug, medicine, article, or 
thing designed, adapted or intended for preventing conception or 
producing abortion or for any indecent or immoral use, or any 
written or printed card, letter, circular, book, pamphlet, advertise- 
ment or notice of any kind giving information, directly or in- 
directly, where, how or whom or by what means any of the hereinbe- 
forementioned articles, matters or things may be obtained or made 
. . . shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprison- 
ed not more than five years or both.'' 

Prof. Grotjahn's book is here classified as pornographic liter- 
ature. His reputati(m as a leading sanitarian does not save him 
under the section quoted, from the moral odium which attaches to 
the vendors of vulgar pictures and cards. Any physician in this 
country who, directly or indirectly, has had Prof. Grotjahn*s book 
sent to the United States may, if the law were strictly enforced, 
be made to pay $5,000 fine and spend five years in the penitentiary. 

Section 211 prohibits the sending of birth control information 
through the mails, and section 246 places the same penalties for 
having books telling about the prevention of conception imported 
into this country or transporting them by express from one state 
or territory to another or into any foreign country. 

It would be interesting to know how many prominent physi- 
cians in this. country have violated section 246 and how many of 
them are going to spend the next five years in a federal prison. 

Very sincerely yours, 
66* Elliott Ave., Portland, Ore. H. C. Uthofp, 


Sex Worship and Symbolism of Primitive Races. Sanger 
Brown II., M.D. Richard G. Badger, Boston. Pp. 145, 
price $3.00. 

This book presents absolutely nothing new, nothing that has 
not been presented in other books and presented in better form. 
With utmost charity it is difficult to find an excuse for its publi- 
cation. But still more astounding is the price of the book. How 
a publisher can have the nerve to charge $3.00 for a small book- 
let which usually sells from fifty cents to one dollar is beyond 
understanding. Fifty cents would be quite sufficient. And the 
ridiculous price of $3.00 may be only accounted for by the fact 
that the publisher believes that those interested in sex books 
will pay any price. It is our duty to frown upon such methods. 

Rational Sex Etiiics. By W. F. Robie, A.B., F.D., Super- 
intendent Pine Terrace, Baldwinville, Mass. Richard G. 
Badger, Boston, Pp. 366. Price $3.50. 
This book is a mixture of very advanced and very reac- 
tionary ideas. It contains some valus^Ie and interesting material, 
and should be in the library of every sexologist. But we wish 
the author had succeeded in completely freeing himself from 
ancient superstitions and the exaggeration of our medico-theolo- 
gians. A statement that "three-fifths of the young men and one^ 
fifth of the young women are infected at the time of marriage 
with communicable venereal disease" can only make the judicious 
grieve. Just think of it — 60 out of every 100 men and 20 out 
of every 100 women who get married are suffering from gonor- 
rhea or syphilis in a communicable stage! Where would the 
race be now if this were the case? The thing is so ridiculous 
that you don't know what to do, to laugh or to weep. And such 
statements are carried from book to book, and when brought 
to the attention of the layman they terrify him and throw him 
into a panic. The author's ideas about continence are also anti- 
quated and will not appeal to the modem sexologist. 

Slavery of Prostitution. A Plea for Emancipation. By Maude 
E. Miner, Secretary of the New York Probation and 
Protective Association. The Macmillan Company* New 
York, 1916. Price $1.50. 

This book is replete with facts of great value to the earnest 
student of the social evil. We cannot expect the author to look 
at the problem of prostitution with the eyes of the advanced 
sexologist, but her attitude is one of great and genuine sympathy, 
and it may help to create a better understanding of the dis- 
tressing probletn among those interested. If this book succeeds 
only in making people regard prostitutes as normal girls, with 
the usual defects and good qualities, much will have been ac- 
complished. As we have . maintained right along, the author, 
who has come in close and intimate contact with many of these 


unfortunate girls, has found in many of them "splendid quali- 
ties of character" — generosity, compassionate love, heroic self- 
sacrifice, a warmth of affection and a longing for a better life. 
She writes, "A close knowledge of these girls has shown me that 
they were not, as we have sometimes been led to believe, a dif- 
ferent order of beings, but that they were like other young 
women whom I had known. They had the same hopes, ambi- 
tions, emotions and longings. When appeal was made to the 
highest and best that was in them, they responded in the same 
simple, earnest way. Like all of us, they had potentialities both 
for good and for evil ; but instead of meeting forces for streng- 
thening and upbuilding character, they had come in contact with 
vicious influences. Yet in each soul there remained the divine 
spark, which if not too hidden or dimmed could be fanned into 
flame." The book forms a valuable addition to the literature 
of prostitution. 

The Way Life Begins. An introduction to sex education. 
Text and illustrations by Bertha Chapman Cady and 
Vernon Mosher Cady. The American Social Hygiene 
Association, 105 West 40th St., New York, 78 pages. 
Price $1.00. 

A very excellent book for teachers and parents. We know 
of no other book which within such a small conipass presents in 
such a clear way the beginnings of life among plants and animals. 
The illustrations and plates and colors are supremely fine.* The 
authors have advanced beyond our primitive sexologists. They 
do not believe that a knowledge of fertilization among plants 
and fecundation, among moths, fishes and rabbits will destroy 
the sex urge in young men and women ; but they still cherish the 
belief that in some vague manner it will help them to s<^ve their 
problems. We do not believe it. We believe that sex knowledge 
is justified of itself and not because it will act as a prop to our 
current sex morality, which is decayed thru and thru and honey- 
combed with falsehood and hypocrisy. Society exists not be- 
cause of our sex morality, as the authors claim, but in spite of 
it — just as Society does not exist because of war but in spite 
of it. But what misery follows in the trail of both! 

It is remarkable how many good people who write scienti- 
fically and truthfully on the sex life of plants and animals, 
blunder and stumble and fall down as soon as they begin to 
discuss sex life among human beings. And all because they are 
not big enough to free themselves from their theologic or mora- 
listic bias, which has been implanted in them in their early child- 
hood. However, human sex morality occupies but an insignifi- 
cant part of this book, which as an introduction to sex study 
can be recommended without reserve. Both the authors and the 
publishers are to be sincerely congratulated. 






The American 

Journal of Urology 

and Sexology 

with which has been consolidated 

The American Practitioner 

- - i. 

;i^^ Hv.->, 



In Scarlet Fever and Meaala 

tlicre 18 no procedure that will contrib- 
ute so markedly to a patient a contort 
and well-being and at the same time 
prove so serviceable from prophylactic 
standpoints, as anointing the whole body 
at frequent intervals with 

K'- Y Labricating Jelly 

(kso. 41. •. PAT, orw^ 

Itching and irritation are relieved at 
once» and while the activity of the skin 
is maintained^ the dissemination of infec- 
tious material is also prevented. So 
notable are the benefits that result from 
the use of this non-greasy, water-solublo 
and cielightfully clean product that its 
use has become a matter of routine in 
the practise of many physicians. 

In addition to being "the perfect lubrkant," 
IS..T liaa also been found an ideal emollient, and 
in no way does it demonatrate ita great utility 
more convincin^y than in the care of tfaeskin 
dunog the ezanthematous atf ectioiia* 



5.17 K^ -tmi. fi.«^ and S153HtehHalborn 

15-17 Eatft 40lh Street 

'' Rheumatic'' Pain 

Is there anything more sati»- 
fvingly warming to a painful 
rheumatic joint than a liberal ap^ 
plication of K-Y ANALGESIQ 
followed by covering the part to 
keep in the warmth ? 







Druggists, collapsible tubes, 50c;. 

Samples and literature. 

15 and 17 East 40th St.. New York Oty 



Bnt«r«Nl V. Y. Post OiBce aa Second CkuM Matter 
UftOLOGic Publishing Association, is Mt. Momm Pxsr W . Naw Vnmw 


The H.K.Mulfonl Company Leads 

in tke Manufactiire of Standardized and Fhyaioli^oally 
Tested Pharmacentical and Biological Pkwdncts 

The C S. P. IX. reqiiires Uoloiioal assay for cannabis and 
its preparations and solution pituitary extract, and recommends 
bioloeical assay for aconite, digitalis, squUl, stropfaantbus and 
their preparations. 

Years before the V. S. P. recognized physioloeica] stand- 
ardization biologic assays were carried out in the Mulford 
Laboratories in the standardization of aconite, apocynum, can- 
nabis, coDvallaria, digitalis, epinephrine, ergot gelsemium, lobelia, 
pituitary extract, squill, stropbanthus, veratrum, and others. 

In addition to eheauoal and phr^olo^oal standardization. 
Galenical preparations liable to deteriorate, such as eniot, digi- 
talis and stropbanthus, are preserved in me Mulford Vacules 
(Tacaum ampuls). 

The U.S. P. DC requires 
standardization of 
15 tinctures 
11 fluidextracts 
4 solid extracts 
8 powdered extracts 

The H. K. Mulford Company 
39 tinctures 
51 fluidextracts 
24 solid extracts 
20 powdered extracts 
or 38 . or 124 

The H. K. Mnllord Goatpany reqoirea the standardization 
of more than three times as many Galenioal preparations as is 
reqaired by the U. S. P. 

Your patients' interests and your own are protected when 
you specify Mulford products. 

H. K. MULFORD GOHPANT, Philadelphia* U. S. A. 

Copyrlgrht, 1917, by Dr. William J. Robinson. 


Subscriptions and all communicafious relating to the business or editorial 
department, exchanges, and books for review, should be addressed to THE 
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VROLOi.V, 12 A//. Morris Park West, Nfw 
York City. 



Jealousy: Its Prevention and Cure. By William J. Robinson, M.D. 49 

What Do We Mean by Normal? By E. S. Shepherd 64 

The Sexual Disorders of Men. By Prof. Dr. Med. R. Kafemann 70 

Sexual Dangers to Which Women Are Exposed by the War. By Dr. 

L, Praenkel 82 


The Prostitution of Young Girls in Munich during the Year of War, 

1915. Judge Rupprecht 85 

Magic and Sexual Morality. Prof. L. T. Hobhoute 87 

No Decent Woman Feeh Insulted by Man's Admiration. Robert 

MicheU , 87 

Sassael Butler on Complete Abstinence from — Meat 87 

Changes in Our Personality 89 

Solitude. George Hirth 90 

Virginity and Marriage 90 

Syphilis and Heart Failure. Dr. Arthur D. Dunn 90 

Man— The Ignoble Brute; Wloman— The Gentle Creature. Bmett 

Belford Bax 91 

Activity in German Eugenics 91 


Puritanism in Ancient Japan 91 

Monogamy 92 

Chastity. Mrt. Gallichan 93 

A Catholic Priest on Sexual Ethics. Father Karl Jentseh 93 

No Cloud without a Silver Lining. Walter M. Gallichan 93 

Two Famous Courtesans 93 

Continence. E. B. Bax 94 

Asceticism. B. B. Bax 94 

The Half-Breeds 94 

A Question 94 

Was He a Eugenist? 94 

The Crime Against the Unborn. Mrs. Gallichan SH 

Nietzsche on Feminism - 95 

Conventional Morality. Havelock EUit 95 


Determination of Sex. Rev. Melville Fisher, M.D 95 

Not A Physical Necessity. 8. Reid Spencer 96 

PubUthed mooMy by the Urologk PnbUihlBC AModatioa, 
12 Mt Morris Pirk West, N«fr York. N. Y. 



Treatment of 



William J. Robinson, M. D. 

Cklcf of the DeMrtment of Genito-Urinary Diseases and Dermatology. Bronx Hospital and 
Dispensary; Editor The American Journal of Urology, Venereal and Socnal Diseases; 
Bditor of The Critic and Guide: Author of Sexual Problems of Today, Never 
Told Tales, Practical Engenics, etc.; President of the American Society 
of Medical Sociology, President of the Northern Medical So- 
ciety, Bx'President of the Berlin Anglo>Araerican Med- 
ical Society, Fellow of the New York Aca^ 
demy of Medicine, etc., etc. 

Unqacttioiiabtsr and incomparably the best^ timplest and moat diorough 
hock on the anbject in the English language. 


Part I— Maaturbation. Its Prevalence^ Cauaea, Varietiea^ Symptoms^ 
Reanlta, Prophylaxis and Treatment Coitua Interruptns and Its Effects. 

Part II— -Varieties, Causes and Treatment of Pollutions, Spermatorrhea, 
Prostatorrhea and Urethrorriiea. 

Part III — Sexual Impotence in the Male. Every phase of its widely vary- 
ing causes and treatment, "with illuminating case reports. 

Part IV — Sexual Neurasthenia. Causes, Treatment, case reports, and its 
relation to Impotence. 

Part V— Sterility, Male and Female. Its Canaea and Treatment 
Part VI— Sexual Disorders In Woman, Including Frigidity, Vaginiamus, 
Adherent Clitoris, and Injuries to the Female in Coitus. 

Part VII— Priapism. Etiology, Case Reports and Treatment 

Part VIII— Miscellaneous Topics. Including: Is Masturbation a Vice^— 
Two Kinds of Premature Ejaculation.— ^The Frequency of Coitus.r— '*Use. 
less** Sexual Excitement — ^The Relation Between Mental and Sexual Activity. 
-*Big Families and Sexual Vigor. — Sexual Perversions. 

Part IX — Prescriptions and Biinor Pointa. 

Sixth edition raviaed and enlarged. 
Cloth bcund, 422 pages. Postpaid, $3.00. 



Dr. Robinson's Never Told Tales, $1.00. Sexual Problems of To-Day, $2.00. 


Vol. XIII. FEBRUARY, 1917. No. 8. 

For Th« Axkxican Joubnax, or Ubozxmst and SSxolocy 

By Wilmam J. Robinson, M.D., New Yokk. 

HE or she who has been so unfortunate as to experi^ice 
the pangs — or fangs— of jealousy will readily admit 
that it is one of the most painful, if indeed not the 
most painful of all human emotions. The suffering that 
it entails upon the vict;jms is indescribable. No other single human 
emotion so affects the body, so upsets the mind, so deranges every 
function, as does jealousy. The torture that it causes makes the 
sufferer a truly pitiable object: the complete loss of sleep and com- 
plete loss of appetite may result in a serious impairment of the suf- 
ferer's health, while the rage it often gives rise to may lead to 
actual insanity, or at least to great mental disturbance. With 
good reason popular fancy has pictured this cursed emotion as a 
green-eyed monster. 

Jealousy is a primitive emotion. It is present not only in the 
primitive races but even in animals. And being a primitive emo- 
tion, we can hardly hope to succeed in eradicating it entirely. But 
we can modify it. 

The statement frequently heard that '^human nature is human 
nature'' is only a platitudinous half-truth. The fundamental part 
of human nature — the desire for happiness and the avoidance of 
suffering — cannot be changed nor would we want to change it if we 
could. It would mean the disappearance of the human race. But 
that many of our primitive emotions can be greatly modified by 
culture, by new standards, by new ideals of morality, about this 
there can be no question. 

Just as love in modem man is an entirely different feeling 
from what it was in primitive man, so jealousy in the advanced 

Read before the Sunrise Club, January 8, 1917. 


thinker is a different feeling from what it was in the savage; and 
by education and true culture it can be modified still further. And 
we hope that in time to come this injurious, degrading, anti-social 
feeling may be almost entirely eradicated from the human breast. 

For instance, the primitive desire — and this primitive desire of 
the race is still fully exhibited by children — is to take possession 
of everything attractive and useful that somebody else has and 
which we have not. But our education and our cultural standards^ 
have so repressed this desire, have put it so deeply in the bad^- 
ground, that normal human beings hardly feel it at all. It is only 
improperly brought up people, mental defectives and those unable 
to adjust themselves to their environment who still have this primi- 
tive feeling of taking or stealing. And so with many other feel- 
ings and emotions; and so with jealousy. 

If we, at the very first notice of a manifestation of jealousy 
by a child, should frown upon it, if we should explain to the child 
or adolescent that jealousy is a mean, degrading feeling, that it is 
a feeling to be ashamed of, a feeling to hide and not to show off 
or even be proud of — as some are now — then jealousy would mani- 
fest itself in a much smaller number of individuals, and those un- 
fortunate enough to be attacked by it would try to repress it, to 
hide it, to overcome it, so that it would eventually become paler and 
less acute and its consequences would be less significant, less disas- 
trous for both the victim and for the persons concerned. Feelings, 
let us bear in mind, are not immutable things uninfluenced by any 
environmental factors. Feelings are like plants ; under one environ- 
ment you may foster their growth and make them develop luxuriant- 
ly; under another environment you may dwarf their growth and 
strangle them. 

In order to enable us to inhibit the growth of the demon of 
jealousy, we must learn what its essence is and what factors are 
favorable to its developinent. 

Causes of Jealousy. 

The essential factor in jealousy is fear. Fear of losing the 
beloved object, fear of losing the person who provides you with 
sexual satisfaction, or the mere economic fear of losing a material 
provider. The latter kind of fear is, of course, more often mani- 
fested — even though unconsciously — in women. Women who have 
no love for their husbands arc nevertheless often fiercely jealous, 
because consciously or unconsciously they are afraid that their 
husbands may desert them for other women, and that they must 
thus find themselves in a precarious economic condition. 


Anotiwr factor in jealousy is wounded vanity. We do not 
like to feel that somebody is OMisidered superior to us. This feel- 
ing of wounded vanity is present in other varieties of envy or rival- 
ry. A person who loses in a race or gets a lower mark in his ex- 
aminaticms than his rival may be filled with a feeling of eavj and 
hatred almost equal in intensity to, though never as painful as^ 
sexual jealousy. 

Another factor in jealousy is anger; anger over loss of what 
we consider our property. In our present social order the man 
considers his wife his absolute property, and so does the wife con- 
sider her husband. And there is anger that a stranger should dare 
to rob us or make use of our property, just as there would be 
anger if a thief came and robbed us of a valuable material posses- 
sion. This anger or rage part of jealousy is not a sign of love. It 
is very far from being so. Because it manifests itself also in mm 
and womoi who have not a particle of love for their spouses; it 
manifests itself in spouses who have nothing but hatred and loath- 
ing for thdr partners. 

Another important factor is pain^ pain that the person we love 
has ceased to love us. When we love a person and our love is not 
reciprocated, we feel pain which may rise to the degree of agony, 
evoi when there is no rival in the field. But when a person who 
loved us has ceased to love us — or we imagine so — and has trans- 
ferred the love to another person that pain bec«ines much more 

A:r,ther element is pure enr\tj. Just mean envy tluit somebody 
should have what we haven't, or what we have, hut are in danger 
of losing. 

A point that I would like to mention is, that if husbands who 
have become sexually impotent become jealous, their jealousy 
knows no bounds. No strongly j>otent man ever reaches the same 
intensity in jealousy as is reached by a sexually weak or impotent 
man. The knowledge that another man has displaced him and that 
he himself could not replace that other man even if he \ctre permit- 
ted to fills him with impotent rage ; and, as is well known, impotent 
rage is always more intense than rage that is potent. Women are 
free from this kind of rage, because women are never impotent in 
this sense. 

There are a number of other components which go to make up 
this "queen of torments" or "king or torturers," jealousy, but 
those I have enumerated are the essential ones. 


What are they? Fear, vanity, anger, envy and pain. None 
of them admirable qualities, none of them, with the exception of 
the first and the last, even deserving our ccnnpassion. All of them 
anti-social and anti-individual qualities. Should not everything 
be done to eradicate such a rank weed, which draws its sustenance- 
f rom roots each one of which is dipped in poison ? 

We are told that in our primitive state jealousy was a 
social instinct ; that by killing and keeping away rivals it helped to 
found and cement the family and to keep it pure. I do not care 
to enter here into a discussion of this point. But whatever useful 
role jealousy may have played in the remote ages (I doubt that it 
has), it is now an utterly useless, utterly vicious, utterly anti-social 
and anti-individual emotion. It is opposed to social life, and it de- 
stroys individual happiness. And everything possible should b^ 
done to smother it, to strangle it, to eliminate it entirely from 
human life. 

Yes, I find no compensation whatever for jealousy ; I find no 
place for it in our modem life and I am in complete agreement 
with Forel, who calls jealousy "a heritage of animals and barbar- 
ians.*' "That is what I would say," he says, "to all those who, 
in the name of ofi^ended honor, would grant it rights and even place 
it on a pedestal. It is ten times better for a woman to marry an 
unfaithful than a jealous husband .... Jealousy transforms mar- 
riage into a hell .... Even in its more moderate and normal 
form, jealousy is a torment, for distrust and suspicion poison love. 
We often hear of justified jealousy. I maintain that jealousy w 
never justifiable; it is always a stupid, atavistic inheritance, or 
else a pathological prevention symptom." 


But can anything be done to eradicate this agonizing, tor- 
menting emotion.'* I believe it can, and the ways and means to the 
eradication of this evil will be found on analyzing its compcments. 
We may not be able to destroy all the components ; if we destroy 
the greater part of them much will have been accomplished. 

The underlying factors of jealousy are: the primitive instinct, 
also present in many animals, our ethical and religious ideas and 
our economic system. The primitive instinct we can repress and 
modify ; we can hardly hope to eradicate it entirely. But our ideas 
and economic system we can change. It is easier to change ideas 
than it is a system, and it is with our ideas we should commence. 


The first idea we must endeavor to destroy is that it is im- 
possible for a human being to love more than one other human be- 
ing at the same time. We must show that the love of the modem 
educated and esthetic man and woman is an exceedingly complex 
feeling, and that a man may deeply and sincerely love one woman 
for certain qualities and just as deeply and sincerely love another 
woman for certain other qualities. Of course, love cannot be 
measured by the yard or bushel, nor can it be weighed on the most 
delicate chemical balance. And it may be impossible to determine 
whether he loves both women exactly alike or he loves one woman 
more than the other. But that one love does not exclude another, 
that it may even intensify the other love, that is certain, and is 
the opinion of every advanced sexologist. 

Max Nordau, a man of high and austere ideals, a man whom 
nobody will accuse of a tendency to licentiousness, says in his 
Conventional Lies: '^It may sound very shocking, yet I must say 
it : we can even love several individuals at the same time, with near- 
ly equal tenderness, and we do not necessarily lie when we assure 
each one of our passion. No matter how deeply we may be in love 
with a certain individual we do not cease to be susceptible to the 
influence of the entire sex.*' 

And Iwan Bloch, than whom no greater investigator in the 
field of sexology ever lived, asks the question : ^^Is it possible for 
any one to be simultaneously in love with several individuals?" And 
he immediately says : ^^I answer this question with an imcondition- 
al ^yes.' And he says further: ^It is precisely the extraordinary 
manif<dd spiritual differentiation of modem civilized humanity that 
gives rise to the possibility of such a simultaneous love for two in- 
dividuals. Our spiritual nature exhibits the most varied coloring. 
It is difficult always to find the corresponding complements in 
one single individual.". 

Prof. Robert Michels says.: "It is Nature's will that the 
normal male should feel a continuous and powerful sexual attraction 
towards a considerable number of women .... In the male the 
stimuli capable of arousing sexual excitement (this term is not to be 
understood here in the grossly physical sense) are so extraordinar- 
ily manifold, so widely differentiated that it is quite impossible for 
one single woman to possess them all." 

Dr. von E^renfels, who is professor of ethics and philosophy 
at the University of Prague, wittily remarks that if it were a moral 
precept that a man should never have intercourse more than once in 


his life with any particular woman, this would correspond far bet- 
ter with the nature of the normal male and would cost him far less 
will-power than is needed by him in order to live up to the conven- 
tional demands of monogamy. And by the way, I wonder what 
would happen to a professor in one of our universities if he made 
such a statement publicly. 

And Havelock Ellis cautiously says: "A certain degree of 
variation is involved in the sexual relationships, as in all other re- 
lationships, and unless we are to continue to perpetuate many eviU 
and injuiticeSf that fact has to be faced and recognized." 

I have devoted considerable space to this topic, and I have, 
contrary to my custom, quoted ^^authorities," because I oHisider 
this point of the utmost importance; it is the first step in com- 
bating the demon of jealousy. If our wives, fianc^ and sweet- 
hearts could be convinced of the truth that a man's interest in or 
even affection towards another member of the female sex does not 
mean the death of love, or even diminished love, half of the battle 
would be won. Half of the misery, half of the quarrels, half of 
the self-torture, half of the disrupted homes, in short, half of the 
tyrannical reign of the d^non of jealousy, would be gone. 

We must teach our women and men this truth, teach it from 
puberty on. We must show them that not every woman can neces- 
sarily fill out a man's entire life, that not every woman can neces- 
sarily occupy every nook and Comer of a man's mind and heart, 
and that there is nothing humiliating to the woman in such an idea 
(and xAce versa). She should be taught to find nothing shameful, 
painful or degrading in such a thought. I know that these ideas 
are somewhat in advance of the times, but if nobody ever brought 
forward any advanced ideas because they were advanced there 
would never be any advance. 

Then we must teach our men that when they marry a woman 
she does not become their chattel, their piece of property, which 
nobody may touch, nobody may look at or smile at. A woman may 
be a very good, faithful wife and still enjoy the companionship 
of other men, the pressure of another man's hand or — horribUe 
dictu — even an occasional kiss. 

Then we must teach our men and wcHnen that there is essential- 
ly nothing shameful or humiliating in being displaced by a rival. 
The change may be a disgrace for the changer and not for the 
changed one. It does not at all mean that the change has been 
made because the rival is superior ; it is a well-known fact that the 
rival is often inferior. The change is often made, not because the 


changer has gone, upward, but because he has g(me downward, has 
deteriorated. And the changer often knows it himself. 

Inculcating those ideas would do away with the feeling of 
wounded vanity which is such an important compcment in the 
feeling of jealousy. 

Further, we must teach our children from the earliest age that 
Jealousy is *^not nice,** that it is a mean feeling, that it is a sign 
of weakness, that it is degrading to the person who entertains it, 
particularly to the person who exhibits it. Ideas inculcated from 
diildhood have a powerful influence, and the various ideas exposed 
above would have an undoubted influence in minimizing the mephit- 
ic, destructive eflTects of the feeling of jealousy. People properly 
brought up will always succeed in controlling or suppressing cer- 
tain non-vital instincts or emotions on which society puts its stamp 
of disapproval, which it considers **not nice'' or disgraceful. 

I am, therefore, an optimist in relation to the eventual uproot- 
ing of the greater number of components of the anti-social feeling 
of jealousy. And when woman reaches economic independence, 
ihea another component of the instinct of jealousy — ^the terror at 
losing a provider and being left in poverty — ^wiU disappear. 

Jealousy Defeats Its Objects. — One of the worst features 
about jealousy is that it defeats its own object. We have been 
told, as stated before, that jealousy was once upon a time a racial 
instinct, that by frightening away rivals it helped to found the 
family and to keep it chaste and pure. Quite the contrary is true 
BOW. More than one man has, by accusing hid innocent wife of 
infidelity and by torturing her with baseless suspicions, driven her 
into the arms of a lover. We are all more or less susceptible to 
suggestion, and by continually suspecting a wife of a love affair 
or illicit relations a man may implant the seed of suggestion so 
strongly that it may thrive luxuriantly and the wife may be unable 
to resist the suggested temptation. And very often the very lover 
is suggested by the husband. ^^Yes, don't attempt to deny it. It is 
useless. I know you have relations with X. I know you are his 
mistress.'' He kept on repeating it so often to his absolutely blame- 
less, innocent young wife and he made her so wretched by his 
rudeness and brutality that one day she did go over to X's rooms 
and did become his mistress. And after that she could stand her 
husband's outburst with equanimity. *^If I have the name I might 
as wdl have the game," is a good bit of psychologic wisdom. And 
a husband should be very careful about even suspecting a wife un- 


justly, and thus make the first step towards rendering his baseless 
suspicions a reality, his unjust accusations justified. And, of 
course, what is true of the husband is also true of the wife. Many 
a wife has driven her indolent husband into the hands of prosti- 
tutes or mistresses by her incessant nagging, false accusations and 
vicious epithets applied to all his female friends and acquaintances. 

Yes, from whatever angle you OMisider it, jealousy is a mean, 
nasty, miserable feeling. Because it is a more or less universal feel- 
ing, because "we cannot help it,*' does not render it less mean, less 
nasty, less miserable. 

I do not for a moment imagine that characterizing jealousy 
the way it deserves to be characterized, calling it a shameful, sav- 
age, primitive feeling, etc., is at once going to banish it from the 
breasts of men and women in which it has found an abiding place ; 
throwing epithets at it will not cause it to unfasten its talons. Un- 
fortunately, I know only too well that our emotions are stronger 
than our reason ; the man or woman at whose poor heart jealousy is 
gnawing day and night is not amenable to reason, is not curable 
by arguments ; all we can do is to sympathize with such a person 
and ask the Lord to pity liim or her. 

I knew a man who lived with his wife in free union, i. e., he 
was not married to her. He did not believe in marriage. Love 
was the only bond that should bind people together; as 80<m aa 
love was no more the people should separate in a friendly, comrade- 
ly manner. If the man or the mistress wants another lover, she 
should be free to take one; she is a free human being and not her 
husband's chattel slave, etc., etc., etc., to the same effect. Thus the 
man talked. And he was sincere in his talk — or he thought he was. 
But one night on unexpectedly returning home he found another 
man ; he promptly fired several shots at the man, which fortunately 
for both did not prove fatal, and then he beat and choked his 
wife — who wasn't even his wife legally — ^within an inch of her 
life. And then he married her and gave up his free love talk. And 
I know of any number of men who could j^losophize for hours 
about the disgrace and humiliation of being jealous, but who, as 
soon as there was a justifiable cause for jealousy, became as un- 
reasonable as a child and as jealous as any unlettered woman of 
Sicily ever was. 

Feelings, I repeat, are stronger than reason ; but that does not 
mean that feelings cannot be influ^iced by reason ; they decidedly 
can be and are so influenced, and their mamfestationi are modified 


by this influence ; and the more cultured, the more educated a per- 
son is (I trust you will know that I use these terms in their true 
and not their vulgar, misused meaning), the more will his feelings, 
or at least actions, be influenced by his reason. I am particularly 
a beHever in the effect on our feelings and actions of public opin- 
ion, of ideas universally or generally entertained. 

Let me give one example which is pertinent to the subject. In 
former days it was universally held, and in many places it is still 
held, that when a wife sinned she committed the most unpardonable 
crime that a human being could be guilty of and that she thereby 
dishonored her husband. And the only right thing for him to do 
was to shoot the rival and cast out the wife ; or at least to cast her 
out. This was a conditio sine qua non. To take her back to his 
home was a disgrace, a sign of unpardonable weakness, of degener- 
acy. Our ideas on the subject have changed a bit. A husband is 
no longer considered any more dishonored — in some strata of so- 
ciety at least — ^because his wife sinned than a wife is considered dis- 
honored because her husband sinned; and adultery in the wife is 
now, by most rational people, considered only different in degree, 
but not in kind, from adultery in the husband. These humane 
ideas have gained vogue only within a comparatively very recent 
period; but their effect has already manifested itself in a great 
number of instances. Forgiving the erring wife is becoming quite 
common. A number of cases have reached the newspapers. Re- 
cently a wife was implicated in a nasty scrape; her sin was not 
only unquestionable, but notorious; it was public property. The 
papers gloated over it. And nevertheless the husband stood by 
her and took her back into his home and arms. And the number of 
such cases which do not reach the newspapers is very, very much 
larger than the public has any conception of, larger than it would 
be safe to estimate. And in a large percentage of these cases the 
husband begins to treat his wife with more love, more consideration, 
and the tie between them becomes more firm, more permanent. 

Remedlbs for Jealousy 
We are all agreed that prevention is more important than 
cure. But when a patient comes with a fully developed disease it 
is futile to speak to him of prevention. It is too late to sermonize. 
What he wants and what he needs is a cure, if such can be had. 
What has preceded has reference chiefly to the prophylaxis of 
jealousy, to the prevention of the development of this disease in 
the future. 


The question is: Is there a remedy for this malady? Is 
there a cure for this horrible disease of jealousy? 

The conditions are extremely complex, and the remedy must 
be fitted to the circumstances. Let us assume that the husband 
neglects his wife and causes her to be jealous, not because he is in 
love with another woman, but because he is flirtatious, light-headed, 
feather-brained and inconsiderate. Such cases are in the great 
majority. Many husband^ who like or love their wives and who 
believe themselves secure in their love think it is quite proper for 
them to hunt for new conquests and to carry on petty love afi^airs 
with as many girls or women as they comfortably can. There is 
no question here about love — it is just flirtation or sexual relations. 
When this is the case the wife should have a frank and firm talk 
with her husband; she should tell him that she does not like his 
behavior and that it makes her unhappy. In many instances this 
alone will suffice to efi^ect a change in the husband's conduct. Where 
this does not suffice, where the husband is too egotistic and does 
not want to give up his little pleasures, then it is left for the wife 
to adopt the old and rather vulgar remedy. It is old and, as said, 
rather vulgar, but it has the merit of efficiency: it very of ten works. 
Let the wife adopt similar tactics, let her also flirt, let her go out 
and come back at uncertain hours, let her keep the husband guess- 
ing as to where and with whom she is. And nine times out of ten 
this, under the circumstances, fully justifiable conduct on the part 
of the wife will effect a quick and radical change in the conduct of 
the husband. He will be only too glad to cry quits. Some people 
are utterly devoid of imagination. They lack the ability of put- 
ting themselves in another person's place. Jealousy particularly is 
not a feeling which any one can understand without having ex- 
perienced it, unless he is endowed with the imagination of a great 
poet. And as few husbands have a great poetic imagination, it is 
only after they have felt the claws of the monster tearing at their 
own hearts that they can understand their wives' feelings, and are 
willing to act so as to save them — and themselves, of course — ^the 
cruel tortures. Many wives and many husbands have talked to me 
and written to me on the subject, and, as stated before, in nine 
times out of ten the remedy worked. 

But how about the tenth case? How about the cases where 
the husband is unable or unwilling to give up his outside flirtations 
and relations?. We, advanced sexologists, know that not all men, no 
more than all women, are made in the same mould, and what is 


possible or even easy for nine men may be very difficult or absolute- 
ly impossible for the tenth. We know that there are some men to 
whom an iron-clad monogamic relation is an absolute impossibility. 
The stimulation of other women — either the purely mental, spirit- 
ual stimulation or the stimulation of physical relations — ^is to them 
like breatii in the nostrils. In fact, there are some men whose very 
possibility of loving their wives depends upon this freedom of as- 
sociation with other women. They can be extremely kind to and 
love their wives tenderly, if they can at the same time associate — 
spiritually or physically — with other women. If they are entirely 
cut off from any association with any other wcnnan they begin to 
feel irritable, bored, may become ill, and their feeling towards their 
wives may become one of resentment, ill-will, or even one of hatred. 
This is not the place to talk of the wickedness of such men — ^thus 
they are made and with this fact we have to deal. 

What is the wife of such a man to do? Two lines of conduct 
are open to her — two avenues of exit. The line of conduct wiU 
depend upon her temper and upon her ideas of sex morality. But 
she ought to select the line of conduct which will cause the least 
pain, the least unhappiness. If she is a woman of a proud, inde- 
pendent temper, particularly if she belongs to the militant type, 
she will leave her husband in a huff, regardless of consequences. 
But if she is a woman of the gentler, more pliable, more supple 
(and I may also say more subtle) type, and if she really loves her 
husband, she will overlook his little foibles, peccadilloes and trans- 
gressions — and she may live quite happily. And the time will come 
when the husband will give up his peccadilloes and transgressions 
and will cleave powerfully to his wife, will be bound to her by bonds 
never to be torn asunder. / know of several of such cases. 

And I will take this opportunity to say that I have the deep- 
est contempt for the wife who, on finding out that her husband had 
committed a transgression or that he has a love affair, leaves him 
in a huff, or makes a public scandal, or sues for divorce. Such a 
wife never loved her husband, and he is well rid of her. And what 
I said about the wife applies with almost equal force to the husband. 

The Abandoned Lover. —Suppose A is intensely jealous of 
and deeply, passionately in love with B ; but B is utterly indifferent 
and does not care what A may feel or do. A and B may be married 
or not ; this does not alter the case materially. Suppose B, if un- 
married to A, goes off and marries another man, or, if married to 
-^9 goes off and leaves him; or suppose B does not love anybody 


else, but just remains indifferent to A's advances or repels him be- 
cause she cannot reciprocate his love. Unrequited love alone can 
cause almost as fierce tortures as the most intense jealousj. And 
A suffers tortures. What shall he do? What shall he do to save 
himself — ^to save his health, his mind, his life? For he is unable 
to eat, unable to sleep, unable to work, and he feels that he is going 
to pieces. He has lost his position and he is in danger of losing his 
reason. What shall he do to escape insanity or a suicide's grave? 
There is but one remedy. Let him use all his energies to find a 
substitute, I mean a living substitute. Mere sexual desire may be 
sublimated, to a certain extent, into other channels, may be re- 
placed by work, study, a hobby or some engrossing interest. A 
great unrequited love, with the element of jealousy present or ab- 
sent, cannot be replaced by anything else except by another love. 
And where as great a love is impossible let it be a minor love or a 
series of minor loves. When Groethe and Heine, two of the world's 
great lovers, were unable to walk in the broad avenue of a great 
iOve they would walk in the by-paths of a number of little loves. 

The common talk about a person being unable to love more 
than once In his or her life is silly nonsense. A man or a woman is 
able to love, and love very deeply, a number of times; and love 
simultaneously or successively. It is often a mere matter of oppor- 
tunity. I know that there are loves that are eternal ; that there are 
loves for which no substitute can be found. But these supreme, 
divine loves are so rare that among ordinary mortals they may be 
left out of account. They are the portion of supermen and super- 
women. Ordinarily a substitute may be found. The substitute 
love may never reach the intensity of the original love, it may never 
give full or even half-full satisfaction; but it will help to dull the 
sharp cutting edge, it will act as a partial hemostatic to the bleed- 
ing heart, it will soothe and anesthetize the wound even if it cannot 
completely heal it. And this is a valuable aid while the sufferer is 
coming to himself or herself, while the gathered fragments of a 
broken life are being cemented and while the cement is hardening. 
Yes, the man or woman who is in inferno on account of an unre- 
ciprocated or a betrayed love should lose no time in searching for a 
substitute love. I do not believe in people losing their health and 
their minds through suffering which does nobody any good. 

But I will go still further. Where a substitute love — great or 
minor — cannot be found, then mere sex relations may help to dimin- 
ish the suffering, to quiet the turbulent heart, to relieve the aching 


brain. As everything connected with sex, so our ideas about illicit 
sex relations that are not connected with love, are honeycombed 
with hypocrisy and false to the core. While purchasable, loveless 
sex relations can, of course, not be compared to love relations, still 
under our present social, economic and moral code they are the only 
relations that thousands of men and women can enjoy, and they 
are better than none; and in quite a considerable percentage of 
cases an element of romance and greater or lesser permanency do 
become attached to them, and they act as a more or less satisfactory 
substitute for genuine love relations. 

I am not spinning theoretical gossamer webs. I am speaking 
from experience — not from personal experience, but the experience 
of patients and ccmfiding friends. I could relate many interesting 
cases. One or two will have to suffice. 

He was twenty-six years old and a senior* student in the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York. He 
had been in love with and had considered himself engaged for four 
or five years to a young lady two years his junior. She was of 
course, the most wonderful young lady in the world, the whole 
world; in fact, there was not another one to be compared to her. 
She was unique ; she stood all alone. But for a year or so she was 
getting rather cool towards him; which fanned his flame all the 
more. And suddenly he received a note asking him not to call any 
more, nor to try to communicate in any other way. He did write, but 
his letters werp returned unopened. And soon after he read of her 
engagement to a prominent young banker. He nearly went insane, 
and this is used not in any figurative sense. His insomnia was com- 
plete, and resisted all treatment. When his pulse became very rapid 
and his eyes acquired the wild look that they do after many sleep- 
less nights, an attempt was made to administer hypnotics, but they 
had practically no effect. Chloral, veronal, etc., only made him 
"dopy," irritable and depressed, but did not give him one hour of 
sound sleep. His appetite was gone, now and then his limbs would 
twitch, and he would sit and stare into space for hours at a time. 
To study or attend the clinics was out of the question, and he did 
not even attempt to take the final examinations. The parents felt 
distressed, but were unable to do anything for him. The least at- 
tempt at interference on their part, any attempt to console him, 
to induce him to pull himself together, made him more irritable, 
more morose ; so that they finally left him alone. He was practically 
a total abstainer, but one evening he went out and came home 


drunk ; and after that he drank frequently and heavily. His par- 
ents could do nothing with him. One evening on Broadway he 
was accosted by a young street-walker. She had a pleasant, sym- 
pathetic face, and he went with her. Thai was his first seK ew- 
perience. Up to that time he was chaste. He met her SLgsin the 
following evening. Gradually a sort of friendship grew up be- 
tween them. She found out the cause of his grief, and with matern- 
al solicitation she tried everything in her power to console him, and 
he began to look forward to the nightly meeting with her. His 
grief became gradually less acute, he gave up drinking, which he 
disliked, and which he had taken up only to deaden his pain; he 
began to pull himself together, and in six or eight months he took 
over his last year in Colurjbia and was properly graduated. He 
kept up the friendship with the girl for over two years, when she 
died of pneum(mia. He was not in love with her, but he liked to be 
with her, as her presence gave him physical and mental comfort. 
It is possible that she loved him genuinely, but there was never any 
sentimental talk between th^n, and there was never any question be- 
tween them of the permanency of the relationship. They both 
knew that it was temporary. But he is absolutely oertain that 
but for one of th^ representatives of the class that is despised, 
driven about and persecuted by brutal policemen and ignorant 
judges he would have become a bum, or, most likely, he would have 
committed suicide — at the point of which he was several times ; only 
pity for his mother and sisters restrained him. 

And here is another case. A girl about twenty-eight years of 
age fell in love with a man four or five years her senior. The love 
seemed to be reciprocated, and they soon became engaged to be 
married. I To asked that the engagement, on account of oertain 
business reasons, be kept secret. She did not know the maR well; 
she had met him at several entertainments and church affairs and 
he seemed very nice. He always found some excuse for delaying 
the marriage, and after they had been engaged about a year he 
began to insist on sex relations. Though of a refined and noble 
character, she was of a very passionate nature and she did not offer 
much resistance. Many girls who would under no circumstances 
indulge in illicit relations, considering it a great sin, have no com- 
punctions about having relations with their fianc^. They lived 
together for about a year. They were together almost daily, ex- 
cept now and then, when he would go away for a week or two on 


business. Onoe he went away — and never came back. He wrote 
to her that their relations were at an end; that he was a married 
man and a father of children ; he had hoped he might get a di- 
vorce, but that now he had changed his mind and that she must 
forget him, etc. Everything was black before her. It cost her a 
supreme effort not to faint, and she was supported in this effort 
by the fact that when the letter came she was in the presence of 
friends; a terrible overpowering, all-inundating sense of shame 
gave her the strength not to betray her condition and her story 
before the world at large. But as soon as she was alone she 
collapsed completely. There was the most absolute insomnia imag- 
inable, complete anorexia, but the most distressing features were 
frequent fainting spells, severe palpitation of the heart and 
tremors. She had no love for the man — so she said. Her love had 
turned to hatred and contempt — but the jealousy was all-con- 
suming. Like a fire it was burning in her, searing her brain and 
her soul day and night. 

She felt that she was not strong enough to stand this physical 
and mental torture, and so she decided to commit suicide. As the 
means she selected gas. Fortunately, the smell became perceptible 
before the injury was irreparable. She was saved. But she felt 
that she could not stand the torture very long — and more than 
anything was she afraid that her mind would give way. She hud a 
special horror of insanity. And so she decided to make another 
attempt. This time with bichloride. Again she was saved. A 
friend of hers then got an inkling of the events that were trans- 
piring, and she introduced her to some gentlemen friends. They 
were nice people and more or less radical on the sex question. In 
order to drown her pain she began to go out frequently with that 
crowd, and to her surprise and delight she found tliat she soon 
began to think less and less about her contemptible seducer, and, 
what was more important to her, she was soon able to sleep. For 
about six months she led an extremely active, almost promiscuous 
sex life. But then she gave it up, as she felt herself normal and 
no longer in need of it. She is now happily married. 

I am through with this rather lengthy address on one of the 
most painful manifestations of human emotional Ufe. I repeat that 
I am aware that feelings are often stronger than reason; but 
saying this does not mean that feelings cannot be modified and 
held in check by reason. And I feel confident that a careful, opai- 
minded consideration of my remarks would aid in preventing a good 


deal of the misery of jealousy and in curing a certain proportion 
of it after it has found lodgment in the hearts of unhappy men and 
women. I consider jealousy, while it lasts, the cruellest, the most 
painful of all diseases. And therefore if this lecture should help 
a single man or woman out of his or her misery, I should feel fully 

Contributed to The AMtKiCAN Journal or Urou>cy and Ssxolooy 

By E. S. Shepherd. 

THE word normal and abnormal are constantly in our 
ears. One would suppose from the frequency with which 
we hear them, from the finality with which they close a 
discussion and are accepted as solving the problem, that 
our conception of them was sharply defined and thoroughly under- 
stood. When, however, we ask the speaker just what he means by 
normal we discover that he does not know. Usually he insists that 
the words are self-evident, not to say axiomatic. This muddleheaded- 
ness is particularly true of the words when used in reference to the 
sex impulse. Of course, everyone knows what is meant by normal in 
sexology, everybody, that is, who has survived in more or less 
complete ignorance of the vita sexualu of his neighbor — and often 
of himself. A brief survey of the definitions given will disclose 
that with the apparent exception of the ascetics — those who be- 
lieve asceticism to be an end in itself, a sort of super-virtue — there 
are about as many conceptions of normal as there are people who 
use the word. We may therefore examine first the ascetic concep- 
tion and then that of the more liberal school. 

The fundamental concept of asceticism is that pleasure is any- 
where and always unworthy of the spirit. By extension, or better 
by a sort of tolerance, pleasure of the spirit wholly untinged by 
any fleshly sensation (!) is permitted and, in contrast to the flesh, 
a merit. Naturally any obvious manifestations of the sex impulse 
are to be condemned. At best it is a necessary evil, — an inex- 
plicable blunder on the part of the creator. This is the old 
dualism which regards the spirit as something foreign, divine, 
dragged down pitifully by the gross material of the flesh. On 
such assumptions the definition of normal is apparently simple. 
Sex is for procreation only and a normal person allows himself 
only such exercise of the function as is absolutely necessary for 


the ecmtinuance of the race. This seems to mean that the exercise 
is restricted to coitus in one position, as brief as may be, devoid 
of passion, and the unavoidable pleasure is compensated by sub- 
sequent shame and penance. A doctor with a suitable syringe 
would be a distinct improvement in reducing the regrettable 
pleasure involved. The maximum of this kind of virtue is perhaps 
attained by those hysterics who regard sex as so disgraceful that 
they even hate their babies. Unfortunately these unhappy mothers 
have never appealed strongly to the world, they are not regarded 
as saints in distress nor even as particularly meritorious. This 
seems ungrateful on the part of humanity, but there is no help 
for it. It is evident therefore, that the world does not accept the 
ascetic conception of normal in any notable degree. 

As a matter of fact no one has ever accepted the whole of the 
ascetic ideal. It is humanly impossible and the result has been 
compromise and rationalizaticm. Prime among these is that notion 
that a certain amount of enthusiasm in coitus is essential to the 
besi conditions for impregnation. The concept is thus amended 
to allow pleasure in coitus which however must be limited to pro- 
creation. Then the Devil puts across that ancient notion that 
coitus must be continued throughout gestation in order to nourish 
the fetus. (This idea is by no means extinct even to-day.) We thus 
have the sexual relation extended over a considerably longer period. 
And so from compromise to compromise the structure tumbles down 
until it becomes what we all know, namely, that coitus is quite nec- 
essary, though shameful, if performed under whatsoever marriage 
customs happen to be in force in any particular community, while 
it is sinful and worthy of most severe punishment if it takes place 
under any other conditions. The final state is to pay lip service 
to asceticism, a lip service which is transmuted into particularly 
vicious persecution where the transgression of others is concerned, 
and a vita iexualis which permits any form of indulgence so long 
as it is carefully concealed. Normal is then defined in no way 
differently from the conception held by the less flamboyantly 

The apparent meaning of normal as understood by the rank 
and file of mortals limits sexual indulgence to coitus. This has 
the merit of simplicity until we enquire more closely. What do we 
mean by coitus? In how many of the half hundred possible posi- 
tions is it normal? What amorous play, titillations, and caresses 
are proper and therefore normal? How much may these by-plays 


be emphasized, to what limits carried? What of those '^splendid 
impudicities^ which shade off by infinite gradations into the per- 
versions? Lost again! If we are sufficiently ignorant of our fel- 
lows we may not feel lost, but we are. Brought to bay, we grasp 
the word average. 

What is an average anyhow? It is a mean between some 
degree of extremes. Even granting that it is possible to add up 
and divide merit and demerit, it is of little value to use such in a 
definition. Perhaps one who indulges in coitus only for procreative 
purposes is to be regarded as above average. Now in such a case, 
in what sort of disgraceful conduct may he indulge to bring him- 
self down to average? Doubtless a little sadism or other sudi 
perversity would serve. The more candidly one ponders this con- 
ception the sooner he will discover that in the last analysis we mean 
by normal, persons who do as we do. Behavior which does not 
please us, or is strange, is abnormal. The problem resolves itself 
ultimately into a question of taste. I am normal, and you are if 
you do as I do, otherwise you are abnormal. Allowance is seldom 
made for variations in the pressure of the libido while idiosyn- 
crasies are uniformly regarded with suspicion. These personal 
criteria are plainly shown on the faces of any group of men who 
are discussing the sex relation. One who has the confidence of a 
number of men soon discovers many who are practicing in mat- 
rimony one or more manifestations which are usually regarded as 
perversions. And such men may be healthy respectable oitieens, 
fine physical specimens, kind fathers and husbands. No one would 
be more distressed than themselves to learn what the books say of 
their practices. Thesjp things "just came to them" and they sup- 
pose that everybody is like that. Men with congenital hyper- 
sensitiveness of one or another group of sense organs will in pas- 
sion display quite different preferences in behavior. One cwr another 
erogenous zone will retain, or have acquired, what the older 
students would have called an abnormal sensitiveness. Unless we 
are determined to define normality by arbitrary standards which 
fit no one we may as well admit that the current concepti<m is 
wholly a matter of taste. 

We do not seem to be getting anywhere. The manifestations 
of the libido are infinite and one gets the impression that somehow 
the libido has lost its sense of direction. Suppose we try a dif- 
ferent method of approach to this problem. 

Let us cast aside the old dualism and postulate that man really 


is aa •"i">»li A coDectiQii at s jmbiotic odb. That is to assume that 
the spirit or psydie, whatever tain you |Mref«r» is a natural ex- 
pressifin of such odl aggr^pites. It is not a force warring with 
the flesh but an expression oi that flesh. Such expression will have 
its origin, its roots, in rath^ material needs. (For the encourage- 
ment of the timid reader one may say in passing that on these 
assumptions we judge an impulse or its expression not by the 
needful manure about the roots but by the fruits produced.) It 
is also necessary to remember that some of these roots are of rathor 
Tulgar origin. We distinguish sharply between the developed, 
complex ideal of duty and the natural motive. All animals, simple 
ot comjdex, respond to one natural motive: the search for pleasure 
and the avoidance of pain. And e^'en with our highly developed 
ideals of sacrifice and duty it remains true that the pleasure of 
having done what we believed to be right must more than counter- 
balance the pain involved or we do not do it F(Nr the roost part 
we follow the pleasure impulse and subsequ«itly derive ethical 
reasons for our bdiavior. This will presumably be true of roan in 
his early stages of devekqfMnent quite as rouch as it is to-day» with 
the reservation that with fewer abstract conceptions he was doubt- 
less a bit more candid. 

Starting then, with these assuroptions in mind we may assume 
that if there is or was such a thing as a normal man, primitive man 
i^hould meet those requirements. From what we know of the 
animals, of primitive tribes, and of ourselves for that matter, the 
primitive male was merely a sperm-bearing animal. He had no 
other essential function. That this function should not be neglected 
we find it combined with the most intense pleasure of which an 
animal is capable. He did and still does find some pleasure in 
playing with his offspring though the origin of this habit need 
not have had a more elevated origin than Uie necessity of keeping 
an eye on his mate. One would hardly assert that paternal duty 
is even to-day taken any too seriously, I do not say solemnly. 
Other than the primitive urge which drove him to impregnate the 
female at any risk whatever, there was, other than a certain 
initiative which seems masculine, nothing in the male which need 
have stimulated the development of spirituality. With enough 
strength and cunning to fill his belly, subjugate a female, and 
defend his lair, he required nothing more. 

"Dfl* ercig weihliche zieht wns hinan'\ not because the female 
was crazy about culture, but because her functions were better 


discharged under a more social and sociable organization. Unlike 
the male whose relation to his offspring is purely casual, the fe- 
male is both physiologically and emotionally tied to her child. The 
physiological basis of this relation to the child is shown in the 
separation of her sexual sensations into a number of erogenous 
zones. For her the pleasure urge does not stop with impregnation, 
it continues through gestation and lactation. This arrangement 
insures that the female's pleasure shall be centered about the child 
for several years. By that time mental associations have developed 
which guarantee a continuance of interest. It seems socially 
significant that should her child be taken from her she will adopt 
any child for purely physiological reasons. In this phenomenon 
lies one of the roots of that social interest, collective motherliness, 
which is so important to the later development of society. 

However that may be, we get as a type of normal two pleasure 
loving brutes whose entire energies were used up in nutrition and 
reproduction. It is probable that they had no table manners and 
that the act of procreation was not unduly extended. Among such 
creatures we might properly speak of normality, because the 
psyche was relatively simple and life was a very busy one. With 
increasing cooperation the problem of getting food became less 
insistent. The food supply became regular instead of seasonal 
thus setting free a modicum of energy which had to find some out- 
let. Then came that misfortune never sufficiently to be regretted 
by the ascetic : man lost his periodicity. Since he could not devote 
all his energy to procreation, it was turned toward substitute 
gratifications, art and science. And it is worthy of note that even 
at this day these sublimates, especially art, show numerous vestigial 
phenomena which prove their origin to have been in the creative, 
that is, the reproductive impulse. The development of civilizations 
seems to mean a progressive feminization of the primitive male. 
Qualities, the germs of which were indicated in mother love, have 
been incorporated into the psyche of the male. Denied its primitive 
freedom and in large measure diverted to substitute gratifications, 
it should cause little surprise if the libido frequently loses its sense 
of direction on the physical side. For while a goodly portion of 
the libido may be sublimated, it must be remembered that there is 
always a residuum which demands physical release. Small wonder 
if in the development of greatly increased sensitiveness of all 
perceptual organs, and in the muddle of concealment, this portion 
of the libido which demands physical release should often settle 


upon some single phase of the process of contrectation as its 
complete and final method of detumesence. 

We are dealing with a disintegrated libido, and it is like a 
bewildered bird in a curio shop, one can never tell upcm what 
grotesque it will ultimately perch. It may settle down on a statuette 
of Venus or it may be upon a Chinese sandal. If as usually happens 
the libido finally settles upon coitus we call the person normal, 
though the definition must include so many variations that it 
means but little. Furthermore we know many men of genius who 
were insatiable seekers after women without any intentions of a 
procreative sort.' Are not such to be regarded as pseudo-normal? 
There is in such cases a tremendous libido which requires a 
phenomenal amount of gratification and has hit upon coitus as its 
method of detumesence, but in its results and purposes it can 
hardly be distinguished from the equally egoistic performances of 
the pervert. 

It seems, then, that neither from the traditional nor from the 
biological standpoint can we reach any satisfactory definition of 
normality. We may speak of average without however implying 
anything more significant than current notions of respectability. 
Ultimately we see that methods of contrectation and of de- 
tumesence are personal matters, matters of taste, which are little 
or no concern of the public as a whole. Only where procreation, 
or the rights of the individuals concerned come in question, are the 
methods of detumesence of any importance to the community. Such 
argument obviously applies in some measure to the peculiarities of 
the perverts, but their case can well wait until we get humanity 
reconciled to coitus. It isn't now. Not really. If we are to speak 
of normal at all, it must be with the definite understanding that 
the limits are much wider than we ordinarily suppose. It is easy 
to tell mid-day from midnight, it is not easy to distinguish late 
afternoon from early evening. 

We conclude that not in the phenom^ia themselves, not in 
particular acts, but in the social values resulting lie the only 
honorable standards for judgment. A normal pair of poverty 
stricken may beget a dozen hopeless babies in the most approved 
manner with results wholly bad from a social point of view. A 
Liszt may have a hundred mistresses and no children with results 
quite worth the shock to our prejudices. Normal? There is no 
such thing, if it be not the primitive male ; and if any such animal 
appeared among us he would be incontinently jailed. 

Translated for The American Journal of Urology and Sexology. 

Bt Pbof. Db. Med. R. Kafeicann. 

E are all familiar with the celebrated passage from Plato : 
"Human a£Pairs certainly are not worthy of any great 
efforts, but nevertheless, it is necessary to take them 
seriously. This, of course, is not pleasant, but since we 
are here, it behooves us to do it in a sane suitable manner." (Plato, 
Leg. 803 B.) Exactly the same is true of the sexual functional 
disturbances of the celebrated man of culture. They seem to be 
worthy of no consideration, but — ^alas! — in reality they are very 
important. They lower a man's self-esteem and the esteem of 
others — if the infirmity has become known to larger circles. Th^ 
meanness of those others knows no limits: insinuations, stupid 
jokes, gossip and dissection at the beer table, etc., complete the 
work of the inward bruising and crushing within a short time. 
And the unfortunate one experiences the terrible truth expressed 
by Juvenal: that misery makes one ridiculous. 

And whence this strange phenomenon that sexual impotence 
provokes ridicule while the near sighted, the awkward and the 
feeble generally are not laughed at on account of their infirmities? 
The answer is: because since millions of years men have infected 
with the childish illusion that they have done something remark- 
able, yea, something meritorious if they have impregnated a 
woman. Singular over-valuation of this primitive faculty of 
which the one-cellular living beings are already capable! Peculiar 
inability of men to recover it after they have lost it! Strange 
self-deception of so many who play with their tin marks and think 
they are gold pieces. Everybody seeks the imaginary jewel. 

The frequency of those sufferings in the civilized world is 
enormous. If one has worked in this field with the interest of the 
sexologic investigator like myself, if one has at his disposal a 
staff of intelligent and interested female fellow-workers who have 
to make investigations in a large circle of their lady friends, one 

Translated from "Illusionen, Irrtumer und Fahrlassigkeiten im Lseberie- 
ben der Menschen." 



must become convinced that there are cultural influences which — 
without debilitating the reproductive faculty itself — the potentia 
generandi weaken or disturb the desire, the libido. 

My experience agrees entirely with those of other investiga- 
tors. I want to quote two of the most prominent ones: Freud 
and Fiirbringer. 

Freud writes: "All men who have induldged in masturbation 
or other perverse sexual practices, that is have gratified their libido 
under abnormal conditions and abnormal situations, manifest in 
marriage a diminished virility. Also women who could only pre- 
serve their virginity by resorting to similar practices show them- 
selves anesthetic in matrimonial intercourse. A marriage entered 
into when the contracting parties suifer from a diminished capa- 
city for love will break up quicker than any other form of union. 
On account of the man's low viriUty the wife can get no sexual 
satisfaction ; the wife in whom education has developed a tendency 
to frigidity which might, however, have yielded to powerful sexual 
stimulation, remains totally indifferent. Such a couple encounters 
more difficulties than a normal couple would, in trying to prevent 
conception, for the man's lack of strength does not make it con- 
venient for him to use preventives. Under such unfavorable 
circumstances intercourse which only appears to be a source of 
unpleasantness is finally given up and thereupon marriage loses 
its raison d'etre. 

Experts will testify that I am not exaggerating and that 
I am only describing conditions which can be observed in a multi- 
tude of cases. It is hard for the uninitiated to believe how few 
men there are who possess their full viriUty and how many women 
are frigid, both being under the tyranny of our cultural sex mora- 
lity which often necessitates renunciation for both husband and 
wife, and to what small extent marriage procures the happiness 
so ardently longed for. That under such circumstances the next 
step 16 a neurosis, I have already mentioned." 

Ftirbringer writes: "We must not forget that woman cer- 
tainly is not the worse o£P by a coitus interruptus than by an un- 
interrupted cohabitation which does not lead to the natural or- 
gasm. And this happens quite frequently. And we leave out 
of ocmsideration the enormous freqtiency of the various forms 
of ejaeulatio praecox of modem man. Lowenfeld says very cor- 
rectly that the majority of women must be contented with a very 
scant measure of conjugal sexual satisfaction." 


Science has been able to master numerous forms of sexual 
insufficiency, endeavoring to distinguish them etiologically and 
clinically and to define them terminologically. 

The great discussions on Masturbation held in the Psycho- 
analytical Society of Vienna, in 1912, and in the Medical Asso- 
ciation of Sexual Science of Berlin, in 1913, show what impor- 
tance is attributed to these conditions by prominent physicians. 
Much intellect was employed in those numerous discussions. They 
all were eager to seek and to find truth and they found it. Accor- 
ding to my opinion, the truth is as manifest as the day. 

We know already, that those secretions of the testicles which 
excite the libido and determine the "internal," i.e., the secondary 
sex characters, are already formed before the vehicles of pro- 
creation, i.e., the spermatozoa, have reached maturity. 

Here we meet again with one of those disharmonies of nature 
which occur so frequently in sex life: namely potentia coeundi 
without potentia generandi, while in old age we have potentia 
generandi without potentia coeundi. The boy suddenly discovers 
his libido by accidental play — or by playful accident — or by seduc- 
tion. As by a revelation, he feels something which shakes his 
inmost being, which siezes him with an exquisite thrill, a quiv»- 
ing running to the very ends of his toes. This boy is not yet a 
masturbator. But living matter forgets nothing. There are new 
tensions and the desire — an excessive longing for the supreme sen- 
sation establishes itself. As soon as the boy conjures it up into 
existence by conscious acts he has become a masturbator. 

Systematizing science distinguishes between prepuberal, 
puberal* and postpuberal masturbation. These are scholarly 
terms, but the state of affairs is simple. 

Boys with a strong erotic disposition frequently commence 
at an early age, i.e., before puberty is reached. The "puberal" 
IS the so-called physiological masturbation. The impelling ur- 
ging of the life- juices, their pressure to unload themselves is an 
attendant phenomenon of this stormy period of adolescence. If 
continued until after puberty is reached, it is called postpuberal. 
The latter seems to be the rule among the wealthy middle-class, 
because the boys who are watched too well, generally — ^there are 
exceptions — have neither the courage nor the energy to conquer 
the lap of which their sex organ is so much in need. 

And now a series of physiological and psychcdogical possi- 
bilities commences which reciprocally influence one another. Ab- 

♦ Wc may say, puberal or pubertal 


stinence begins with the suppressioii of the procreatiye iiiBtinct; 
the strug^ between the natural impulse and the prevailing cul- 
tural sex morality and its consequences arises. These are bound 
to prove lamantabk for the man as wdl as — at a later period — 
for the womito who expects from him the satisfaction of her desires. 

Woman's body becomes to man something visionary and his 
ardent imagination ravenously tries to readi her. She appears 
to him as if she was enveloped by a doud of incense and clothed 
with transcmdental beauty. Reality is smothered. Out of a 
plethora of fancies, imagination invests woman with dbarms which 
are denied to her by nature. More and more he shirks truth and 
seeks falsdKMxl; he forsakes the bubbling spring of life to seek 
recreation in the illusive mirages of the desert. 

And Nietzsche's word which was bom out of the depths of 
a longing soul and applied to his Superman, becomes true in re- 
gard to those unfortunates : ^Wherever I did not find what I wan- 
ted, I had to obtain it artificially .** 

This is the ^sexual crisis'* whidi Crete Meisel-Hess describes 
with so much truthfulness and warmth in her beautiful book ; this 
is the sexual calamity of hundreds of thousands, the graveyard 
of a joyful sensuousness, the bankruptcy of an entire life. He 
becomes a Masturbator — a masturbator in act or imagination, 
but not a Man ! 

And why? Because mankind Ukes to submit to laws which 
are enacted by a minority of persons who are frigid congenitaUy 
or from excesses; because mankind aUows this minority to attack 
their genitals, as Karl Krause bluntly but truly has said. 

In by far a happier position are the boys of the lower classes, 
in the country as well as in the city. Every experienced physician 
is well acquainted with the fact that those boys enjoy normal sex- 
ual intercourse from their early teens. This fact must not be 
first ascertained from the investigations of the pastors Wittenberg 
and Hiickstadt. I am well informed about the sexual life of 
some plain boys whose development from their sixth year of life 
I had the opportunity to study. 

A handsome, healthy boy of 16, with whose mother I am 
weU acquainted, began a lively courtship with young girls for 
whom he spent some pennies occasionaly. The thrifty mother 
asked me for advice. As I knew that a 9H year old female-friend 
whose virginity was no longer in danger of being lost, lived with 


her I told her to induce her friend to catch the overflowing stream 
of vitality and so to prevent the boy frcHn committing follies. 
No sooner said than done. After a few weeks I enquired and was 
astonished to learn from that older female-friend that the boy was 
already an accomplished love artist. He controlled his organ with 
perfect mastery and adapted it with the greatest delicacy to the 
wants of his friend, he performed the love act always with the ob- 
servance of the most appropriate forms and exhibited an aston- 
ishing maturity in sexual comprehension. He renounced volun- 
tarily a repetition of the act the execution of which would have 
been easy to him, and laid the greatest stress on a harmonious and 
mutual termination of the performance. Now the youth is 18 
years old and an industrious, good-natured, earnest, modest fellow 
who does not use liquor. He is much sought for by young women 
with whom he comes in contact frequently on account of his pro- 
fession; they pester him with love letters; he does not care for 
them and throws them aside without even reading them. 

It is a common symptom of the human a£Pections to value 
immoderately that which is denied. This is true particularly of 
love. Our youth enjoyed the colossal luck to be in the position of 
radiating peripherally his sexual desires in a normal manner. 
He was not obliged to suppress his desires by central ideas, in 
an anarchic succession of imaginations and thereby to weaken them 
in their inmost being, as it is the case with millions of other 
young men. He also did not have to take his "first lessons" from 
prostitutes, love's beasts of burden who seem not to be fit to pre- 
pare a young man for "the most difficult task a man can under- 
take, to accustom a virgin to an act of which even those that are 
best informed do not surmise all the peculiarities, to awaken in 
the new senses all their dormant resources and to draw from chas- 
tity a new voluptuous enjoyment" (Blum). From my account 
the reader will recognize that I am an unconditional supporter 
of the doctrine which is so masterfully presented by Max Marcuse : 
Abstinence continued for a longer period, produces the most serious 
consequences for health in general and the sex functions in par- 

How different is the picture of the masturbator of action 
or of imagination ! He breaks down miserably if he is put before 
the task of gratifying the sexual desires of a woman. How could 
it be otherwise? Over-stimulated nerve-ending, over-stimulated 
centers in the spinal cord! The habit. of exciting the sexual de- 


sire by ideas, instead of by the proper stimulus : a woman's body ; 
hence, the natural reaction fails to appear; guilt — and anxiety 
feelings as the results of inappropriate reading and of unreason- 
able advisers, a psychogenic state of depression which is caused 
by affectively exaggerated ideas, expectaticm — and disappointment 
neuroses after the occurrence of a **fiasco*% etc, etc. Further 
an abundance of organic disturbances on account of the prece- 
ding irrational behavior, as the seminal emissions caused by the 
atony of the smooth muscular fibres of the ejaculatory ducts, 
nervous disturbances of the heart, etc. Indeed, how shaU the hard 
task be fulfilled by such a patient whose imagination got used to 
the anticipation of that which would and might be? How should 
he not feel tired when he sees himself face to face with reality? 
This collapse must be distinguished from the sudden failure which 
occurs frequently in entirely normal and sexually potent men, 
and which Stendhal calls the "Fiasco.*' The literature of mem- 
oirs is full of instances of this kind. Petronius already describes 
it in his "Satyricon." Montaigne writes of an extraordinary 
d^faillance" (failure) which occurred at a most inopportune mo- 
ment to one of his companions. Similar anecdotes are told of the 
Count de Guiche, Counts de Saint Paul, Pons, Saint-Maurice, 
of H. Mondon who was well-known to the whole army and who for 
three successive days did not succeed with the young and beautiful 
Countess Roller. 

Let us return to our sex invalids. In spite of external ad- 
vantages, those unfortunates are disabled for courtship often for 
their whole life and find themselves face to face with a burden- 
some future. If they had the misfortune to meet unintelligent 
physicians they resign themselves to their fate after a few unsuc- 
cessful treatments. 

And what injudicious "cures" do we find! Specialism and 
quackery contend for the prize of ineptitude. 

I had the opportunity to observe hundreds of cures with 
negative and only a few with positive results: Electricity in old 
and new forms (high frequency, etc.), water used generally or 
in the urethra and rectum, general and local massage (massage 
of the prostate with the finger or instruments), iron, arsenic, 
bromides, etc. ; electric cauterization of certain spots of- the ure- 
thra, because one thought that one was obliged to establish an 
etiological connection between the functional disability and certain 
insignificant local lesions which were regarded as morbid, while 


they were caused by a wrong mode of life which was to be changed 
first, before those symptoms could be removed; treatment of the 
urethra with steel sounds of different sizes inaugurated SO years 
Ago, by Ultzmann ( Vienna ), one of the foremost pioneers in this 
field to whose lectures I listened with pleasure. I obflerved only 
modest results from this treatment, while better results were pro- 
duced, in mild and recent cases, with the psychiophore of Win- 
temitz. First of all, the question as to the most apiHt>priate 
specialist for the treatment of these troubles might be justified. 
The answer cannot be doubted for a moment: The neurologist or 
the physician for internal diseases who is well aquainted with the 
modem methods of examining the urethra and with the psychic 
methods of treatment. These conditions are also of great Interest 
for the rhinologist because there exists a very close connection 
between the nose and the sex organs. The rhinologist is not in 
the least uncertain about the importance of that connection and 
can furnish a rich clinical material to the physician who is inter- 
ested in sexologic questions. 

The symptoms of sexual disorders in the male are exceedingly 
manifold. The experienced physician diagnoses the characteristic 
individual symptoms and seizes them at on<3e, while the unex- 
perienced practitioner, unable to perceive at once the most impor- 
tant and characteristic points, dwells on general symptoms and finds 
but with difficulty the road to a cure. But the proper treatment 
is really an easy task for the physician who is wdQ acquainted 
with the inner nature of those sufferings. By the course of the 
evolution of the disease nature shows us the way which we must 
choose. While it commenced in the physical it ends in the ethico- 
psychological realm, in a state of mental depression which exer- 
cises a powerful reaction upon the physical condition and deteri- 
orates the latter. Here we will recognize at once where the lever 
is to be applied and the conviction of the importance and neces- 
sity of the psychic treatment will prevail. All feelings of anxiety 
and guilt must be crushed radically and methodically. With sug- 
gestive power the conviction must be implanted in the mind of the 
patient that the function of the sex organs is momentarily dis- 
turbed on account of wrong living, but that nature for meta- 
physical re€isons, [?] has endowed him with such an enormous 
power of resistance that he will triumph easily over all such dis- 
turbances as soon as the road to recovery is cleared. 

If this suggestion was successful, the treatment can be started 


at <Mice. This c<msists in a complex of different measures, because 
in the organism there is no part without a correlation with all 
other parts. But let this be said at once : as Dr. Lipa-Bey stated 
very accurately, the treatment of such patients is a difficult task 
which can be accomplished by a physician who is at the same time 
a good man. The sexual invalid is the most pitiable of all patients. 

In the gratification of the sexual desire man sees the supreme 
moment of life, its choicest blossom and fragrance, the ^^holiest 
miracle of nature.** Life stands before him cold and stale if he 
sees himself deprived of the ability to acquire it. His innermost 
being is painfuUy contracted as often as an opportunity arises 
which shows him his impotence. Ever deeper and deeper that 
secret suffering gnaws at his soul which finally recoils in a state 
of hopeless melancholy. His idea as to the importance of sexual 
intercourse is so overwhelmingly powerful that the privation of 
it appears to him as a great misfortune. Treatments which were 
unsuccessful because they were carried out by inadequate methods, 
put distrust into his soul. This distrust must be overcome first, 
before one can think of leading back nature unto the right road. 
There can be no leadership without confidence in the leader. I can 
not undertake the task of treating this immense subject here fully. 
I can give only aphorisms and I beg the reader to be satisfied 
with fragmentary hints. The first thing that is needful is the 
encouragement of the patient and the transformation of his idea 
of the complaint. Great tact and the ability to place oneself into 
the sphere of the ideas of other individuals, is the first but, at the 
same time, not the last thing. I may produce the most convin- 
cing proofs, nobody will believe me, if he does not feel that my 
statements are true. The greatest love artist will think himself 
incapable of the sex act as long as he has not experienced the con- 
trary. Until then too often he finds himself hitched and chained 
to unhappy connections; when he surveys in a solitary hour the 
years of apprenticeship of his virility, he will not be able to do 
it like Julius, in SchlegePs "Lucinde** : "without many a smile, with 
some sadness and with sufficient self-satisfaction." As it is of 
some importance to extirpate the paralyzing fixed ideas as soon 
as possible and as one succeeds here very seldom by encouragement 
alone, it is necessary to make use of auxiliary means, of certain 
chemical remedies which are called aphrodisiacs.... 

According to the present state of science and experience, 
sexual abstinence may be and frequently is a source of somatic 


injuries. Max Marcuse (Berlin) has demonstrated this fact in 
such an elucidating, convincing, unsurpassable and, at the some 
time, warmhearted and hiunane manner that I may well refrain 
from bringing up this question again. It is hard to believe what 
comical errors and illusions prevail regarding this subject. 

Often I was asked by husky young f eUows whether one single 
coitus performed once every week would be harmful to them. On 
account of timidity and scrupulosity these strange men reduce 
the amount of their normal sexual activities excessively and thus 
become awkward and depressed. For metaphysical reasons, [?] 
nature has equipped no other organ of the human body so lavishly 
as it has the genitals. W(hen we believed we had overstepped 
the allowed limits, we had in reality not yet arrived at them. But 
I want to emphasize this point: The sensuality of young men is 
like unto the foaming sea which inundates the coasts and tears 
them to pieces, and like unto a mighty liquid elem^it which deter- 
mines will and choice. Only the habit of an activity within a fixed 
and wisely adjusted measure can assign a limit to its strength. 
If we go to work with a prudent intention, by practice we create 
a norm: the inner sensual life and the violently whirling physical 
force will soon be coerced to be in accord with that norm. We 
place a dam in their way which the surging waves of passion 
cannot overflow. Moderate training: — that's all. 

Demanded by the very nature of all living organisms, it is of 
no use of cowardly trying to go out of its way; but it behooves 
us well to control wisely the desire for an immoderate satisfaction, 
which is a splendid accomplishment of our perfection, provided 
that we succeed — and we succeed always if we will. 

The necessary requisite for training is a woman. But it is not 
easy by any means to find the right person who is perfectly adapted 
to our purpose. This problem must be regarded as one of the 
greatest importance by everybody who got so thoroughly acquain- 
ted, like me, with sexual needs, as, e.g., from those of the student, 
from his own experience; from the reports of companions of the 
same age and, later, from young friends. The worst makeshift is 
the intercourse with prostitutes, those caricatures of love; from 
them the young man will never learn how to ennoble and beautify 
the practice of amorous intercourse. Prostitution is one of the most 
difficult, most serious and mightiest problems of mankind. It 
ought to engage the attention of everybody whose interests are 
not enclosed by the narrow circle of his profession. 


Prostitutimi is not a harmless diversion but an ugly ulcer 
of the living organism of the nations. He who had intercourse 
only with prostitutes, does not know that only the girl or woman 
who is fervently devoted to a man, is able to reveal to him the 
mysteries of organic generation. These beasts of burden of love 
know nothing of that supreme animation of the inmost ardor 
and passion, which takes hold of the entire female and at the 
same time of the male organism ; they know nothing of the wonder- 
fully accumulated power, the exalted inner life which, in the amo- 
rous union, distinctly and perceptibly radiates on the body of the 
man. I cannot warn enough against the prostitutes. The sex- 
ologist Iwan Bloch, of Berlin, recently has published a monumen- 
tal classic work, which is easy to understand and interesting from 
beginning to end and furnishes a profound and original ex- 
position on that sociological manifestation. Whosoevier wants 
an exhausting elucidation on one of the most important physio- 
logical manifestations of mankind ought to study this splendid 
book. According to Bloch, it is a form of the Dionysian Kenosis 
and is to be found among all nations in an organic connection 
with the use of narcotic and stimulating substances. Those econ- 
omic relations which appear already early are of a secondary 
character and originally not elements of its nature. The entire 
modem organization and differentiation of prostitution has its 
origin in ancient classic times. The antique sex ethics which still 
prevail to-day and the system of a double standard of morality 
are necessary products of the public morals of typical slave states 
where, besides slavery, the contempt of wcHnan, of individual love 
and of labor were factors which encouraged the formation of a 
?ridely ramified system of prostitution. He does not think that 
it is a necessary evil which could not be extirpated. Unfortunately, 
man is under the metaphysical coercion of change, he is carried 
away by it, bound up with it (merged into it) and gives undis- 
puted sway to it. If by its own meditation and the enlightenment 
furnished by others, the individual has recognized it as such, he 
will endeavor to chain it and to render it harmless. What do 
these impulses mean, this pressure into the wide expanse, into 
senseless polygamic relations! 

Of every newly caught maiden — ^it does not matter how in- 
ferior she may be — they swear by everjrthing that is sacred, that 
thqr possessed never anything lUce her. Of finer, but in reality 
not very great differences they make walls on which foolishly they 


build the edifice of their imagined happiness. This polygamic 
craving — at least in many cases, — ^seems the more ridiculous as it 
is by far not in the right proportion to the capacity of its object. 
Grete Meisel-Hess is perfectly right, in her beautiful book "The 
Sexual Crisis,*' she says: "This is another lie, that polygamy is 
more suitable to man than polyandry to woman. The contrary 
is nearer to truth. For man must put up his best efforts to satisfy 
one woman while a woman, without any physiological efforts, can 
satisfy several men. In his proposition of Tetragamy, Schopen- 
hauer has emphasized this fact. It is bitter to hear women utter- 
ing such truths into the possession of which sooner or later by 
his own and mostly painful experiences every mature man must 
come if he is not hopelessly fettered by foolish illusions. In court- 
ship many men want to keep in eye the cult of elegance; they 
sacrifice large sums which are out of proportion to that which they 
received. The disdain of simplicity is one of the greatest sex 
stupidities of men. Velvet and silk does not matter in love; the 
main thing consists in a fine adaptation and mutual harmonization 
by which streams of an intoxicating happiness wave through the 
bodies of both. It is easier to find among the lower classes the 
woman who, blessed by the ray of love which fell into her womb, 
is ready to offer the highest good which is in her possession.'' 

Lily Braun is right: "Woman's true genius consists in her 
inspiratory capacity, in the ability to enthuse and to fecundate 
men spiritually." Yet, it would be a pernicious error to seek 
only am<mg the paid women of the silken upper layer the capacity 
of psychic fermentation which has its source in the beneficial in- 
fluences of inner secretions. I could enumerate dozens of men of 
genius who got their inspirations from wmnen of low birth. Who- 
soever yields to prostitution, impoverishes in every regard, while 
the love of the girl of the people may become a ferment whidi 
stimulates body and mind of the man and effects his spiritual 
growth and lifts him up. I reach the following conclusion: 
Medical science is not poor of remedies for those patients to whom 
our last chapter was devoted; but nature is richer. Whosoever 
returns to her — sooner or later — will be tenderly received by her 
and he will be cured by woman's love. Prostitution which can 
only produce a nauseating effect — in whatever form it may make 
its appearance — has so little power to perform the task that one 
might call it sooner the hangman of the balance of virility which 
was left. 


I am at the end of my discussion. I hope that I haTe given 
elucidations which must produce immediate results for morality. 

An existence which consists in nothing else than in the per- 
formance of duties is the greatest misfortune which can befall a 
man. Live according to the Koheleth and the Carpe diem of 
Horace! Ferrero's words in regard to this poet are a warning 
Menetd^el for our time. In opposition to the generally prevailing 
inclinaticm f(^ luxury and high living, Horace is fond of calling 
atta[iti(Hi to his simj^e habits, his love for country life and his 
proud independence; his opponents and critics in the camp of the 
puritans he could challenge by saying : My deeds talk louder than 
your words! 

Whosoever wants to live according to nature shall build hi^ 
house in the country and not in the city. 

We hear of the differences of opinions between him and his 
toiant who sedcs work in the capital where the always open doors 
of the taverns and sporting houses exercise a magic diarm upon 
him. How can one harbor the illusion that it is possible to re- 
accustom the independent and free citizen to the rural life, if it is 
so difficult to keep the slaves at their task to plough the soil? 
(to fetter the slaves to the rural dod)? We come to know them 
aU — ^the stigmata of an over-ripe civilization — the craving for 
acquisition, by which all classes are affected, immoderate omceit, 
inclination tor luxury and high living, and that aimless activity 
whidi we designate by the word **nervous restlessness** — the stre- 
nua inertia of Horace. — ^May Heaven protect us against poets 
like Propertius and Tibullus who under the invocation of the God 
of Love and with the aid of Christian authors started that anti- 
militaristic propaganda whidi finally took the arms out of the 
hands of the Empire and made it defenseless against the barbar- 
ians. It is a shame if a man like Propertius sings that no earthly 
good could outweigh one night passed in the arms of his Cintia. 
Cintia was his family, his country, his (mly delight now and in 
sascula 8«culorum. The highest ethical conception known to us 
is still and wiU be for a long while yet the idea of the state, the 
Fatherland, the idea of the honor and the liberty of the people. 
I have irrefutable proof for the fact that at the present time 
this idea is disappearing and that the Propertian mode of feeling 
is spreading like a corroding ulcer. 

Videant Consules! — ^let the consuls look out that things take 
another course lest some day we succumb to the (mslaught of the 

Translated for The American Journal of Urology and Sexology. 



By De. L. Fraenkei^ Breslau. 

UNDER normal conditions not many cases of infections 
from gonococci come under the observation of the gyne- 
cologist whose patients are chiefly married women; a by 
far greater number is represented by doubtful, suspicious, 
residual cases and chronic inflammatory adnexal swellings whi<^ 
apparently were caused by gonorrheal infection. Noeggerath and 
Saenger were the first who called the attention of the gynecologists 
to the clinical aspect of the after-effects of gonorrhea, as the 
anamnesis of formerly healthy girls who immediately aftar mar- 
riage begin to suffer from dysuria and yellowish-greenish dis- 
charges which leave stiff stains in the underclothes. These symp- 
toms are followed by abdominal pains and inflammaticm of the 
oviducts and ovaries with adhesions and recurring attacks of pel- 
viperitonitis. The vulva shows red spots with flea-bite like hyper- 
emic foci, principally around the outer meatus of the thid^oied 
and swollen vaginal gland ; there is often a narrow and very red 
erosion around the os uteri; the oviducts have either entirely 
degenerated into abscess cavities, or the extreme portiott of them 
shows a thickening. Even if all these symptoms are present the 
practitioner will be often on the wrong track if he diagnoses gon- 
orrhea <Mi the basis of the anamnesis and the clinical findings of 
suspicious cases. Only cases in which the presence of gonococci 

is demonstrable are of scientific value. In time of peace only frmn 
three to four cases per year came under the writer's <4>servation. 
The patients belonged, as a rule, to certain classes: they were the 
wives of commercial travellers, cattle dealers, butchers, oontimctors 
and waiters. Besides the particular philosophy and habitual in- 
fidelity of those husbands, which, of course, may also be found 
among other professions, a certain psychic ccmdition on the side 
of those women seemed to be a contributory causative factor: 
namely, they often were females of a somewhat dull, naive, indol- 
ent, unemotional disposition. During a long continued treatm^it 
the writer was able to observe that those women did not bother 

Zettschrift z. Bekampfung d Geschlechts krankheiten, 1916, No. 7. 



themselves very mueh about their husbands ; they did not attempt 
to find out the cause of their aihnent; even when they had heard 
hubby's escapades they judged them very leniently and were only 
too willing to grant him liberties which they did not claim for them- 
selves. They bore the continual absence of their husbands with 
great equanimity. They frequently were sufferers from sexual 
frigidity; this defect was probably one of the causes of the hus- 
band's infidelity. The writer had been a year at the front, and 
after his return he was so much occupied in the lazaretto that he 
found scant time and opportunity to devote himself to his gynecol- 
ogical practice. From among the few women who consulted him 
diuring the first months, ten gonorrheics came under his observa- 
tion, which means a considerable increase. Four of them were 
the wives of officers who had been for some time in Belgium or 
France; two husbands were officers of the reserves who had re- 
turned from Russia and were on furlough; two patients were 
the wives of commercial travellers; one was the spouse of a rich 
cattle dealer; one, the wife of a workingman. All the men who 
were not with the troops, were under special medical treatment. 
The last four cases were typical of those which come under obser- 
vation in time of peace; the six others were connected with condi- 
tions caused by the war. The two officers of the reserves had 
found life behind the front very tedious. The one who was some- 
what dissolute fell in the clutches of a Polish girl and then he 
forced his more solid friend into sexual intercourse by a surpriset 
namely, he put the girl in his friend's bed. One of the older men 
related very ruefully that shortly before going on furlough he 
had been unable to resist the enticements of a prostitute. With- 
out the slightest idea that he was infected he came home and 
cohabited with his wife. As soon as he noticed that he was infected 
he brought his wife to the physician for examination. But it 
was too late for arresting the gonorrhea. One of the men who 
had infected his wife once before tried now to make her believe 
that he was not suffering from a newly acquired disease, but an 
old case had broken out again. The third officer had been infected 
before the war. The fourth was not seen by the writer. He has 
not had one case in which a married woman had acquired gonorrhea 
from another man during the war. He has heard that the number 
of abortions was on the increase because the women wanted to 
remove the fruits of illicit intercourse, but he has not seen such 
cases. He got the impression that extramatrimonial intercourse 


and the carelessness with which domestic relations are defiled is 
by far more frequent among men than among women, and more 
frequent during war than in time of peace. Most of the conjugal 
gonorrheas are acquired by men. This experience which can be 
made everywhere is easily explained. During many months, under 
the storm and stress of war, the man has neither opportunity nor 
inclination to satisfy his sexual appetite; but behind the front, 
being well cared for and nourished and rendered callous by the 
brutalizing influences of the war, he yields to temptation. His 
ethical conceptions undergo a transvaluation, and the firm arc 
dragged down with the weak. Yet with women it is quite differ- 
ent. Their cares and duties are so increased that they have neither 
time nor desire to become frivolous. The allurements at home are 
not great since the more vigorous men are either absent or over- 

However, the most important difference is to be found in the 
weaker libido of woman. According to the writer's estimation, ten 
per cent, of the women are either frigid or at least only slightly 
sensual (10 per cent! 25 to 85 is nearer the mark. — ^Ed.) When 
the husband is sick, or for a longer time absent, and in widows, 
the sexual desire even in formerly normal women becomes dormant. 
The writer states that he knows this for certain from conversa- 
tions with sensible women. The libido which is not aroused by a 
wrong education, friends, looks, or by a pathological disposition 
is a res incognita for a virginal female, or, at least, it is diffuse 
and lies buried deep in her subconsciousness. The libido in woman 
must be aroused by sexual intercourse and by the voluptas which 
is inflamed by cohabitation. 

Here is a fundamental difference between men and women 
in regard to their sexual life by which those deplorable phenomena 
observed during the time of war can be explained, but not excused. 
Hie writer sees one of the most serious problems in the dangers 
from severe injuries to which a married woman whose infected 
husband returns from the war, is exposed, not to speak of the 
decrease and deterioration of the progeny resulting from it. In 
conclusion : If our appeal to the ethical feelings will find no response 
in the hearts of men, we have to resort to prophylactic measures, 
similar to quarantines, or to an enforced treatmentt like Taccina- 
tion. Such procedures will bring about a change in sexual mat- 
ters and they should be imposed upon the men who return from 
the war. 



IT was feared the war with its attendant evils, as the closing of 
factories and stores, the hi^ {mces of the necessities of life« 
and similar conditions, would drive many young girls to pros- 
titution as a means of livelihood. Judge Rupprecht, of 
Munich, reports (Zeitschrifi f. Bekampfung d. Geschlechtskrank' 
heiten^ 1916, No. 7) that these apprehensions have not come true, 
at least not acccMtling to the conclusions which he was able to 
draw from the activities of the Juvenile Court of Munich. Also in 
the cities Augsburg, Wiirzburg, and Ludwigshafen, a decrease in 
the nimiber of youthful prostitutes has been stated, only Nurenberg 
showed an increase of 15 cases during 1914, and of 25 during 1915. 
From 1909 to 1911, the Juvenile Court of Munich passed sentence 
upon 88 young prostitutes, which means about 29 per cent. Eleven 
of them were less than 15 years cdd ; 26 less than 16 ; 51 ranged 
between 16 and 18 years. The number of domestic servants and 
factory hands was greater than of those employed as helpers in 
saloons and stores. In 1918, the police brou^t before the Juven- 
ile Court 26 young girls, who were accused of being prostitutes ; 
in 1914, 12; and in 1915, 15. One might be inclined to attribute 
this decrease to the smaller number of policemen on duty during 
war, but Judge Rupprecht points to the fact that in spite of this, 
the number of other youthful delinquents has more than doubled 
during this period. Fourteen young girls received sentences for 
being prostitutes. Only one of them was under 15, all the others 
were over 16, and the majority of the latter were over 17 years 
old. Domestic servants were again in the majority, the shop girls 
came next ; there were only 2 factory hands, and 1 barmaid. The 
same observation was made as in the period from 1909 to 1911 » 
namely, girls bom in lawful wedlock were in the majority. This 
phenomenon is to be explained by the fact that illegitimates are 
under closer surveillance frcwn the side of Juvenile Protective Agen- 
cies. The causative factors which brought those girls before the 
Juvenile Court, were those of normal times, namely, seduction, nat- 



ural inclination, and frivolity. JVfost of them had venereal diseases, 
a fact which is always demonstrated by investigations made among 
very young prostitutes, while infection in older courtesans is of a 
less frequent occurrence. In spite of the fact that the war has so 
far not yet driven larger numbers of young girk into commercial- 
ized vice, Jugde Rupprecht sounds an earnest note of warning and 
cautions the Public Welfare Associations not to slacken in their 
efforts to protect the innocence of young girls. The writer relates 
that the Juvenile Court has sent condemned girls to their parents, 
or found places for them in homes, whenever there was hope of 
success. He expresses his gratification at being able to extol the 
successful activities of the organizations whose object is the protec- 
tion of women, girls and children. A new Refuge Home has been 
erected where many a wayward girl has been placed who was in 
danger of yielding to the temptations of the street. In energetic 
efforts to support these institutions and help them along after the 
war. Judge Rupprecht sees a task of first importance. For after 
peace has been declared, millions of men will return and replace 
large numbers of girls and women who hitherto held profitable 
positions. The result of this will be that by lack of honest work 
more girls will be driven into commercialized vice than while the 
war lasted. 


We may even go a step further and say that in considerable 
measure wrong-doing is still conceived rather magically than ethic- 
ally. Take, for example, the case of sexual intercourse. It is 
hardly too much to say that for the average moral consciousness 
this is still held to be sanctified by marriage as by the removal of 
a taboo, so that neither the production of children without means 
to maintain them, nor the indulgence of physical passion without 
psychical love, is strongly condemned when covered by the ceremony. 
On the other hand, the woman who breaks the taboo uncovered bv 
the ceremony is stamped once for all with the scarlet letter, without 
regard to the question whether she was the experienced temptress 
or one whose fault was merely to have loved and trusted too much. 
She is marked, tabooed. Though condemned most loudly by the 
self styled ^^moralist," the condemnation of her, in nine cases out of 
ten, is not really moral, that is to say, based on a rational view of 
her character and its potentialities for good and evil, but magical, 
based on a supposed bad quality, acquired once for all by the 
breach of a taboo, in view of which she is a piece of damaged goods 


in the social market. And like all magical qualities, the taboo is 
eminently infectious, and all respectable women are seen gathering 
their skirts about them to avoid that contact with the offender which 
would communicate the stain to themselves. — ^Prof . L. T. Hobhouse 
in **Mordls in Evolution.** 



No woman of calm and elevated mind has ever felt any sense 
of injury or affronted honor in consequence of the sexual admira- 
tion of a man. Why should a tacit homage paid to the irresist- 
ible nature of her feminine charms be regarded as offensive.^ The 
accessory phenomena of desire may, indeed, deprive desire of its 
innocent aspect; but the desire per se cannot render sudi homage 
off^Mive. No woman can prevent a man longing to possess her. 

— Robert Michels. 

As the human race progresses in civilisation, the amatory life 
becomes more refined, the intensity of sexual enjoyment increases, 
and love comes to play an ever greater part in the life and thoughts 
of Bumkind. — Robert Michels. 



Here is the last part of a chapter from Erewhon. The chapter 
describes the results of a fanatic who preached abstention from 
meat and of the stringent laws which were enacted. 

** Young people were told that it was a sin to do what their 
fathers had dcme unhurt for centuries; those, moreover, who 
preached to them about the enormity of eating meat, were an un- 
attractive academic folk, and though they overawed all but the 
bolder youths, there were few who did not in their hearts dislike 
them. However-much the young person might be shielded, he 
soon got to know that men and women of the world — often far 
nicer people than the prophets who preached abstention — con- 
tinually spoke sneeringly of the new doctrinaire laws, and were 
believed to set them aside in secret, though they dared not do so 
openly. Small wonder then, that the more human among the 
student classes were provoked by the touch-not, taste-not, handle- 
not precepts of their rulers, into questioning much that they would 
have otherwise unhesitatingly accepted. 

*'One sad story is on record about a young man of promising 
amiable disposition, but cursed with more conscience than brains, 


who had been told by his doctor that he ought to eat meat, law or 
no law. He was mudi shocked and for some time refused to comply 
with what he deemed the unrighteous advice given him by his 
doctor; at last, however, finding that he grew weaker and weaker^ 
he stole secretly on a dark night into one of those dens in which 
meat was surreptitiously sold, and bought a pound of prime steak. 
He took it home, cooked it in his bedroom when everyone in the 
house had gone to rest, ate it, and though he could hardly sleep 
for remorse and shame, felt so much better next morning that he 
hardly knew himself. 

^^Three or four days later, he again found himself irresistibly 
drawn to this same den. Again he bought a pound of steak, agam 
he cooked and ate it, and again in spite of much mental torture, 
on the following morning felt himself a different man. To cut 
the story short, though he never went beyond the bounds of 
moderation, it preyed upon his mind that he should be drifting,, 
as he certainly was, into the ranks of the habitual law-breakers. 

*^A1I the time his health kept improving, and though he felt 
sure that he owed this to the beafsteaks, the better he became in 
body, the more his conscience gave him no rest 

*^The poor boy continually thought of the better class of his 
fellow students and tried to model his conduct on what he thought 
was theirs. "They," he said to himself, "eat a beaf steak? Never.** 
But the most of them ate one now and again, unless it was a 
mutton chop which tempted them. And they used him as a model 
as much as he did them. "He," they would say to themsdves, 
"eat a mutton chop? Never." One night, however, he was fol- 
lowed by (me of the authorities who was always prowling about in 
search of law-breakers, and was caught coming out of the den 
with half a shoulder of mutton concealed about his person. On 
this, even though he had not been put in prison, he would have 
been sent away with his prospects in life irretrievably ruined; he 
therefore hanged himself as soon €is he got home." 

The satire continues through a chapter where another prophet 
shows that eating vegetables is as cruel as eating meat — as Steven- 
son says : "The vegetarian is only an eater of the dumb," — and the 
moral arguments against meat are logically quite as true in the 
case of plants. This chapter closes: — "One would have thought 
that the dance they had been led by the old prophet, and that still 
madder dance which the Professor of Botany had gravely, but as 
I believe insidiously, proposed to lead them, would have made the 
Erewhonians for a long time suspicious of prophets whether they 


professed to have oommunications with an unseen power or no; 
but so engrained in the human heart is the desire to believe that 
some people really do know what they say they know, and can 
thus save them from the trouble of thinking for themselves, that 
in a short time would-be philosophers and fad<fists became more 
powerful than ever, and gradually led their countrymen to accept 
all those absurd views of life, some account of which I have given 
in my earlier chapters. Indeed I can see no hope for the 
Erewhonians till they have got to understand that reason tt/n- 
corrected by instinct, is as bad as instinct uncorrected by reason.^* 
Perhaps you had best read the whole book and then read the 
Way of all Flesh and discover how exceedingly cruel a certain 
oonmuMi type of loving parent can be. 


All the members of our race, men and women alike, are subject 
in the course of their development to the most diverse tendencies, 
and experience the most varying needs. Thus, the adult differ 
from the adolescent, the old man or woman from the adult. The 
whole personality changes; modes of thought, temperament, and 
often occupation. There is no man of note, concerning whose life 
we possess adequate details, who is found to be ^^always the same.** 
St. Augustine, Luther, Napoleon, Bismarck, to name no more than 
a few celebrated figures, changed and rechanged in various es- 
sentials. Among the matters in which change is most extensive, 
the sexual life is pre-eminent, and this not merely in persons of 
note, but in normal, ordinary, average human beings. As the needs 
vary from epoch to epoch in life, so also varies the complex of 
demands made by man from woman and by woman from man. 
There are moments, if not periods in life, in which the sum of the 
demands made by one sex from the other is reduced to the single 
great and fundamental demand of sexuality. All that either sex 
seeks from the other is its own coimterpart. Le sexe cherche le sexe. 
For many reasons it is unwise to attempt the solution of the prob- 
lem by a simplified formula which yields everything to instinct. 
Our present aim, however, is not to moralise, but to analyse. At 
SMch moments or periods of simple but intense cerebral activity, 
decisions are apt to be taken whose effect may be to impose fetters 
upon the whole subsequent period of life. Marriage has been 
termed the libertine's last resort. Where a man can find no quicker, 
less costly, and more convenient means of attaining sexual pos- 
session of the object of his desires, he is forced, if these desires 


reach a certain intensity, to enter the path of marriage. We must 
be careful, in this direction, not to generalize too freely ; but such 
cases are common enough. In view of this, we cannot but admit 
that the alleged sanctity of marriage is somewhat impaired. As 
regards the frequency of the cases in which the uncontrolled vigour 
of the impulsive life is the effective determinant to marriage, we 
have to some extent a measure in the frequency with those who 
are overjoyed during their betrothal prove unhappy during mar- 
ried life. To be "in love*' affords no kind of guarantee that love 
will endure; in many cases it renders it probable that love 
will perish. The lovers see nothing beyond the moment in which 
their lives are to be joined. When that moment is passed* the 
marriage has attained its end. All that remains is a piece of 
paper — and a gulf often impassable between the sentiments and 
the intellectual interests of husband and wife. 


The "Idealism of Solitude," so higlily praised by some, is 
nothing but melancholy nonsense. Even a complete hermaphrodite 
would not know what to do with himself. Every human being is 
cut out for duality at least. The boast of being able to live alone 
is riddled by the book the hermit takes to his cell. For by the 
company of sublime minds with whom we can converse at every 
hour we want to, we compensate for the absence of the most illust- 
rious society. A hundred good books constitute an Areopagus in 
which we preside while others are allowed to talk only when we ask 
them. This is no solitude by any means. But without books! — 
Geo. Hirth. 


Virginity and marriage are social institutions, adapted, like 
all customs and institutions, to the average type. 

In the opinion of Dr. Arthur D. Dunn {St. Paul M, J., Dec. 
1916)9 the seriousness of syphilis as the cause of heart failure is 
not suflSciently appreciated by the profession. The writer observed 
a number of cases in which aortic insufficiency, angina pectoris, 
and "causeless" heart failures were of S3rphilitic origin. The en- 
ergetic use of salvarsan combined with mercurialization was follow- 
ed by rapid improvement in general health and a gradual disappear- 
ance of the cardiac symptoms. The writer declares that every case 
under sixty-five years of age whose symptoms can be referred to 


the heart or aorta, should be investigated for syphilis if the etiology 
is not absolutely clear, and even in the absence of a positive Was- 
sermann should be given the benefit of the doubt. The writer ad- 
vises the lavish use of the Wassermann test and a long ccmtinued 
treatment. He gave twenty-eight doses of salvarsan and neosalvar- 
san with abundance of mercurial inunctions to one patient before a 
negative Wassermann test was obtained. 



**Who has not seen a well-known picture representing the 
Thames Embankement at night, and the ^Sinfortunate,** possessed 
of an improbably angdic face, being taken from the river, with 
the gentleman and lady in evening dress, who have just got out of 
the cab, in the foreground, the gentleman with ostentatious cal- 
lousness — brute that he is ! turning away and lighting a cigarette, 
and the lady — gentle creature! — ^bending over the dripping form 
and throwing up her arms in sympathetic horror? It is by clap- 
trap of this sort, both literary and artistic, that sentimental 
feminism is both evoked and nourished." — ^Ernest Belford Bax. 

In Grermany an organization has been formed with the object 
of "safeguarding the soundness of present and future generations." 
It has sent out a number of leaflets to the military forces, on such 
subjects as alcoholism, venereal diseases, and the need for a high 
birth-rate. In Berlin a society has been organized with similar ob- 
jects. Its program includes prevention of infant mortality, educa- 
tion in motherhood, rural colonizaticm and similar indirect methods 
as well as more direct propaganda. It will have nothing to do with 
"lukewarm researches and half-measures!" 

Psycho-Sexual Gleanings. 


At an early period in the history of Japan there was a power- 
ful, social purity movement. Drastic laws were enforced to pro- 
mote chastity and continence. Like all such schemes, the crusade 
utterly failed. A reaction followed this attempted reform of sexual 

"All creative artists are intensely attuned to the sense of 
beauty, and this hypersensitiveness, coupled with the vitality that 


so often accompanies strong intellectual power, induces amorous 
preoccupation. Goethe and Heine were bom amorists." 

^^Prostitution is inseparable from the system of monogamous 


Dementia in individuals is less frequent than the collective in- 
sanity which at times manifests itself in groups, parties, nations. 

Human existence is a tragedy with the dignity of tragedy 
taken away. — Schopenhauer. 

The eugenic ideal is not an artificial product, but the reasoned 
manifestation of a natural instinct. 

It is in a decline of the birth-rate that the most promising 
omen exists for the happiness of future generations. 

Civilization excludes a high birth-rate ; there has never been an 
exception to this biological law. ' 

Galton looked forward to the time when the eugenic care tor 
the race may become a religion. 


Monogamy is a conventional fiction rather than a social fact. 

Sexuality is the center and nucleus of life The 

rising intellectuality and morality of love is a sign that the energies 
of the race are becoming exhausted. .... The sexual morality 
of the altruists, as it leads to infecundity, is a sign of degeneration, 
for it represents the greatest effort to free one's self from animal- 

ness The natural morality of free love is the morality of 

the Egoists. Such a love is favorable to the fundamental interest 
of the species, as it represents its continuity by means of its strong- 
est champions. Those who declaim against sexual love 

have not been bom for it — On the Tracks of Life, The 

Immorality of Morality^ by Leo. G. Sera. 

An increase of muscular strength does not signify by itself 
alone an increase of organic vigor. — Leo G. Sera. 

Asceticism poisoned sexual love. It did not die of it, but de- 
generated into vice. 


Tlie Tirhie of diastitj owes its origin to pnqpoiT. Our minck 
fall so feadfly under the spdl of such ideas as chastitj and purity. 
Tliere b a mass of real superstition on this question — a belief of 
a kind of magic in purity. But, indeed, chastity had at first no 
ooonection with morals. The sense of ownership has been the 
seed-plot of our mcNral code. To it we are indebted for the first 
germs of the sexual inhibitions which, sanctified by rdigion and 
supp(»ted by custom, hare, under the unreasoned idealism of the 
common mind, filled Ufe with cruelties and jealous exclusions, with 
suicides, murders, and secret shames. — Mas. Gaiojchax. 

Sesnial functions hare just as little to do with morality as 
ihe functions of nutrition. C<msequently, the gratification con- 
nected with them, or the desire for that gratificaticm or the idea 
of it cannot be sinful. I do not call chastity the mere disuse of 
sex functions, but their use according to what the ancients called 
castitas, that is their regulation according to duty and reason. 
Moderate gratificaticMi is not only harmless but necessary. — 
Father Kahl Jentsch. 

All great intellectual and moral creations are bom of passion. 
Indifference is not fecund ; there is n6 harvest for the lukewarm.-'^ 
M. M. Manoasarian. 


Hysteria is by no means an unmitigated evil The 

hysterical woman is often attractive, mentally and physically; she 
is sensitive, affectionate, impulsive, vivacious and variable. Most 
of the saints, heroines, martyrs, artists and poetesses have been 
more or less hysterical. Many eminent men have also exhibited 
symptoms of the hysterical tendency. — ^Waltee M. Gallichan. 


Thais> the Athenian courtesan, who lived at the time of 
Alexander the Great and accompanied the latter to Asia, died at 
70, without ever having abandoned her profession. Ninon de 
Lenclos (1616-1706), the Parisian courtesan, remarkable for 
beauty, intellectual culture and perfect evenness of temper, began 
her career at 16. During her long life she had many lovers. 


among them some of the greatest names of France. At 80 she 
still had glossy black hair as in youth, white teeth, bright eyes, 
full form, and excited a violent passion in the abbe de Chateauneuf , 
a youth of 20. She died at 90. 


Continence is for the average man to be deprecated as 
directly producing an uncleanly habit of body, usually accom- 
panied by an uncleanly habit of mind, if nothing worse. — E. B. 



Asceticism has invariably proved the parent of hypocrisy and 
corruption. Our watchword must be, "Let us be natural P* If we 
are destined to become angels, the wings will grow in their own 
good time. — E. B. Bax. 


"Half-breeds, off-spring of masters and slaves, are partic- 
ularly intelligent and vigorous.*' — Anatole France. 

"Those that are happy have little joy." — Anatole Francf.. 


The feminist: — "The hand that rocks the cradle rules the 

The old-fashioned man: — "An empty cradle?" 


"To give life is in some cases more barbarous than to give 
death." — ^Alexander Dumas. 


The sins which the thief and the murderer commit are 
assuredly less evil in their result than the sin of irresponsible 
parentage. If this unceasing crime against the unborn could some- 
how be stopped, there would be so great a reduction of all othw 
sins that we might well be freed from many laws. — Mrs. Gal- 


Love never perishes of want, but often dies of indige8ti<Mi. 
Love comes with a shiver and ends with a yawn. 



"There is stupidity in this feminist movement, an almost 
masculine stupidity of which a well-reared woman — who is always 
a sensible woman — might be heartily ashamed .... Woman must 
be preserved, protected, cared for, and indulged, like some delicate, 
strangely wild, and often pleasant domestic animal." 


Our sexual morality is in reality a bastard born of the union 
of property morality with primitive ascetic morality, neither in 
true relationship to the vital facts of life. — Havelock Ei^us. 

Letters to the Editor 


Dear Doctor Robinson: — Mrs. Fisher and I recently 
entertained a medical missionary who has had a long service in 
Korea. In an address he referred to many singular customs and 
to some things that interested me as a physician. I showed him 
the article in the September Journal of Urology entitled **When 
Is Coitus Most Likely to Result in Conception", as bearing on the 
determination of sex. He said this was known to the Koreans for 
centuries, and that they were able to positively declare the sex of 
the developing child during the third month. He has four 
children, all of them bom in Korea. The first three were 
daughters, and the Korean friends commiserated with him on his 
ill- fortune each time when the wife was in the third month. At 
last the boy was on the way, and all the natives began to con- 
gratulate him on the coming of "a precious one.*' He then in- 
quired into how they prognosticated so early, and was told that 
the pregnant woman had a coarser cast of countenance in the case 
of a male child. He said he had tested the indication th(Ht>ughly 
over 16 years and in many thousand cases without a single 


Since our conversation I have reviewed the cases I can clearly 
remember, and find that the rule holds good in my experience also. 
Licidently I know an elderly lady living on the Mendocino Coast 
who enjoys a considerable reputation as a sex prognosticator, 
whom I believe to be guided by this rule. 

I suppose this is an old story to you, but thought it might 
be of interest to some of your subscribers. 

With praise and appreciation of the work you are doing in 
the interest of a freer and more normal, and therefore more whole- 
some and moral life, social, moral and economic, I remain, with 
every good wish for your usefulness and blessing. 

Sincerely Yours, 

Rev. J. MsLviLLE Fuhkk, MJ). 

P. S. — ^The doctor thought the coarsened faces was probably 
due to the effect of the beginning secreticMi of the differentiated 
male sexual glands. J. M. F. 


We hear this phrase often uttered and written by ascetic old 
maids, and quack lecturers before Y. M. C. A.*s, who would not be 
allowed to tell the truth even if they knew it. One might be 
pardoned for assuming that so long as all other organs and glands 
in the body besides the sexual and generative, must be used in some 
way for perfect physical and mental life, that nature did not make 
an exception. But let us assiune that it is not a physical necessity 
to have sex life, and that perfect physical and mental living are 
possible without it. If I hold that it brings me great pleasure and 
happiness, then the burden of proof is on others that I must not 
have it. I could, for example, live a perfect life and never ride in 
an auto. Those who would gainsay me, must show that tangible 
harm would result to the community, my neighbor, or myself, or 
else leave me to live my life as I see fit. 

S. Reid Spencer, New York. 

Vol Xm. MARCH. 1917 M 

The American 

Journal of Urology 

and Sexology 


The American Pmctitioiia 



? *' »u ' . • 

Chronic Constipation of 

Elderly Persons b paHkmknk 

•moiaUe to die lubricatmg actkm of INTEROL9 because widi age, diere k 
apt to be a decrease or cetsadon of natural lubricant in die gut. The mucus- 
follicles are often atrophied or even absent, so that di^ caiuiol supply die 
iry lubrication. 

INTEROL» in such cases, serves as die next best lubricant to Nature's 
own lubricant — mucus — and supplies, widiout die irritation of castor oO or 
cathartics, die lubrication necessary to die easy passage of feces through the 
bowd. It is just as slippery in die sigmoid and rectum, as in the colon. 
INTEROL has an a]l-die*way action. 

INTEROL is a pariicahr Iffnd of "mineral oU." and is not "taken from ^ 

m barrels as the test of them : (I ) there is no discoloration on the HtS04 test — 

absolute freedom from "lighter" hyorocarfaons. so that there can be no renal disturb- 
ance; (2) no dark discoloration on the lesd-oodde-sodium-hydroodde test — absolute 
freedom from sulphur compounds, so that there can be no gastro-intesdnal disturb- 
ance from this source; (3) no action on litmus — absolute neutrality; (4) no odor, even 
when heated; (5) no taste, even when warm. The elderly person can "take** INTEROL. 

Pint bottles, dfuggists. INTEROL booklet on request; also literature 00 "Chronic Constipa- 
tion of Eklerly Persons." 

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Sterik Ampmla on Be«ae«t 

ig^ H. K. Mnliord Company flf 

rUlmimlphim, C. B. A. C- ^-* 

Copyright, 1017. by Dr. William J. Robinson 


Subscriptions and all eommunications relating to thg busmsu or sditorial 
department, esrekanges, and books for review, should be addreued to THE 
AUBRICAN JOURNAL OP UROLOGY, 12 Mt. Morris Park West, New 
York City. 



Dreams: Their Structure, Meaning and Interpretation. By Samuel 

A. Tannenbaum, M.D 97 

Woman's Alleged Physical and Mental Inferiority. By Dr. Pramr 

Schacht 114 

Uausual Wet-Nurses. By Ploss-Bartel!^.- - -.- 124 

0«c Man's Sex ITistory. By H. H. H 131 


•r. Johnson on Sex Equality - - 135 

Extragenital Chancres. Dr. H. N. Cole - 135 

Courtesans and Prostitutes. Geo. Hirth - 137 

Coitus Interruptus and Prolongatus 138 

First Pregnancy Too Soon. Robert Michels 138 

Differences in the Degrees of Consciousness of Sexuality. Weininger 139 

Avoid Sudden Initiation into Sex Mysteries. Robert Michels 139 

Misogyny — 141 

Should Mrs. and Miss Be Discarded? Robert Michels 141 

Liberators Come from the Non-Oppressed. Robert Michels 142 

Famous Men of Small Size 142 

Cranial Conformation of Immigrants to the United States. Jean Finot 143 

Cranial Changes. Jean Finot 143 

Differences in the Sexual Impulses. Weininger 143 

distribution of Masturbation - - 144 

Sex Irritability of Woman. Weininger 144 

The Purity of All Love. Lester F, Ward - 144 

Moral Codes. L. F. Ward - 144 

Published monthly by the Urologic Publishing Association, 
12 Mt. Morris Park West, New York, N. Y. 


Uncontrolled Breeding 




A G>ntribution to the Study of Over-Pop* 
tilation as the dtise of War and the Qikf 
Obstacle to the Emancipation of Women 


Widi an Introduction by Arnold Bennett and a 
Preface and Notes by Dr. William J. Robinson. 

AH those Interested in the Birth Control Movement will 
want a copy of tliis book. 

h makes an excellent supplement to Dr. Robinson's ''Birth 
Control or The Limitation of Offspring by the Prevention of 

It contains inaportAnt facts, figures and references and fur- 
nishes excellent ammunition to the friends of birth control, 
by tlie aid of wiiich they will have no difficulty ^in defeating 
Its enemies. 

Price $1,00 





Vol. Xm. MARCH, 1917. No. 8. 

For Tbx Amskicam Jouutai, or Uiouwy and SKxouxiY. 


Their Structure, Meaning and Interpretation. 

By Samubl a. Tannenbaum, M.D., New YoRk. 

[Begun in January UiU€.'\ 

Dream MateriaL— It would be utterly impossible to enumer- 
ate all the different kinds of material that enter into the compo- 
sition of a dream. As we have seen while discussing the latent 
content of dreams, this material may emanate from any sphere of 
the individual's psychic activities. The more one studies a dream- 
er's free associations the more does one realize that every dream 
contains allusions to or echoes of some idea that has flitted across 
the mental horizon during the twenty-four or thirty-six hours 
{the dream day) preceding the dream. These recent mental ex- 
periences may be of any nature, fears, hopes, loves, hates, anxieties, 
reflections, accidental impressions, small talk, chance remarks, sen- 
sations, etc. Neurotic persons are very apt to find in their dreams 
reminiscences of their day's fantasies, of the castles in the air they 
were building while they were at work or walking along the 
street. In women these fantasies are almost always of an erotic 
(amatory) or religious nature, and in men, of an ambitious, erotic 
or criminal nature. Thoughts about one's ailments, especially if 
this happens to be a neurosis, and about one's attitude to one's 
associates, his relatives, his physician, his employment, his country, 
his reUgion, etc., are reproduced in a great many dreams. These 
recent psychic impressions or experiences are reproduced in the 
manifest dream faithfully as they occurred, or in a more or less 
grotesquely distorted form, but in every case they are of great 
significance either in themsdves or by association. The dreams of 



adults never deal with trivialities. A recent, apparently insignifi- 
cant incident that recurs in a dream usually, or perhaps invariably, 
gets there only because directly, indirectly, or symbolically it is a 
fit representative of an underlying thought of great importance, 
and it is chosen by the dreaming psyche for this purpose because 
of this fitness. This is exactly parallel to the displacement mechan- 
ism observed in some of the psychoneuroses ; an indifferent idea, 
acceptable to the moral consciousness, is chosen as a substitute for 
a repressed idea. 

Besides these trivial and unnoticed incidents of the dream-day 
very many dreams contain fragments of long-forgotten incidents 
from early childhood. The latent content almost always contains 
reminiscences of the drecuner's early life, such as his infantile 
sexual theories, his sexual transgressions with his parents, brothers, 
sisters, or associates, his ^^family romance,'' his quarrels, loves, and 
hates, his escapades, his thoughts about his parents and all sorts 
of matters connected with them, his attitude towards other members 
of his family, his criticisms of his elders, his youthful aspirations, 
and so forth. All these live on in the unccmscious forever and 
constantly influence our waking and sleeping thoughts. 

Sensory stimuli that reach the brain from within or from 
without the body unquestionably play a considerable role in many 
of our dreams. But the frequency and the importance of these 
somatic stimuli as dream provokers are neatly exaggerated by 
most modem dream critics. Freud is undoubtedly right when he 
insists that these sensations are woven into the fabric of a dream 
in exactly the same way as any other psychic material and only 
if they fulfil certain conditions, that is, if they are adapted to 
serve as representatives of repressed complexes. In corroboration 
of this conclusion he points out that somatic stimuli play no part 
in day dreams, that many dreams show no trace of being in the 
least influenced by somatic stimuli, that even in experimental dreams 
such stimuli may be wholly ignored by the dreamer, that a dreamer 
may be conscious of a somatic stimulus but pay no attention to it 
as far as the dream is concerned, that the sleeper may be awakened 
by a sufiiciently intense sensation, that the dream is often incon- 
sistent with the perceived sensation, and that the sensation rarely 
appears in the dream as such. It is no doubt true that whether 
and in what form a somatic stimulus will appear in a dream, de- 
pends wholly upon the character and motive of the dream itself. 


Dream 9. — ^A man who had committed a technical crime, 
dreamt that he was visiting his yawnger brother in prison; it was 
ijisiting day and many people were there; he felt a desire to urinate 
smd his brother directed him to the urinal; while he was emptying 
his bladder a beU rang and his brother told him that this was the 
signal for the visitors to depart but that he might stay. He 
awoke with a full bladder and heard the ringing of the alarm clock. 

Explanation. — ^The guilty, imprisoned brother is the dreamer 
himself; the brother is the scapegoat as he often had been in his 
childhood. The crowd of people signifies a secret, the opposite of 
a crowd being nobody. The dreamer hopes that nobody knows 
anything about his crime. The dream fulfills the dreamer's wish 
to urinate, to do away with the necessity for awaking for that 
purpose. The desire to continue to sleep is also fulfilled in the 
idea that the bell is not the alarm clock and that he does not have 
to leave the prison in response to the ringing. Being in prison is 
a functional symbol for being asleep. The dreamer and his young- 
er brother used to sleep together in childhood and in adolescence ; 
and when he wet the bed, as he often did, he always tried to put 
the blame on his brother. The idea of wetting the bed is a 
symbol for committing a punishable offence. The dream means: 
*I need not awake to pass water; I have already done so. It is 
not the alarm clock that is signalling me to awake. It was my 
brother, not I, who committed the crime and I can go on sleeping 
peacefuDy.' The brother also symbolises the dreamer's urinary 
organ which he used to blame for his incontinence. The dream 
also encourages the dreamer to urinate by taking from him the 
realization that he is in bed. 

The Dream Inciter.- The more one devotes himself to the 
careful scientific analysis of dreams the more does he realize that 
in every dream there lurk reminiscences of some apparently trivial 
and perhaps almost wholly unnoticed act or thought of the twenty- 
four or thirty-six hours preceding the dream. The popular recog- 
nition of this fact is responsible for the general belief that dreams 
are the continuation of one's waking thoughts. As is usual with 
popular beliefs there is a modiciun of truth in this theory. The 
recent unimportant psychic experience seems to stir up in the 
depths of the soul a train of related or kindred thoughts of great 
significance and importance; and for this reason it is customary 
now to speak of this insignificant incident as the exciting cause of 


the dream or as the dream inciter. This dream inciter may be at 
once recognized in the manifest dream or may be discovered therein 
only after the analysis; in other words, it may be reproduced in 
the dream directly, though in a somewhat distorted form, or in- 
directly, i. e., by association or allusion. Although the dream 
inciter is usually a psychically indifferent experience, it is not neces- 
sarily so. Matters of importance may also serve as dream provok- 
ers and may appear in the dream directly or indirectly. A matter 
that is of great importance to the dreamer may be represented in 
the dream by the appearance therein of an associated indifferent 
experience. It is this preponderance of trivialities and unimport- 
ant matters in the manifest dream that is largely responsible for 
the contempt in which dreams are generally held. But this con- 
tempt is unjustified. Analysis proves that unimportant matters 
never occupy the attention of the dreaming psyche ; that the recent 
indifferent impressions have some bond of unity with remote and 
repressed matters in the unconscious ; that something in the dream- 
er's present situation has reawakened a repressed infantile or 
childhood wish which imparts its energy to the present wish, and 
that therefore the apparently trivial dream inciter is the repre- 
sentation of an important infantile experience. It is out of de- 
ference to t^e censor that matters of great significance and im- 
portance to the dreamer are represented in the dream by ap- 
parently unimportant and indifferent matters. 

That sensory stimuli sometimes serve as dream inciters we 
have already pointed out, but we must repeat that they will do so 
only if they serve the purpose of the psyche, i. e., if they can be 
made the vehicle for the expression of unconscious (repressed) 
infantile wishes. 

Dreams in the Making.- A survey of the latent content of a 
successfully analysed dream reveals a body of thoughts of all 
kinds (deductions, provisos, reflections, fantasies, memories, judg- 
ments, explanations, regrets, resolutions, warnings, hints, excep- 
tions) exceeding many times the volume of the dream itself. In- 
asmuch as, according to our theory, all this psychic material is 
contained in the dream the interesting question presents itself "how, 
on what principles and by what processes, did the psyche convert 
all this mess of thoughts into the manifest dream?" Freud, an- 
swering these questions, shows that the process of dream making 


involves the following four mechanisms: condensation, displace- 
ment, dramatization, and secondary elaboration. 

1. Condensation. — ^The most constant, most characteristic, 
most important, and most easily demonstrable mechanism involved 
in the process of converting the latent content (dream thoughts) 
into the manifest dream is the mechanism of condensation. As the 
name implies this mechanism is responsible for the wonderful com- 
pression of a large volvune of latent thouglits into the relatively 
small bulk which constitutes the dream. As a result of this process 
a single dream may be a summary or epitome of an individual's 
whole life. In analyzing such a dream one will find that a single 
element in the dream, e. g., a word, phrase, or image, alludes to 
or recall^ not only one idea or memory or train of thought but to 
a large number of them; and, on the other hand, that the indi- 
vidual constituents of the latent content are hinted at or alluded 
to in several elements in the manifest dream. It follows therefore 
that a dream is an externally intricate and complicated network of 
associated ideas and that the different dream elements are very 
closely bound up with one another. A train of associations from 
one dream element wiU in the long run lead us to another dream 
element. All this is well expressed by saying that the single ele- 
ments in the manifest dream, just as many neurotic symptoms, are 
greatly overdetermined and that their meaning can be discovered 
only by the process of free associations. In almost every manifest 
dream there occur one or more elements so powerfully overdetermin- 
ed that they stand out with great sensorial vividness over the 
rest of the dream and attract particular attention to themselves. 
These nodal points, as they are called, are so intimately related to 
the most significant elements in the latent content, are so rich in 
associations, so suggestive, that one is warranted in concluding 
that they form foci where many trains of thought meet. 

But it must not be supposed that the psyche has it in its 
power to fuse any two or more ideas into one. Before this can 
be done the psyche must discover something or things, be it in 
content or in verbal expression, common to the ideas that are to be 
so condensed or merged into one, or it must be capable of so 
modifying or altering the verbal equivalent of these ideas as to 
create identities between them. This phenomenon constitutes a 
large part of the dream work and is responsible for the surpris- 
ingly clever and witty dreams that so many people, even those 


who in their daily life are not at all clever or witty, have. Thii 
mechanism is also responsible for the occurrence in dreams of 
mi^ed personalities^ i. e., of an individual who has some of the 
characteristics (name, size, color, mannerism, peculiar feature) <^ 
several different personages. Li this way the dream expresses the 
fact that in the latent thoughts there is sometiiing c(Hnmon to all 
these personages, that the individuals so fused together have some- 
thing in common that does not appear in the manifest dream. 
Only analysis will reveal what this common thing is. Not infre- 
quently the interpretation of a dream is at once apparent if sudi 
a mixed personality is analyzed and if one bears in mind that the 
fusion of two individuals may mean not only that the dreamer 
identifies one of these persons with the other but that he wishes 
that one of the dream personages had taken the place of the other 
in his relationship to the dreamer. 

Composition of several perscms, places, things, names, and 
words, in dreams, is also brought about in another way. A new 
unity or entity is created in which the common elements stand out 
very prominently, whereas the elements not common to the things 
to be combined are slurred over or blurred. This is exactly like 
the process of making a Galton composite phonograph in which 
too the dissimilar elements blot each other out or are only dimly 
presented. The indefiniteness or vagueness of many dream elements 
is due to this process of overlapping and is a certain indication of 
the mechanism of composition. Hence when a subject says that a 
personage or word in his dream was either this or that it is certain 
that the dream personage (=**Collective Personality") or word 
(="Neologism") represents both this and that, and the analyst 
must get the thought associations to both. 

Condensation serves two very important functions. In the 
first place it senses to combine, bring together, or fuse into one, 
two or more elements in the latent content and thus briefly and 
pointedly to express agreement, similarity, or identity between 
these elements. It is a pithy and therefore economical way of 
giving expression to a large number of ideas by means of a few 
images. This mechanism enables the dream to say much in little. 
That is why a small fragment of a dream may yield valuable re- 
sults upon analysis. The second function of condensation is to 
help the dreamer to evade the censor. By creating weird unities, 
new personages, neologisms, etc., it makes the dream dark and 


unintelligible and apparently justifies the dreamer in rejecting 
the whole dream as a meaningless congeries of odds and ends. 
Many hysterical symptoms, it may be added, are constructed on 
the same principle and by the same mechanism. 

IS. Diiplacement. — ^The next most important and most char- 
acteristic dream mechanism is that of ^^displacement." It is by 
virtue of this mechanism that most dreams appear so illogical, un- 
intelligible, and incongruous. Almost all persons have noticed 
that almost always there is no harmony or congruity between the 
intellectual content of the dream and the accompanying emotion. 
What has happened in these cases is that the emotion properly 
belonging to some idea in the latent content has been displaced 
upon or attached to an element in the manifest dream to which it 
does not properly belong. Another one of the manifestations of 
this mechanism is a great disproportion between the intensities or 
vividness or prominence of the several elements in the manifest 
dream and the latent thoughts corresponding to them. In other 
words, a very striking or important element in the manifest dream 
may lead to some very trivial or relatively insignificant ideas in 
the latent content, whereas an apparently trivial element in the 
manifest dream may stand for or suggest something of the utmost 
importance in the latent content. It seems reasonable to conclude 
from this that during the process of dream construction the 
latent content is converted into the manifest content without regard 
to the psychic intensity or emotional value of the different ele- 
ments or that the psychic intensities are purposely redistributed in 
a haphazard fashion. The extent of this re-distribution or re- 
apportionment of psychic values varies in different dreams. In 
some dreams, the sensible and intelligible ones, there is hardly any 
evidence of it; whereas in others hardly a single dream element 
retains its true (latent) psychic value or significance. 

The mechanism of displacement is so well adapted to con- 
cealing the true meaning of the dream that there seems no escape 
from the conclusion that this is its function. By substituting an 
unimportant idea for an important one and by transposing, con- 
verting, and displacing emotions it enables certain ethically pain- 
ful or tabooed ideas to elude the censor and thus reach sleeping 
consciousness. The distortion of the dream thoughts disguises 
them to such an extent that the rest of the sleeper is not disturbed 
by them. 


Dream 10 (reported by Ferenczi). — An elderly gentleman is 
awakened by his wife because she was alarmed on hearing him 
laughing boisterously in his sleep. He narrates the following 
dream: "/ was abed; a well-known gentleman entered and I 
wanted to turn on the lights but could not do so. I tried several 
times — but in vain. Then my wife got out of bed to help me^ 
but even she could accomplish nothing; and inasmuch as she was 
ashamed of being in negligi in the presence of the visitors she finally 
gave up trying and returned to bed. Ali this was so fvnny that I 
could not control my laughter. My wife said: **What are you 
laughing atV* but I just continued to laugh — tiU I awaked. — ^Thc 
day following the dream the dreamer was greatly depressed and 
suffered from headache which he attributed to his vi)lent fit of 

Analysis. — Analytically regarded this dream is not so merry. 
The **well-known gentleman" proves to be the "great unknown'* — 
Death — who had occupied the old man's thoughts the day before 
the dream. The subject of this dream suffers from arteriosclerosis. 
The uncontrollable laughter is a substitute for crying and sobbing 
at the idea of the approach of death. It is the light of life that 
he cannot turn on, [cannot renew]. This painful thought may 
also be associated with a recently attempted coitus which failed 
notwithstanding his wife's assistance. He realized that he wsa 
on the downward grade. The dream work converted the painful 
thoughts of impotence and death into a humorous situation and to 
transform sobbing into laughter. (Such inversions and emotional 
substitutions occur also in the psychoneuroses and as transitory 
symptoms during a psychoanalysis.) 

S. Dramatization. — The vast majority of dreams consist of a 
kaleidoscopic succession of scenes which are constantly changing 
and in which the personages are represented as saying something 
or doing something. There is nothing with which a dream may be 
more properly compared th^in with a modem "moving picture 
play." When such a dreara is analyzed it is found to be the 
visualization or dramatization of the dreamer's thoughts. If we 
bear in mind the results of the analyses of the dreams of young 
children and of the infantile dreams of adults we may say that a 
dream is the conversion of a wish into a present situation which 
represents the wish as fulfilled. A child does not dream that he 
would love to have a bicycle; he sees himself riding the coveted 


bicjcle. I do not dream that I wish Mr. E. to pay his bill, but I 
hold in my hands the amount of money he owes me. This con- 
version of an idea into a visual sense-image Freud calls this the 
mechanism of ^^dramatization.'' Only very rarely does an acoustic 
sense-impression by itself constitute a dream. Now and then one 
encounters a person who says that in his dreams he hears voices 
but does not see anything. The dreams of most persons are 
visual but auditory, tactile, and olfactory sense-impressions play 
a role in them. 

In most dreams of adults this conversion of a wish into an 
actual situation is not so easily demonstrable as in the dreams of 
young children, Owing to the distortion of the latent content by 
the medianisms of condensation and displacement. But a careful 
analysis will demonstrate this mechanism in every dream and will 
bring the realization that in the construction of the dream the 
psyche selects only such ideas as are capable of being dramatised 
or converted into something concrete and visible or which can be 
so modilSed or transformed as to be susceptible to dramatization. 
Silberer's studies of the "functional symbols'* in dreams have 
thrown interesting and valuable light on this mechanism. 

Why most dreams are of a visual nature is a problem that has 
engaged the attention of many psychologists, but the matter is 
too obstruse and complicated to be gone into here. Freud terms 
the process of representing ideas in the form of visual images 
Regression and says that these pictures are produced by "a retro- 
grade movement of abstract neutral processes towards their primary 
perceptions." In connection with this he develops an extremely 
interesting theory of the structure of the mind which the student 
will do best to read up in the latest edition of "Die Traumdeutung." 
For our purpose it is enough to say that regression is due to 
the fact that in the minds of all of us there are retained, un- 
known to ourselves, in the form of visual scenes, reminiscences of 
impressive experiences from our past, even from our early child- 
hood. These ancient memories, acting as a sort of crystallization 
centre, attract those things in the latent content and those frag- 
ments of the dream day that are in some way analogous to them- 
selves. In this way present interests are expressed in terms of 
the past. But only very rarely is a dream in exact reproduction 
of a past impression; usually it is the visualization of a long- 
forgotten experience which is complicated, modified, and distorted 


by the inclusion of matters from recent experiences. It is because 
of this phenomenon of regression that we say that all dreams of 
adults go back to something in the individuaPs infancy or early 
youth. That flotsam and jetsam of recent experiences that get 
into the dream do so only because they have not had to sink into 
obscurity and have not formed intimate associations, with previous 
mental experiences; being near the surface of consciousness the 
dream-making process makes use of some of them, those ap- 
propriate for the purpose, to be the carriers or representatives of 
more significant ideas and desires struggling upward from the 
depths of the soul. 

It not infrequently happens that the manifest dream repre- 
sents something that is exactly the opposite of the corresponding 
idea in the latent content; thus old is represented by young, tall 
by short, recent by ancient, dark by light, many by none, far by 
near, and so forth. This kind of inversion is much more common 
in the dreams of some persons than of others. The dreams of 
such persons can often be easily interpreted by reading them 
backward or by turning some element in the dream around. That 
inversion is an extremely clever method of disguising the latent 
thoughts goes almost without saying. But it does more than this: 
it gives expression to the dreamer's opposition to or contradiction 
of something in the latent content as well as to the wish that 
something in the latent content had happened the other way. 
There is no simpler or more effective way of disguising an idea 
than replacing it by its opposite. (This process of reversal or 
inversion not infrequently plays an important part in the forma- 
tion of symptoms in the psychoneuroses.) 

4. Secondary Elaboration. — Many have noticed that most 
remembered dreams get more and more obscure and distorted as 
time goes on and that certain details are added to them or others 
taken away from them with each repetition. This fact has been 
made much of by those who oppose any attempts at dream interpre- 
tation; they say that the thing subjected to analysis is not th^ 
dream that was dreamt. But Freud meets this objection with 
convincing proof that this revision, retouching, and blue-pencilling 
of the recollected dream — a process that he calls Secondary Elabor- 
ation — ^is part and parcel of the dream and represents the dream- 
er's attempt, after awaking to interpret his dream and to give 
it some appearance of sense and coherency. It is therefore a con- 



cession to conscious thinking and resembles what happens whenever 
anything unusual, strange, obscure, or unintelligible is presented 
to the mind. In thus attempting to bring this new presentation, 
be it a dream or other unknown something (e. g., illegible charac- 
ters on a piece of paper), into harmony with our conscious mental 
processes, the psyche often falsifies the presentation in whole or in 
part. Secondary elaboration therefore reaUy serves to further dis- 
guise or conceal the true meaning of the dream. Taking his cue 
from this the analyst rejects those parts of the dream that axe 
strikingly logical and coherent and wholly disregards the subject's 
attempt to interpret the dream non-analytically. Well composed 
dreams, i. e., dreams that show the effects of secondary elaboration, 
are not as suitable to analysis as those that are incohorent, con- 
fused, hazy, and senseless. It has alsp been noticed that secondary 
elaboration is most conspicuous at those points in the manifest 
dream where the latent content is insufRciently disguised and sus- 
ceptible to easy interpretation; so that it is logical to conclude 
that this mechanism too serves the purposes of the censor and 
must be reckoned with in the analysis. Baaing his technique on 
this fact, Freud instructs his patients to repeat their dreams sever- 
al times, notes the points at which variations are introduced, and 
then starts the subject's associations from those points, the weak 
spots in the dream. Finally it must be mentioned that in some 
dreams secondary elaboration plays very little or almost no part 
and that in some dreams it manifests itself as unconscious falsifi- 
cation of some dream detail. 

Dream 11 (reported by Ernest Jones). — A female patient, 
aged %6, narrated the following dream that she had had when she 
was nine years old : "H^r father ait a dog*$ throat and then hung 
it up exactly as he used to do the pigs he slaughtered; to her 
amazement the animaVs blood was white instead of red.** 

Analysis. — The dog represents the dreamer, and the dream is 
the sadistic representation of a sexual assault. Why the dreamer 
was represented by a dog seemed strange. On inquiring, the 
patient, who did not know the meaning of the dream, said that the 
dog in the dream was a male dog named Jack and that she had 
owned such an animal in her youth. Two months later the patient 
admitted that she had lied to Dr. Jones for no apparent reason. 
She had all the time known that the animal in the dream was a 
femak dog named Flora and that this was the nickname given by 


her family to a serving^maid whose real name was the same as the 
patient's. The dog then is^ the weak spot in this dream and that 
is the point where the subject unconsciously, but knowingly, intro- 
duced the distortion and misrepresentation. (Many ^^purposdess'' 
lies, as Ricklin says, are of this nature.) , 

The Emotions in Dreams. — Apart from ethical and esthetic 
feelings there is hardly any emotion that does not occur in our 
dreams constantly in the most variable degrees of intensity. In 
some dreams there appears to be almost no emotions, although 
Stekel is probably right wheui he asserts that wholly emotionless 
dreams do not exis^t. The relatively rare occurrence of ethical and 
esthetic feelings has puzzled most psychologists and shocked the 
conventional moralists; but the explanation is very simple: the un- 
conscious ego is not ethical or esthetic and is more concerned with 
the fulfillment of his wicked and selfish desires than with the com- 
pliance with conventions. 

The emotions in dreams present many striking and interesting 
features, one of the most noticeable being an incongruity between 
the nature or the intensity of the effect and the idea with which 
it is linked in the manifest dream. The dreamer may be perfectly 
at his ease in a moment of grave peril or greatly alarmed at some 
indifferent object. In ^Mream 10*' the elderly gentleman laughed 
uncontrollably at something that was hardly amusing. All such 
phenomena are brought about by the mechanism of "displace- 
ment" and are the result of the censor's mission to distort the 
meaning of the dream. 

Analysis of dreams invariably leads to the discovery that the 
most intense or prominent emotion in the dream leads to ideas in 
the latent content that are of comparatively little importance to 
the dreamer, whereas slightly emotionally colored elements in the 
dream may lead to very significant ideas in the latent content. 
This discordance between the manifest emotion and the latent idea 
Freud characterizes as a "transvaluation of all values" (Nietzsche) 
— a phenomenon that is observable in the psychoneuroses (e. g., 
a fear of being alone) as well as in dreams. Notwithstanding this 
the dream emotion is always true and is always justified by some- 
thing in the latent content ; it is absurd or incongruous only when 
judged by the manifest content. In a dream a person may be ex- 
ceedingly merry at the death of a dearly beloved relative because 
down in his heart of heart he really, perhaps unconsciously, wishes 


for the death of that relative; and he may mourn to break his 
heart at the burial of a total stranger because the stranger repre- 
sents himself. But this must be borne in mind: the intensity of 
the manifest emotion is no guide to the intensity of the emotions 
in the latent content. As a result of the working of the censor 
there is no proportion between the emotions in the manifest dream 
and in the latent content, although as a rule a strong emotion in 
the dream means strcHig emotions in the latent thoughts. A dream 
that is almost wholly free from emotions will prove on analysis to 
conceal very powerful emotions. Without emotions there would be 
no dreams. 

While it is true that the emotions^ manifested in a dream is 
always justified by something in the latent content it is also a fact 
that in many dreams emotions are represented by their opposites, 
love by hate, respect by contempt, trust by suspicion, etc. This 
might almost be said to follow from the fact that all phenomena 
of human thinking and feeling are bipolar; we hate what we love, 
fear what we desire, respect what we trust, and so forth. In our 
waking as in our sleeping state thoughts and emotions that are 
the exact opposite of each other, exist side by side in our souls. 

Stekel asserts, and not without offering an abundance of sig- 
nificant material in corroboration of his assertion, that an emotion 
in the manifest dream may be a substitute for any other emotion 
in the latent content. He also points out, and very properly so, 
that inasmuch aa the ultimate cause of a psychoneurosis is a dis- 
turbance in the emotional sphere, the emotional dreams must be 
given the utmost consideration during a psycho-analysis. 

Dream 12. Mr. B., previously spoken of in these pages, 
dreamt the f(^owing dream, with slight modifications, several times 
and awoke each time with a severe headache: he ii hiding behind 
a portiere and $ee$ his wife in bed in the embrace of a man whose 
face he cannot see. 

Analysis, — ^Notwithstanding the absence of emotion in this 
dream, powerful emotions are concealed behind it. The strange 
man is death. Mr. B. wished for his wife death that he mi|^t be 
free to drink as much as he liked, to go and come as he chose, 
and to be free to indulge in promiscuous sexual intercourse. The 
dream also furnishes him the proof of her infidelity and justifies 
lum in forsaking her, in which event he could indulge in normal 
coitus and not be compelled to resort to the nerve-wrecking and 


iisgusting coitus intemiptus that she insists upon. The headache 
he attributes to the horrible thoughts that the dream proves the 
truth of what he fears. Like Othello he thought that the dream 
denoted a foregone conclusion. 

S3anbols in Dreams. — From time iiomemorial oneirocritic^ 
have recognized the fact that many of the images occurring in 
dreams are symbolic presentations of personages and actions and 
that a knowledge of the symbols would furnish a clew to the mean- 
ing of the dreams in which they occur. Freud has shown that 
symbols are of universal occurrence in the dreams of the healthy, 
the neurotics, and the insane, and are of exactly the same nature 
as those with which we are familiar in poetry, pictorial art, myths, 
fairy tales^ religious ceremonies, sagas, aphorisms, witticisms, etc. 
His analytical experiences have enabled Freud to assign a definite 
meaning to a large number of dream symbols the correctness of 
which has been recently proved experimentally by Karl Schrotter 
(1912) and analytically corroborated by a host of psycho-analysts, 
especially Stekel. 

A symbol is defined as a ^^something that (not being a por- 
trait) stands for something else and serves either to represent it 
or bring to mind one or more of its qualities ; especially, something 
so used to represent or suggest that which is not capable of por- 
traiture, as an idea, a quality, state, or action; as, the oak is a 
symbol of strength, white of purity, the trident of Neptune." 
Ferenczi, considering the universality of symbols, has proposed to 
limit the meaning of the word "symbol" to a figure employed by 
the psyche as a substitute for an idea, desire, ambition, or impulse 
that is objectionable to the censor and therefore not admissible to 
consciousness. For all other symbols we might conveniently em- 
ploy the term "emblem." The reasons for the occurrence of 
symbols and emblems in dreams have been discussed abstrusely, 
learnedly, and unprc^tably by many psychologists and others but 
there is very little doubt that Freud's explanation is the correct 
one: that the unconscious cannot think in abstractions. Further- 
more, the impulae for dramatization necessarily converts all sorts 
of psychic entities into ccmcrete figures. The employment of an 
emblem or symbol also serves the purposes of the censor for it dis- 
guises the tabooed idea beyond recognition. In addition to this a 
symbol is usually an extremely economical means of ^ving ex- 
pression to a large number of ideas associated with the person or 
action symbolized. It follows from this that symbols are never 


employed arbitrarily, certainly not in dreams; and it is equally 
true that the symbols employed by one person axe very rarely the 
same as those employed by another, and that a person's symbols 
do not always mean the same thing. It would therefore be the 
height of absurdity to expect to interpret dreams by reference to 
a dictionary of symbols. But this is not to deny that symbols 
very often play the chief role as a dream's mode of speech, that 
some dreams cannot be interpreted without a knowledge of the 
meaning of certain symbols, and that many symbols are the prop- 
erty of the race and of almost universal validity. 

The simplest and most convincing method of studying the 
phenomena of symbolisation is that recommended by Herbert 
Silberer in his brilliant essays on ^^the autosymbolic phenomenon," 
viz. : to watch and analyze the images that flit through the mind of 
a very tired person just before he falls asleep. At such a time 
the person, owing to the conflict between the desire to sleep and 
the desire to think out his problem inevitably lapses (^^regresses") 
into a primitive mode of thought and visualises or symbolises his 
paychic processes, and even his bodily states and sensations. 

Dream 18 (reported by Stekel). — ^A lady had the following 
dream: / had two little dogSy one brown and one yellow. Both 
disappeared through an **impossible** hole in a board. I was very 
much surprised ai it.** 

Analysis. — ^The lady is in love with two men one of whom 
owns a brown dog and the other a yellow one. The two dogs 
symbolise (emblemise) the two men. The first one's wife suffers 
frcnn a disease of the reproductive organs (Note: "impossible" 
hole) which forbids any attempt at coitus. The man is her favor- 
ite. The second man, the owner of the yellow dog, has a wife who 
is as thin as a board (board, a common symbol for a woman). 
She would like to win this man too. She often wonders that he 
is content with mich a "board." She herself is quite stout and 
well-proportioned. Inasmuch as in the dream both dogs make use 
of the same orifice her wish for the two men is fulfilled. The second 
man is true to his marriage vow and she finds it almost "impos- 
sible" to win him. The dogs also represent the phallus. Her sur- 
prise represents her great joy at the happening of the "great" 

Dream 14 (reported by Stekel). — ^Mr. Victor B. has the follow- 
ing dre£un: A bicycle contest in the street. The course is across 


certain streets (which he names) to the schoolhouse. There the 
victor is received. The victor says : **what wiU you do if I do not 
go upf** A tali man takes him under his arm and leads him un- 
willingly up to the first floor. On the ground floor (or in the 
cellar?) he siees the commission and among them a short, dark, 
amiable lady, the celebrated Florence Nightingale^ with her hair 
dressed in a peculiar fashion. The dream was much longer but the 
rest is forgotten. 

Analysis. — ^The dreamer is the victor. (Note his name!) He 
won the victory over his wife. She had refused to go to the coun- 
try alone and leave him in the city, but he prevailed on her to go 
and now he can lead a free life. The streets he mentioned were 
notorious as the resorts of prostitutes. The schoolhouse is the 
brothel where one may learn the secrets of the erotic impulses. 
There the victor is given a reception. What follows in the dream 
represents his resistance to the enticementsi of one of the inmates. 
The tall man (=a short woman) leads him unwillingly to the first 
floor (==vagina). But he goes lower; he wants to practice cun- 
nilingus (i. e. "to become the cellar master," a Vienna phrase). The 
small, black lady with hair around her face represents the vagina. 
She also represents his wife who always had to wait on him. The 
little black lady also represents, by inversion, a tall, blond, curly 
headed man, named Nightingale, who, notwithstanding the pro- 
mise of a great career, "went to the dogs" and died in the hosipital. 
Hence. the nurse in the dream. Reference to this man brings out 
the homosexual significance of the dream. The victor is death 
who conquers even the strongest. He must obey him; first comes 
a long sickness and then death. The commission refers to the 
arbitration committee that exempted him from military service be- 
cause of his pulm<Hiary tuberculosis. He would prefer to be well 
and look forward to many years of life. He will die soon. The 
bicycle content is the contest between himself and his wife as to 
who will live longer. The victor leadsi his sacrificial offering un- 
willingly to the first story above the earth, i. e. to heaven. Before 
death there is disease; he fears being infected in the brothel. If 
anything happens to him his wife will have to nurse ham back to 
health; she is a splendid singer (Nightingale!). The homosexual 
significance of the dream refers to being misled by a tall, power- 
ful man. The commission in the cellar represents immissio phalli 
in anum. The amiable old lady is the anus (aneris, an old woman) 


in two senses of the word. (The dreamer is a philologist!) Tlien 
there are references to memories of mutual onanism in early child- 
hood. ^ When he was five years old he and several other boys sat 
on a certain wooden staircase (first story!) and masturbated in 
competition. The phallus is frequently symbolised by a wheel. He 
did not want to masturbate, but a friend took him along and pre- 
vailed on him. He attributes his illness to excessive onanism. Be- 
tween the ages of nine and thirty he masturbated very of ten^ some 
nights several times. That is why he fears an early death. How 
much longer will he hear the nightingale? The race is the race 
for life. His depression ia the fear of death. (Such are the conse- 
quences of the fake and terrifying teachings about masturbation 
that are instilled into the minds of our youths ! The fear of evil 
consequences from masturbation is responsible for many neuroses, 
notwithstanding the fact that the normal masturbation in moder- 
aticHi is not only harmless, but actually beneficial.) In this dream, 
as in many others, we see in the association of the symbols for 
masturbation with the symbols for death an image of the conflict 
between the desire for masturbation and fear of the consequences. 

l^To be contintied.] 

Translated for The AiceiiCAit Jouinal of Ubology and Sixology. 




AMONG tourists and others one often hears the remark, 
that this or that people represents an honest race of men, 
and one may read in guide-books that the inhabitants of 
this or that town are a merry set. I meditated much 
about it, and then asked upon what such assertions were based, 
but I could find no explanation whatever. 

It is easy to ascertain whether a certain individual is merry, 
or honest ; but, as a rule, it will be very difficult to determine these 
quaUties in a wholje people, in comparison with another. This can 
only be done by the aid of scientific investigations, that is to say, 
by statistics, provided that for this purpose the fundamental facts 
can be found. The assertions cited prove to be utterly superficial 
and senseless table d^hote phrases, made by people — mostly ladies 
— ^who believe science possible without thinking, that it is their 
business to lead the conversation at table, or to participate in it. 
One can only answer with silence when listening to these conver- 
sations, which, without any scientific foundation, quite often deal 
with philosophical topics and problems. There are even people 
who like to propose problems that in themselves are insoluble. In 
the midst of these proceedings, one may be glad if only able to 
leave the table. 

This pitiable characteristic would be merely tedious and in- 
significant if it was not carried into all conditions of life, even into 
scientific circles where the general basis of scientific ignorance is 
not present. This absurdity is strengthened by the fact that every 
one without scientific training has at least learned to be able to 
judge where his subjective feeling or his personal taste commences. 
But even if this should be the case, there remains the force of 
external circumstances by which the majority of scientific men are 
pushed away from a scientific basis. 

It is evident that this general evil cannot be remedied by a 
reform of examinations, because the examiners themselves are not 
free from it. Yet those who strive for better conditions in sci- 
entific and intellectual matters should always regard it as their 
immediate and highest aim to make impossible all scientific non- 
sense. And there is no other way out than by making these 



representatives impossible, ridiculous, or thrusting them aside. 

Although the popularization of all sciences is chiefly to be 
blamed for this regrettable change, nevertheless it signifies a mighty 
step forward. A pedantic jurisprudence which makes itself felt 
in all affairs of life, is building up what protestant theology is 
tearing down; self-help is no longer allowed; whenever an un- 
palatable truth is uttered — even with the best intentions — crim- 
ined proceedings are instituted, and the atmosphere is contaminated 
for every person who recognizes and loves truth. Jurisprudence 
avidly appropriates everything of positivism that theology is 
going to discard. The power of the administration of justice is 
becoming stronger than it ever was in church during the time 
of darkest inquisition. All this leads to disastrous results for the 
personal rights of the individual. 

All who endeavor to better the intellectual status of mankind 
could find a magnificent task and a fruitful field of activity in 
changing these general conceptions, but they have to proceed 
from a broad foundation. Above all, this would be the task of 
theology; but, by its philological and dogmatic onesidedness and 
exclusiveness, theology is utterly incompetent to transfer its ethics 
to this field of activity. 

It is precisely from the "table talk" that the alleged inferior- 
ity of woman has found its way into gynology, which has long 
borne the character of an empirical science. The inferiority is 
preached again and again, intelligibly and unintelligibly, in natural 
and artificied forms, by men as well as by women who are active 
in the feminist movement. All those reiterating the same idea 
are alike in one point, in their emptiness of thought and absolute 
lack of reason. The arguments advanced are similar to those 
cited against coeducation, namely, a coed had drowned herself. 
As if this could not be done by any girl! This argument is not 
only interesting on accoimt of its utter ineptitude, but more so 
because it illustrates the attitude of philologists and other scholars 
in regard to logic and scientific evidence. In a meeting a younger 
clergyman brought forth an equally interesting argument by 
invoking the greatness of Schiller, who a hundred years ago, pre- 
dicted the calamity of the present feminist movement, by declaring 
in his "Song of the Bell" that the home is woman's sphere! — It 
inay be admitted that woman is really inferior, if she always wants 
it so. But he who makes this assertion, should not only know, but 
state upon what facts his assertion is founded. Purely subjective 


feelings and opinions are without any value and must be eliminated 
from every science. Whoever makes such an assertion ou^t to 
consider whether the cause of this inferiority may not be found in 
other circumstances than in sex, and whether unfavorable influences 
have not been at work which might be eliminated! As in most 
things, this inferiority might have an historical evolution, a genesis. 
As none of these points are ever taken into consideration, the 
value of the assertion seems sufficiently characterized. 

Approaching my subject more closely, I first wish to direct 
my attention to woman's alleged physical inferiority. Whatever 
in this regard has been advanced by the other side is not without 
point, because everybody has the opportunity to prove by daily 
experiments that in many temporary feats of strength the woman 
of our time is man's inferior. But this fact has been generedized 
in a superficial and unscientific manner. We possess accurate sta- 
tistics of female and male morbidity and mortality. In regard 
to the generality of this question, these statistics give the conclusive 
answer. Morbidity is greater among wcMnen; mortality, among 
men. And even tho these statistics do not take into consideration 
the additional physical accomplishments of pregnancy, confine- 
ment and lactaticm, contributed by woman, the decision is never- 
theless in her favor because in a longer life she accomplishes per- 
haps the same as man does during a shorter existence. If we do 
not regard a longer life as more valuable, we look at things from 
the pessimistic point of view ; our aim becomes universal destruction 
and negation, and all further discussion is superfluous. 

In the performance of many of her daily tasks the woman 
makes good by endurance wherever she does not equed man's 
greater expenditure of energy. I think here of those women who, 
from four o'clock in the morning until the time when their pro- 
fessional work begins, are busy preparing a meal for the whole 
family, and in the evening, after their professional work is done, 
continue their housework until a late hour ; while on Sunday they 
do the sewing and washing for the whole family. Meanwhile, the 
man takes his rest. He works daily ten hours, but the woman 
from sixteen to eighteen hours. 

That the larger size of man's body does not warrant the 
general condusicm as to his greater strength, is an unknown thing 
to those who lock on woman as belonging to the proverbial weaker 
sex. In temporary feats of strength medium-sized men are 


superior. In certain cases a hi^er stature may be an accidental 
advantage. But we have seen how in single encounters the Russian 
giants were trounced by the Japanese midgets. 

However, there are enou^ women who equal men in tem- 
porary feats of strength. I knew a woman who carried a hundred 
kilogrsms of rye under each arm, that is to say, two hundred 
kilograms at the same time. Though this may be an exceptional 
case, we must not forget that it is equally exceptional among men. 
It is necessary to call attenticm to such female exceptions because 
the opposing side passes them by in silence. The amount of phys- 
ical work which is done by a weak woman after she has danced 
the whole night before, has been ascertained by scientific investiga- 
tions. In the art of so-called aerial acrobatics, in the drama, the 
opera and the ballet, women accomplish temporary feats of 
strength which though not exceptional are not inferior to those of 

It has been proven that female teachers became invalid sooner 
that their male colleagues. This fact is used to prove the lesser 
strength of woman. This is about the same as if one could main- 
tain that a pedestrian who in Switzerland walks only SO km. in 
a day was inferior to another one who walks 60 km. between Ham- 
burg and Berlin. They have not the slightest idea of the principle 
which holds good for every experiment, and the knowledge of 
which can only be acquired by the study of science and statistics, 
namely, that comparative investigations are without any value 
whatever if they are not made under equal circumstances. There 
is an immediate difference from the start when the female teachers 
of the Prussian public schools are admitted only to the lower 
grades, where greater physical efforts are demanded. And a 
greater importance is to be attached to the fact that female teach- 
ers are condemned to sexual and conjugal abstinence, — a regula- 
tion that is being slowly and gradually undermined. TJie manner 
of living among unmarried women teachers is consequently very 
much poorer than among the married teachers ! 

It has been asserted that among some animals the male is 
stronger than the female. A closer view reveals the fact that 
this is asserting more than can be proved, that it neglects the prin- 
ciple according to which investigations must be made under equal 
circumstances. One says that stallions are more enduring than 
steeds. Counter-evidence can be furnished indirectly and without 
any difficulty by pointing out that stalli(ms would be used only 


in the big horse-races, where hundreds of thousands are at stake. 
How such an assertion can be accepted by the imthinking, is easily 
understood by any one who has witnessed the exhibition of a breed- 
ing stallion, whom faulty treatment and close confinement has 
made a menace to the life of the other horses as well as to that 
of his attendants. The significance of equal circumstances can 
be noticed in the stallions who draw the beer-wagons in Munich; 
their behavior is not different from that of- the steeds. Although the 
assertion as to greater physical strength is apparently more 
plausible in regard to the steer, it is nothing but his broad neck 
which prompted this idea. In this case nothing is proven and I 
am at a loss to tell to what such conjectural evidence could be 
attached. By saying that steers kill men and cows do not, one 
proves nothing as to the greater strength of the former, because 
the tenth part of their strength would be sufficient to lull a man. 
It proves nothing but the greater ferocity of the steer; which, 
knoreover, is not necessarily a sex quality, but can be explained 
by the fact that the cow in being milked three times a day, etc., 
comes in contact with man more often than the steer. I have 
attended debates where the opinion was approved that the dan- 
gerousness of the steer, which led to police regulations, is nothing 
but the result of faulty treatment (noserings, close confmement). 
In the case of some males who enjoy the freedom of polygyny 
(stags) a greater strength may be readily admitted. However 
here also it is not necessarily a sex quality. The greater strength 
may have been developed because since puberty the male animals 
have fought and killed one another. It was developed by practice 
and became an accidental sex quality because the practice was 
performed by the males only, in the same manner in which formerly 
only men practised gymnastics, and even to-day girls apply them- 
selves to such exercises less than boys. 

I do not think it impossible that uncontrovertible scientific 
investigations could be made to ascertain whether the man of our 
time is stronger than woman, not only in temporary feats of 
strength, but equally in endurance. Even if the results should 
show man stronger in temporary exertions they would hardly have 
any other than a scientific value, because such feats of strength 
are of importance only in a very small number of professions, 
which are being gradually diminished by advancing technical dev- 
elopment. Burdens are no longer carried but transmitted by 
elevators and other mechanical contrivances. 


In the past, when children were compdled to go to school until 
they were sixteen and attendance at the summer-school was not 
compulsory, a village schoolmaster in Schleswig-Holstein had to 
be a strong man because in autunm when the boys returned from 
the freedom of the vacation days, they had to be **lidced unto 
shape^ before being again amenable to school-discipline. There 
were classes of a hundred pupils of both sexes and all ages. 
What would it matter to-day if a clergyman could carry sacks, 
and a OHnpeting lady could not? The glory of superior manly 
strength belongs to the past ; even in war it is without any value 
because to-day a personal encounter hardly ever occurs. Superior 
physical strength is of importance only where ferocity and bru- 
tality prevail. But thanks to an advancing general civilization 
such cases are restricted to self-defence. And even here as well 
as where energetic and strenuous efforts are demanded from the 
worker, great bodily strength can be superseded by celerity and 
dexterity. During my agricultural apprenticeship, I was 1,76 m. 
high and weighed 116 pounds, that is to say, 86 pounds under- 
weight ; but excepting the carrying of sacks, in most of the other 
tasks I excelled considerably all the laborers and farm-hands. 

We have seen that the attempt has never been made to prove 
that woman is a physical inferior being. Moreover, if she should 
be inferior, that it would be of any practical importance except 
in single cases. On the other hand, if we have f oimd points enough 
from which investigations may proceed, and which at best may lead 
to relatively insignificant results in regard to the correctness of 
the assertion in question, we must ask in all seriousness. What 
does it mean that those who want to advance the emancipation 
of woman never cease in calling attention to her inferiority? — As 
if this was so obvious that a blind woman could feel it with her 
stick! In these proceedings not the least amount of thinking is 
done, otherwise one could be impressed by the fact that the per- 
formances of actresses demand undoubtedly a greater expenditure 
of energy than the profession of school teachers. I do not think 
that this fact wiU be doubted by any one of those who are con- 
vinced of woman's inferiority. There would certainly be more 
reason for banishing woman from the stage than from the school. 
But I have never met any one who went as far as that. Hence 
it appears that judicious persons are influenced by circumstances 
which prejudice and prevent them from looking at things object- 


Another very popular belief now deserves attention — ^the mental 
inferiority of woman. As the results of our investigations of the 
alleged physical inferiority of woman have turned out in favor of 
equalization, I believe that this will be still more so when we examine 
her mental inferiority, at least, in so far as here the prejudices 
are not as widely distributed and deeply ingrained, because here the 
matter is not as superficially obvious, and, on the other hand, 
it is something new, interest in which was not aroused until woman 
applied herself to science, and, by her success non-plussed and 
repelled many of her antagonists. 

After the discovery of Kant's skull, woman's smaller cerebral 
capacity could no longer be used as proof of her mental inferiority. 
It is strange that attention was not earlier given to the fact that 
even if we search the whole animal kingdom for comparisons, we 
shall be unable to find data from which we could draw conclusions 
as to intelligence. There are animals with ccmsiderably larger 
brains who nevertheless are far fom approaching human intelli- 
gence. Compare the encephalon of the ant, or the bee, with that 
of the largest mammalia ! The decision in regard to higher intel- 
ligence will certainly favor the insects. If one should try to 
measure the intelligence of the horse, or the elephant, by the size 
of his brain, one must become a polytheist and raise those animals 
to the rank of gods. I am acquainted with learned men who with 
their Bismarckian skulls are able to develop a more than modest 
mental efficiency. 

After the physical arguments for the explanation of woman's 
mental inferiority have been weighed and found wanting, one has 
to look around for other proofs. In spite of the difficulty, I believe 
that one is easily able to find them. One says that those women 
who in science are not behind men, are so not by virtue of an 
equal intelligence but from closer application. The fact may be 
overlooked that such a subterfuge resembles a sophism as one 
sparrow resembles another. It contains a considerable restriction 
of what formerly was asserted, because application is an Exceed- 
ingly valuable mental function, and not a physical one. If in 
both cases the result be the same, namely, that men owe their suc- 
cess to greater intelligence, and women to closer application, we 
may reasonably speak of a difference of qualities, but not of a 
superiority on one side and inferiority on the other. 

This difference of qualities also exists among men. One man 
succeeds by intelligence, the other by application. As a result 


of the argumentation of dogmatists who try to buttress their 
position by resorting to a Difference of Qualities, we may duly 
expect that they will attempt to exclude all industrious men from 
scientific pursuits. If they do not, we must assume that their 
animosity against women springs from the hope of succeeding 
better by attacking a party which in their opinion is weak and 
less valuable. A s^isible man has never yet given the preference 
to the more intelligent in disregard of a more industrious person, 
for there are conditions enough where close application is more 
valuable than higher intelligence. It is a universally observed fact 
that industry goes with greater reliability. As a rule, the more 
intelligent individuals are the less conscientious ones. Whenever 
Nature accomplishes her design by means of an emineit quality 
she economizes with other qualities by combining several of them 
while each one remains average. 

In combating the emancipation of woman, it has been said 
that there never was a female genius, nor women who ever pro- 
duced anything great in science; average achievements are admit- 
ted. This assertion is apparently true, but only apparently so, 
this being the case whenever we come in contact with this question 
which is always treated superficially or with prejudice, and a dog- 
matic disregard of facts. Of all the arguments advanced against 
the equality of the sexes the most spacious one springs from a 
really puerile naivete and proves as much as if one would say that 
a cobbler is not fit for the pulpit. Before woman can become 
eminent in science we must cease preventing her from acquiring 
the necessary external requirements. 

In order to accomplish something great in science to-day, one 
must be in possessicm of a complex apparatus. In the other 
branches of learning there would never arise a genius if a woman 
without a social standing could show remarkable results in scientific 
pursuits. To-day, such is hardly if ever accomplished by non 
professional men, but for a woman, just because she is woman, it 
would be exceedingly more difficult. We have hesitatingly made 
the initial steps to admit woman to an academic career. If she 
should be given the right of way in this direction, she certainly 
will show her ability. If we lock a person's mouth we have no 
right to say that he, or she, cannot sing ! 

In our universities we have more than enough unsalaried male 
lecturers who, being far from accomplishing anything, even expose 
themselves but, nevertheless, some day are invested with a profes- 


sorship. Every one of these lecturers and professors extraordinary 
of pure and applied science knows and bewails the fact that the 
lack of a scientific apparatus renders him unproductive. With 
what reason or right can we expect women to get along without 
the prerequisites indispensable to men? Moreover, while men begin 
their academic career by experimenting and operating with the 
material of their respective science, women are prevented from 
carrying on this necessary work. And we must consider the fact 
that more females than males pass the extraneous abiturium and 
that a great many women acquire two diplomas of which one opens 
to its possessor the gates to the university. 

The same denial of woman's ability for scientific pursuits is 
urged against her in music creation. I admit, it is strange that 
here woman has not yet achieved any success, although for a hun- 
dred years one-half of her education was musical. Still this proves 
nothing at all, because her musical education was carried out with 
the same superficiality as the other half of her education, namely, 
in philology. In the latter, as well as in music, the aims were 
of a purely practical nature. To the science of music was given 
as little attention as to a philosophical understanding of philology. 
Besides that, her musical lessons were confined to one instrument, 
the piano ; she never was taught that music is based on acoustics, 
nor did a woman who painted ever hear that her studies had to 
begin with optics. The greatest musicians, painters, and dram- 
atists were men of a many-sided education. From the study of 
their chosen profession they acquired only the technique, while 
the fundamental and animating principle of their art had to be 
sought in other fields of knowledge and activity. Was this ever 
considered or even recognized in the education of woman? Only 
ten years ago I was told by a scholar: "We never shall see 
a woman architect.'* To-day America can boast of a considerable 
number of these architects. Furthermore, it has been said: "Girls 
are not adapted for the study of mathematics." Not long ago I 
heard that they are better qualified for it than boys. These 
instances show what fantastic tricks are played by those who want 
to obstruct the progress of the feminist movement. 

I shall now proceed to the main point of my discussion. It 
does not matter much whether woman is inferior in one or the other 
direction. But this at least is certain, that wherever she wants 
to compete with men she is able to do so and wherever she may 
fail, there are more than enough men who equally do not make 


good. Where men are concerned things regulate themselves spon- 
taneously, and accordingly regulations ought not to be imposed 
where women are engaged, because this means nothing but in- 
justice. As a logical result of the demand that, because of this 
or that deficiency women should be barred from so-called male 
occupations, all men who did not excel the most efficient woman 
should be excluded from any profession whatever ! 

If I am quite willing to admit that woman is somehow inferior 
without having any proof of it, I am obliged to answer the question 
whether this inferiority is really a secondary sex, which is always 
asserted offhand, or whether the cause of it has to be sought in 
something else. The case here is exactly the same as when we 
ask whether there really exists such an inferiority. We can neither 
assert nor prove anything. In regarding woman's alleged inferior- 
ity as an unalterable sex quality, the fact is wholly ignored that 
for thousands of years her whole education and maintenance, and 
partly her diet, was enormously different from that of man (mod- 
eration in eating and drinking). I mentioned these circumstances 
in discussing mental training. As the girl was condemned to 
sexual abstinence, the same was done to a lesser degree in the 
matter of eating, drinking and physical exercise. If the running 
of a little girl was regarded as "indecent," how can we speak of a 
sex quality when in their physical development the girls lagged 
behind the boys? Such reasoning is profoundly unscientific and 
stupid. The girls were not only prevented from developing their 
physical powers through exercise, but were allowed to waste their 
vitality by immoderate dancing. I may be spared the trouble of 
expatiating upon this phase of the subject. 

The temporary result of a closer inquiry into the origin of 
an eventual inferiority of woman, points necessarily to a very 
strong probability that this supposed inferiority was acquired in 
the unhealthy atmosphere of an artificial civilization. We are 
unable to tell how far the practices of thousands of years were 
influenced by hereditary factors in the female progeny, and which, 
for obvious reasons, must also have been effective in the male. 

We know less of hereditary transmission in the same sex 
than about the laws of heredity in general. Its existence cannot 
be doubted : transmission of the pure sex itself, hemophilia. How- 
ever, we do not need recourse to a physiological heredity. The 
mother continues imparting to the girls all those fashions and 
absurdities in which she herself was brought up, while the boys, 


whose educaticm as a rule is left to the father and the world, grow 
up under more rational influences. All these factors are bound to 
produce a very obvious difference through a sort of ^social 

A basis for the decision whether there exists a sex inferiority, 
which however, might also tium out in disfavor of man, can only 
be secured by an absolute equalization of both sexes, including 
education, and carried out through hundreds of years. If real hered- 
itary inferiority should be shown in the main line also, that is to 
say, if hereditary transmission takes place in the arithmetic ratio 
of both parents, we may anticipate undreamed of advantages 
bestowed upon a higher race of human beings. 

The above article is excerpted from Ploss and Battels' book "Das 
Wcib." The two big volumes of this monumental work arc an inex- 
haustible treasury of interesting facts, traditions, customs, superstitions, 
etc., concerning woman. And we shall now and then r^roduce interest- 
ing portions from this work. 

Trmnslaled for The AictKiCAif Jouknai, or Ukoumy and Sixoixwy. 



Suckling dons bt Animals 

THERE are many records of babies being suckled by animals 
instead of by the mother. Ancient Mythology already 
narrates cases where animals were the wet-nurses of human 
infants. Telephus, the son of Heracles and Auge, was ex^ 
posed after his birth and suckled by a hind ; Romulus and Romus 
were the sucklings of a she-wolf; in Crete the goat of Amalthea 
nourished with her udder young Jove ; on the pictures of Bacchantic 
processions we see children quenching their thirst at the udders of 
goats. Perhaps they are representations of real conditions which 
took place amcmg the pastoral population of ancient Greece and 
Italy. During the middle ages we hear much of children who were 
exposed in the thicket of the forest and suckled by she-bears. 
Therefore besidefs their crude and animal-like manners they had a 
thick growth of hair on their bodies and were designated as Sylvan 
or bear men. Accidentally found by hunting expeditions of the 
princes they were gazed at in astonishment as natural curiosities 
and described in scientific works. 

But even during the last century such cases of children being 
suckled by animals occurred, of course, in rare cases only. For 


instance, Klein narrates that the children of the fellahs of Pales- 
tine are sometimes brought up by goats. This reminds of similar 
conditions which must have prevailed in Egypt during the so-called 
old Empire. Witkowski and Rosellini have reproduced a picture 
on which we see a little boy squatting beneath the belly of a cow 
while a calf satisfies its hunger at the other nipple of the udder. 

MacGregor narrates that on the Canary Islands an infant 
whose mother died during her confinement, is suckled by goats or 
sheep; the baby is held under the udder until it has its fill. 

Mr. H. Weiszstein, governmental architect, transmits to M. 
Bartels the following communication : 

*^Even to-day children are suckled by animals, namely in the 
great Hopital des enfants assit^s of Paris. If children are sus- 
pected of being infected with a contagious disease they are not fed 
by wet-nurses but laid at the udders of she-asses. A pavilion has 
been established in the garden of the great institute ; each side of 
the hall where the children are is flanked by stables where in each 
four she-asses are kept for that purpose only." 



We are used to the conception that a milk producing breast 
must be preceded by a childbirth and the suckling woman must be 
relatively young, and therefore we are highly astonished when we 
hear of a contrary case. And yet there are records of cases where 
grandmothers or other women of advanced age induced their breasts 
to a renewed secretion of milk which was sufficient for the feeding 
of the suckling. And these were not exceptional cases which oc- 
curred perhaps once among a single nation but this curiosity of 
nature is reported from all parts of the world. Of the Armenians 
of the district of Euban, in the Caucasus, we hear, that there it is 
not so very unusual for a grandmother, a woman say 60 years old, 
in order to get some rest for her daughter, offers her old breasts to 
the new bom baby, and that really a secretion of milk takes place. 

Lafiteau who lived as missionary among the Iroquois Indians, 
narrates of them that a grandmother who is past the years of 
fecundity knows how to give successfully her breast to an infant 
who has k)8t his mother. Of the Indians of South-America we hear 
of similar cases. According to Quandt, among the Arrawaques in 


British-Guyana, the grandmother continues the lactation of the 
elder baby when the mother has bom a new child. Appun saw 
children standing at the side of their mother and grandmother and 
suckling now at the breast of the one and then at the breast of the 

Among the Betschuanas in South-Africa Livingstone observed 
several cases where the grandmother submitted to the suckling of 
her grand-child. There was a woman who had not suckled a child 
for at least 15 years but she laid the grand-child to her breast and 
was able to give him sufficient milk. If a grandmother of 40 years 
or less is left in the house with the baby she nurses the latter at her 
withered breast and therefore it occurs that a child may be suckled 
by his mother as well as his grandmother. 

Burton writes that among the Egbas in Yoruba in the region 
of the river Niger, old women suckle little children, although the 
breasts of older females look usually more like flabby and empty 
bags of skin. 

Emma von Rose, who visited the Arabs of Algeria, relates of 
a female slave of the Kaid of Bisquara, an old wrinkled negress 
who had born her last child more than dO years ago. At that time 
she had been the wet-nurse of the Kaid and now, after 30 years, she 
suckled the children of the Kaid. She had never ceased suckling 
and still possessed milk in abundance. It was disgusting to see 
the rosy mouth of a baby sucking the withered breast of that old 
bag. Emma von Rose expressed her doubt as to whether the milk 
of such an old woman contained sufficient nourishment for the 
child, but the wife of the Kaid meant: "Milk is milk; I don't 
know of any difference." 

Tuke writes that in New Zealand babies are sometimes suckled 
by women who never had born. 

Among the South-American Indians the women keep their 
breasts in a milk secreting condition for years by having them 
suckled by all sorts of animals. 

Old Busch tries to explain that late renewal of milk secretion 
by psychic influences and especially by the love for the suckling: 
"When a woman is employed as the wet-nurse of a child which is 
not her own, at the beginning the amount of her milk decreases and 
becomes more abundant as soon as she feels a greater love for that 
child. This secretion like the sexual instinct depends upon a psychic 


affection^ namely the love for the child and on the other hand maj 
also increase the love for the child." 

M. Bartels has proposed the term Lactatio Serotina for that 
peculiar suckling by old women. To the Anthropological Society 
of Berlin he presented reports from Mr. Kropf who lived for 4S 
years as missionary among the Xosa-Ejiffirs of Capeland. Among 
the Kaffirs Lactatio Serotina is ao extraordinary en vogue that 
Mr. Kropf got acquainted with ^innumerable cases." The re- 
spective women were from 60 to 80 years old. At his arrival in 
Africa in 1845 he met a woman who had grown-up children of 20 
years and over, but in 1887 the same woman suckled her great- 
grandchild. This is a case of lactation by the great-grandmother. 
Those old women were able to submit to this task not only once, but 
at libitum, that is to say, as often as a grandchild or great-grand- 
child was bom. Thus an interval of from two to four years lay 
between the single periods of lactation. Those old womem continue 
the suckling for days and years according to the return of the 
mothers, for soon after the confinement the latter go to the cities 
in search for work and during their absence the grandmother or 
great-grandmother is entrusted with the care of the child. 

Unfortunately we were not able to learn anything about the 
quantity and quality of that liquid which is secreted by the old 
withered breasts of the Kaffir women. Kropf maintains that they 
use both breasts ; he thinks there could never be an abundant secre- 
tion of milk as those breasts had never the full and swelled appear- 
ance of the breasts of younger suckling women. However, to those 
children that suck at the breasts of their grandmothers, cow milk 
is given besides. 

Attention was called to the fact that in Java also it is custom- 
ary for old women to suckle little children. The young mother goes 
out in search of work and three times during the day the suckling 
is laid on to the breasts. In the meantime he remains in the care 
of the grandmother or an old female neighbour. ^^To be disturbed 
as little as possible by the child in the performance of her house- 
hold work the old woman ties the child which is wrapped in a piece 
of cloth, to the naked upper part of her body. Seeking for food or 
from sheer tedium the baby sucks his caretaker's withered breasts ; 
from the continual irritation the breasts begin to secrete a milky 
fluid. This poorly developed fluid is yellowish and cannot be comj 
pared to mothers' milk." Here also the baby receivea other food 
besides. The natives of Java have a special name for this kind of 


alimentation. Th^j call the suckling at the breast of the mother: 
Kassi-tetek, and the suckling at the withered breasts of old women : 
Mpaig. This custom is so common among them that European 
physicians prohibit the practice of the Mpeng when old women are 
hired as nurses for children of white mothers, because the physicians 
hold that the Mpeng is harmful for the children. 

From Dr. Glogner of Samarang, Java, M. Bartels received 
further information about five interesting cases. Four of those 
five women were grandmothers already, from 87-50 years old at 
which age the women of that country are past the period of fecun- 
dation. The three younger females had still their menstruations; 
one 45 years old was still in the climacteric years, another of 50 
years, past that period. 

Those women who had not yet reached the climacterium, se- 
creted milk abundantly while the two older women not in sufficient 
quantity ; the children had to be fed by rice pap besides. 

From Europe we know only of one case of this kind : 

Under the heading : "Miracle of Nature. The Suckling Grand- 
mother" — "The Berlin Hebdomadal Record for the Educated Citi- 
zen and Thinking Farmer" of IBIS, narrates the following story: 

"Margarethe Francisca Laloitette, the wife of a Parisian 
water carrier was the mother of two children. In 1780 she bore 
a third child, a son. She had suckled all the three children. In 
1764, twenty four years after the last confinement the son married. 
In February, 1766, his wife was expected to be delivered by a 
child. On account of the weak condition of her daughter-in-law, 
the grandmother decided to suckle herself the presumptive grand- 
child, if the necessity should arise, for she was disinclined to hire 
a wet-nurse. The strange notion struck her that she could revive 
her breasts which had not given milk for 25 years. For days she 
stood before the fire and under terrible pains exposed her breasts 
to the heat. After four days the hope of this old heroine of 
mother love was realized. During the last months of the pregnancy 
of her daughter-in-law, she laid to her breasts alternately pups and 
children of her neighbours in order to be better prepared. The 
child was bom and the grandmother was fully equal to her tasks 
as wet-nurse. Both felt fine, the child teethed at the right time and 
without difficulties and was lively and in the best of Health.** 

Above is an interesting analogy of the facts reported to us 
from Africa, Asia and America. 




Charles Darwin has called attention to the fact that the 
breasts of males are not to be regarded as rudimentary but as un- 
devdoped and functionally not active organs. As we have seen in 
the preceding paragraph that also without a preceding childbed the 
breasts may secrete milk we shall not find it incredible to hear that in 
the breasts of man milk secretions were observed. A swelling of the 
smaU breasts and the formation of a lacteal fluid is not more in- 
frequent in newly bom boys than girls. Also during puberty one 
may observe not infrequently how the breasts of the youth grow 
and swell. A case where a real breast is developed is called ^Gyne 
Komasty.'^ We have quite a number of observations of such cases 
and also microsc(^ic investigations, and the origin of this kind of 
an increase of the breast as a result of an increase of the Milch- 
drus^igewebes is beyond any doubt. Also the secretion of real 
milk by such a male breast has been ascertained by chemical experi- 
ments though in most cases that secretion was only a lacteal fluid. 
There is no reason for denying a priori the possibility of a lactation 
by the father. Such cases are reported by Nicolaus, Gremma, Vesa- 
lius, Dcmatus and others. Schenck knew a man who secreted milk 
from his youth till his 50th year. The same is narrated by Walaeus 
who knew a Fleming, 40 years old, who had immense breasts. Aben- 
sina saw a man from whose breasts so much milk was drawn that it 
would have been possible to make cheese of it. Cardanus saw a 
man, 40 years old, whose breasts secreted so much milk that it 
would have been sufficient to feed a child. 

At the end of the 15th century, Alexander Benedictus, an anat- 
omist of Verona, tells the story of a certain Maripetrus, a Syrian 
and member of the Holy Order of the Knights who after the death 
of his wife suckled successfully his little son to the greatest astonish- 
ment of the whole town. 

In 1887, in a military lazaretto Schmetzer had under his ob- 
servation a vigorous soldier, 22 years old. His breasts were not 
unusually big, but had commenced to swell when he was 19 years 
old. When a breast was taken between two fingers and slightly 
pressed, from 8 or 4 mouths of the lacteal ducts milk gushed forth 
in capillary rays and at a distance of from S to 8 feet. The milk 
was of a beautiful blueish white color, of a slow flow, and of a very 
sweet taste. The secretion never ceased entirely ; the greatest quan* 
tity of milk that man produced was about a wine glass full. 


Within 24 hours, Schmetzer observed from ^ to 1 and even S 
ounces (ca. 50 g. to-day.) The milk, collected in a glass was of 
the most beautiful milky whiteness and soon formed cream, and 
after a few hours, butter. Within 2 weeks, from 10 to 11 ounces 
were secreted. 

In the Talmud (Sabbath 53) we read: 

^*A man's wife died and left behind a suckling. The man was 
poor and had no money to pay a wet-nurse. But lo and behold, a 
miracle happened, the man's breasts were opened like unto the two 
breasts of a woman, and he suckled his son." 

Also the ancient legends of Iceland and China narrate of vari- 
ous cases where fathers were the wet-nurses of their children. 

For a record of more recent times we are obliged to Alexander 
von Humboldt. It is the stoiy of a peasant of New-Andalusian vil- 
lage who with his own milk nursed his son. When his wife fell sick 
he took the child in his own bed and pressed him to his breast in 
order to quiet him. Lozano was then 80 years old and never felt 
before that there was any milk in his breast, but the irritation of 
the nipple which the child sucked affected a gathering of this fluid. 
The milk was dense and very sweet. The father was astonished on 
account of the swelling of his breast, he offered it to the child and 
suckled it for five months, two or three times a day. During this 
time the child received no other food besides the father's milk as 
is attested by the sworn statements of eye-witnesses. During his 
travels Humboldt met Lozano who was accompanied by his son, 
then about 14 years. Mr. Bonpland examined the breast of the 
father carefully and found it wrinkled like the breasts of women 
who have suckled. He found that chiefly the left breast was very 
much extended. Lozano explained this by the circumstance that 
both breasts never furnished milk of the same quantity. 

Wenzel Gruber narrates the following case : 

A Chippewa Indian who wanted to go hunting beavers, separ- 
ated from his tribe. His wife was his only companion. She was 
pregnant and bore a son. The third day after her confinement she 
died. To preserve the life of the child, the father fed him with 
hind meat broth; to assuage his cries, he laid him to his bosom. 
This had the effect that his breast emitted milk with which he was 
able to suckle his child. The latter grew up and married a woman 
of his own tribe. Wenzel Gruber saw often the father as an old 


man. His left breast with which he had suckled, was still extraord- 
inarily big. 

Of greater importance is a report from the well-known Greek 
Anthropologist Bemhard Omstein which the latter submitted to the 
Anthropological Society of Berlin. 

In 1846, Mr. Ornstein lived in the small Greek sea-town Galax- 
idi, in the house of the shipbuilder Elias Kanada, a man of Her- 
culean build. The latter's wife was weak and tuberculous. As often 
as her supply of milk was exhausted, her two years old boy began 
to cry frightfully. With motherly tenderness the father offered one 
of his enormously developed breasts till the little boy had his fill. 
Mr. Omstein saw often how that man wiped his breast which was 
wet with milk. 

So then this interesting anthropological fact is also verified 
by scientific observations. 

For Tnc Amskican Jouknal or Ueolocy and Sexology. 

By H. H. H. 

I was bom in Grermany, emigrated to this country when five 
years of age, but am an American to the core. My parents were truly 
honest, hard-working, religious and morally straight-laced. They 
taught me that it was a great and grievous sin to look with de- 
sire upon the female sex, etc. — you know the rest. At eight years 
of age I was helping a neighbor-boy to pasture his cows, and he 
taught me the art of masturbation. This lasted almost three 
months. Then I was caught, and my religious parent gave me a 
trashing that I shall never forget — it laid me up in bed for a week. 
My father and mother put such a fear of the Lord into my soul, 
what with their pictures of insanity, imbecility, an everlasting 
curse, etc, that from that day to this I have had a mental and 
physical aversion to the art of Onan. 

The terrific discipline of my early training has influenced me 
even to this day — which speaks well [ ?] for early training. 

At the age of nineteen I made the acquaintance of a widow 
who was deeply in love with me. She gave me every opportunity 
for pre-nuptial relations ; but being deeply religious, I feared the 
everlasting punishments of the Great Judge. AU the time I was 
suifering the torments of Hades, a craving and desire to give vent 
to my pent-up sex hunger. I often wondered why the woman 
finally became cold and distant, but now I know. 


When the war with Spain was declared I enlisted in the U. S. 
Navy, serving in the Philippines and in the North Chinese Boxer 
campaign. While at Cavite, P. I., I wiped out two attacks of 
Bubonic plague, having volunteered for the service. Was also 
Secretary-Treasurer of Naval Branch of the Y. M. C. A. 

While serving as sanitary officer at Cavite, for a period of 
five months, it was my duty to inspect every home and every per- 
son for the suspicious bubonic plague or small-pox. In the per- 
formance of these duties I was approached dozens of times by 
fair women requesting "Nino Americano." It developed into a 
regular craze. Although terribly tempted and often chided by my 
fellow soldiers for my chastity, I kept a "stiff upper lip" and suf- 
fered my hardships in silence. I know what you mean. Dr. Robin- 
son, when you speak of sex-hunger. I have often thought it more 
terrible than bread-hunger, especially when it is constantly sup- 

When in North China I rescued a fair maiden from rape at 
the hands of Russian soldiers, and escorted her to her Mandarin 
home, for she proved to be of "royal vintage." After that I was 
a constant visitor at the fair one's home. She had two sisters, as 
fair as hersielf . Often they would play with me in their innocence 
and purity, for I grew to be one of the family. Then that terrible 
sex-desire would come over me, and I would hurriedly excuse my- 
self and seek refuge back in the barracks among the men, where 
I was free from temptation. 

Some time later, the Mandarin father of the innocents insisted 
upon adopting me as his son-in-law and settle a large estate upon 
me if I came back to claim his daughter. This frightened me so 
that I stayed away; and a few days later we received marching 
orders to return to the sea. 

On our return trip to the Philippines on the cruiser Brooklyn, 
all of us were given five days leave at Nagasaki, Japan. Some of 
the boys took me in tow and I suddenly found myself in one of 
those world-famous Yoshiwaras. The boys did their best; but I 
was also an athlete and never indulged in drink, and I fought my 
.way out of what I then called **that hell hole." But I won't say 
that during the struggle the libido sexualis was by any means 

I was later on taken ill with tuberculosis (now arrested) of 
the right long, caused by severe exposure in the Chinese campaign 


and the inclement climate of the Philippines. The medical board 
ordered me discharged from service. 

I went south in 190S. During all this time I had never ex- 
perienced the sexual act. The hunger was there with renewed 
asergy, but the fear of moral infamy was stronger. I had ex- 
perienced frequent nocturnal emissions. The physician I consulted 
declared *^it was nothing,'' and told me to keep my mind off the 
subject and I would be all right. I told him that my mind was 

a d sig^t stronger on the subject than his, as I had proven 

by my acts that I could keep free of sex relations, which was more 
than he could say. 

Truly the subject of sex did not bother me in the least, ex- 
cept when the urge would come upon me, and do what I might I 
could not dispel it from my mind. 

Thai one night I discovered that by going to sleep on mj 
back, I would dream of a woman, — ^whom I hope I wiU never meet 
in my life, for I don't know what I would do if I ever met her. 
Ever after that experience the sex urge would have no more in- 
fluence in disturbing my thoughts, for it did seem to refresh me 
after each experience; and Iwas modest in that it did not occur 
more than once in two weeks. Can you tell me why I should dream 
of being in happy association with the same woman? This went 
on for several years, when a reaction set in and I consulted the 
best physician in town. He gave me a thorough examination, 
looked at me like an idiot when I said I had never had sex re- 
lations, etc., and told me, "Well, you better get married." A little 
medicine, and no treatments. Why are doctors so dam ignorant 
on the most vital physiology? 

A year or so passed, and I found the woman I could love and 
respect. I do love her with all my heart, and I will prove to you 
what I say. If I were an eunuch or impotent, I would not be 
writing to you, for I would be perfectly happy and content. But 
my wife is a perfect specimen of the "frigid female." She loves 
me with all her heart, but the thought of sex relations is so re- 
pulsive to her and the fear of pregnancy so greati that it makes 
me feel like a brute to impose my wish or desire on her. Here ia 

absolutely a case of sublimation. She is a , has an excellent 

practice, a member of the society, and thoroughly ethical. 

Well, about two years ago things became pretty bad with me. 
Extra-marital relations? No, never! This time I went to Dr. 
, one of your subscribers and a radical in the profession. 


When he asked me how often I had relations with mj wife and I 
told him eight times in eight years, he heaved a sigh and let 
loose a choice and heavenly vocabulary : ^^had he not known me he 
would not think it possible/' etc. He started in with sounds and 
cold water irrigation, in short, just as you advise. Dr. Robinson, 
in your very excellent book on **Sexual Impotence.** Then he had 
a rather exciting interview with the good wife, and now it's once 
every two or three weeks. But, alas, there is no reciprocity, and 
I feel like a criminal in imposing myself upon one I love. 

Sometimes I get what I would call an acute congestion of the 
prostate gland ; it starts with a chill at the base of the brain, goes 
down my spine, lodges in my prostate for about twenty minutes, 
and oh, what exquisite pain ! You know what my doctor tells me 
and I know what you would tell me; but now, with old ideas of 
sexual ethics thoroughly implanted in me, together with a new fear 
of venereal disease, such a thought is far distant. I could never be- 
tray the object of my love. 

I have recently read your latest book, ** Woman: Her Sex and 
Love Life,*' as well as Grete Meisel-Hess' **The Sexual Crisis,** I 
never enjoyed two books so thoroughly. I heartily agree with you in 
all your statements, and I hope that the world may cast aside this 
arrant hypocrisy and teach to all the youth the true meaning of 
normal sex relations. In your **Sexudl Problems of Today** you 
have a chapter on prostitution which is indeed excellent; and, 
again, your book on **The Limitation of Offspring** should be in 
the hands of every person of adult age. How much brighter and 
happier this world would be ! 

I give you full permission to publish this letter in the Critic 
AND Guide'* or in The Journal of Sexology (I subscribe to 
both), if you think it may help the cause. But do not mention 
my name and address, or the name of the doctor, etc., or the origin 
of my letter. 

Very truly yours, 

XI. XI. XI. 

P. S. — ^My condition at present is greatly improved, but still 
craving for normal relations. And yet I claim that I am temper- 
ate in my desires, for I have always hated anything sensual or 



I repeated to him an argument of a lady of my acquaintance, 
who maintained, that her husband's having been guilty of number- 
less infidelities, released her from conjugal obligations, because 
they were reciprocal. Johnson: **This is miserable stuff, Sir. To 
the contract of marriage, besides the man and wife, there is a 
third party — Society ; and if it be considered as a vow — Grod : and, 
therefore, it cannot be dissolved by their consent alone. Laws are 
not made for peurticular cases, but for men in general. A woman 
may be unhappy with her husband; but she cannot be freed from 
him without approbation of the civil and ecclesiastical power. A 
man may be unhappy, because he is not so rich as another: but he 
is not to seize upon another's property with his own hand." 
BorweUi ^^But, Sir, this lady does not want that the contract 
should be dissolved; she only argues that she may indulge herself 
in gallantries with equal freedom as her husband does, provided 
she takes care not to introduce a spurious issue into his family. 
You know, Sir, what Macrobius has told of Julia." Johnson: 
"This lady of yours. Sir, I think, is very fit for a brothel." — 
Boswell's ''Life of Dr. Johnson.**— Sent in by H. C. Uthoff. 


The subject of an article by Dr. H. N. Cole (Jour. A. M. A., 
Dec. 16, 1916), is syphilis not acquired by coitus. Bulkley col- 
lected 9,058 instances of authentic extragenital infection. The 
same author, in his private practice, noted 113 cases. The largest 
number of them were on the lips. Most of these infections were 
contracted from dishes, towels, drinking cups, kissing, etc. One 
of them was very much out of the ordinary: a young woman, 
after being stung by a bee, allowed her male friend to place a 
piece of court plaster over the sting, of course, after moistening 
it with his lips, and a chancre resulted. Dr. Schamberg reported the 
story of the Champi<Mi Eisser of Philadelphia, who infected nine 



young women by osculation. Some peculiar occurrences also have 
come to Dr. Cole's attention. The ages of the patients ranged 
from ft months to 65 years. There were SS married and S8 single 
persons in the series. The result was that often the life partner 
was infected. Dr. Cole observed M primary lesions on the lips; 
ten, on the hand; one, on the neck; one, on the jaw; one, on the 
abdomen; one was a double infection on the nipples. Five in- 
fections occurred in connection with the teeth. Bites were re- 
sponsible in four cases. One patient was infected while helping dig 
a ditch during cold weather; large pails of coffee were passed 
among the men in order to keep them warm. A marked popular 
syphilid was the result. As the patient was a married man, his 
wife, of course, was also infected. Another man drank whiskey 
from a bottle, in common with several friends; a syphilitic sore 
on his wife's lip was the result. Another woman contracted diancre 
of the lip from her husband, immediately after marriage. A 
young man received a cut on the neck while being shaved; from 
this cut was formed a sore which refused to heal. The patient 
presented a generalized syphilid together with a raised lesion, 
dollar-size, showing a diffuse, brawny induration and the floor of 
the ulcer covered with pus. Another man, having a chancre on 
the lower jaw, also blamed the barber shop. Dr. Cole describes the 
following unusual case of chancre of the abdomen: A babe was 
bom about the middle of November, 1915, at which time the 
mother had a negative Wassermann. January 1st, I9I69 the babe 
had an ulcer on the abdomen and sores in the groin. A week 
later, the mother showed generalized secondaries on which the 
child's condition was diagnosed as a primary infection of the 
abdomen. Several days later, a generalized eruption appeared. 
The mother probably had been infected some little time before 
the child was bom, and the babe, in passing through the vaginal 
tract, received an infection from the mother's primary Ijesion. 
Among the chancres of the hand the following case points a les- 
son: From the use of a common towel a girl aged 13, had re- 
ceived an infection of the thumb. Dr. Cole reports five cases of 
chancres on the hands of physicians, and warns the practitioner that 
he cannot use too much care in the examination of his patients. 
The same mle applies to dentists, nurses and midwiv^. Nb 
vaginal, oral or rectal examinations should be made without gloves. 
As to the diagnosis, Dr. Cole believes that in any persistent sore. 


no matter how trivial, the extragenital chancres should always be 
ruled out. Regular treatment of primary lesions is regarded by 
the writer as a matter of chief importance since many of such 
patients are an especial menace to society. Among 61 extra- 
genital chancres that came to the writer's notice, one babe infected 
her father, and he, in turn, infected the mother and her unborn 
child. Two men, who had lesions on their lips, infected their 
wives. A babe of 19 months transplanted its lip lesion to the lip of 
the mother, who, in turn, transmitted the disease tp her husband. 
As a means of preventing so many innocent persons of becoming 
victims. Dr. Cole recommends stringent supervision of barber shops, 
restaurants, hotels, soda fountains, drinking cups, etc. He further 
insists on the education of the profession as well as the public as 
to the gravity of the disease; the syphilitics should have proper 
instruction as to the importance of an early and long continued 
regular treatment. 


The venality of erotic devotion is designated as Prostitution. 
People should be more discriminating and just. Where the heart 
participates we cannot speak of prostitution even if the poorer 
party receives pecuniary benefits from the wealthier partner. Sex- 
ual affection makes communists of us. On the other hand, every 
sexual surrender without love deserves to be called prostitution 
under whatever forms the gratification may be granted: religious 
marriage, the match with a prince, or conventions of whatever kind. 
Therefore let us not throw stones, the least at those poor chickens, 
and chiefly not if by the transaction each party's desire was ful- 
filled. Now and then even love enters, and marriage is celebrated 
without the assistance of sky-pilots and gold-laced lackeys. 

While the word courtesan savors of venality we designate with 
the word prostitute any woman who entertains extramarital sexual 
relations with men. History narrates of princesses, queens and 
empresses who were great whores although they could not be ac- 
cused of having prostituted their love for lucre's sake. 

We have a higher regard for an amiable arid refined courtesan 
than for a so-called respectable woman who under the fig-leaf of 
an ecclesiastical or legal ceremony sells herself to an unloved 
spouse. — Geo. Hirth. 



^If woman's IXravana (Orgasm) comes not before man's, the 
enjoyment of the coitus is incomplete." — ^Upanishad. 

Laymen as well as many physicians have confused and harmful 
ideas about coitus interruptus ; the latter is often confounded with 
coitus prolongatus. Neither the interruption nor the prolongation 
is injurious if finally in both parties the orgasm takes place. This 
fact is more important for the woman than the man. 

A coitus without orgasm may produce serious consequences for 
woman's health. It is man's duty to summon up all his self-control 
and art and aid the woman in ''arriving" first. The man who 
thinks only of his own satisfaction and stops halfway and deserts 
his partner, is either brutal or does not know what injury he cans-* 
es. It is not so bad if immediately after the first attempt he is in 
the position to proceed at once to a second one. If not, it is his 
duty to accommodate his eruption to that of his mate. As to the 
Vegulation of his satisfaction man is generally better situated than 
woman; in many women the orgasm is difficult, anyhow. Here it 
is up to the art of man to aid his partner with caresses. 


Marriage to-day provides neither for the gradual development 
of the virgin into the young wife, nor for that of the young wife 
into the mother; it may rather be said to skip the middle stage, 
so that the young woman who on one day was altogether without 
sexual experience is found on the next at the commencement of 
motherhood. It is a well-known fact that in a very large prop(N^ 
tion of marriages the first pregnancy dates, if not from the wed- 
ding-night, at least from the first week, the first month, or the 
first quarter of married life. It is by no means uncommon for 
the bride to return from her honeymoon as a pregnant woman. 
But pregnany involves, and this is especially true of a first preg^ 
nancy, the exercise of great care for a period of nine months, the 
renunciation of intellectual, and in part also of physical occupa- 
tion, and the renunciation of d€uices, of the theatre, and social life 
in general. It involves also an increasing incapacity or unwilling- 
ness for the sexual embrace, implying a period of sexual suspense, 
increasing nervous irritability, and in view of all these things, the 


husband, especially if he is one whose occupations keep him at 
home, wiU require an exceptionally large endowment of genuine 
affection for his wife, with powers of renunciation and sexual ab' 
stinence, and strong, healthy nerves. In fifty per cent, of un* 
happy marriages, the unhappiness dates from and depends upon 
the long-enduring quasi-pathological state of the young wife which 
is associated with pregnancy, upon her consequent incapacity to 
be the man's playmate, associate, and travelling companion, and 
also upon the previously mentioned disinclinati<m she then feels 
for erotic intercourse. AH these inconveniences, which at a later 
date the man might perhaps learn to support with greater equa- 
nimity, give rise, when he b himself inexperienced in the conjugal 
life, to a painful sense of disillusionment, and go far to disgust 
him with marriage. — ^Robert Midiels. 



A man can know about his sexuality, whilst a woman is un- 
conscious of it and can in all good faith deny it, because she is 
nothing but sexuality, because she ia sexuality itself. It is im- 
possible for women, because they are only sexual, to recognize their 
sexuality, because recognition of anything requires duality. With 
man it is not only that he is not merely sexual, but anatomically 
and physiologically he can ^^detach** himself from it. He has the 
power to enter into whatever sexual relations he desires; if he 
likes he can limit or increase such relations; he can refuse or 
assent to them. He can play the part of Don Juan or a monk . . . 
To put it bluntly, man possesses sexual organs ; her sexual organs 
possess woman. — ^Weininger. 


For the young wife a speedy oncoming of pregnancy involves 
K very serious consequences. To a woman, marriage involves a 

complete revolution in all her habits; a sudden and imduly crude 
initiation into the mysteries of the sexual life; the independent 
assumption of the care of a household, with all the responsibilities 
that this entails; a certain degree of social emancipation, with a 


relative freedom of movement ; a revision and reconstruction of the 
list of her relatives, friends and acquaintances; and, finally, the 
discharge of certain artistic duties in the furnishing and adorn- 
ment of her new home. If the young wife is to meet these complex 
demands successfully, she requires time for consideration, she needs 
to adapt herself to her new status, she needs peace and quiet ; and 
in default of these things the basis of the new conjugal life will 
necessarily become insecure. Yet in most cases, on the morrow of 
marriage, the young wife has to devote her attention to making 
ready for the expected baby, and on these cares her whole mind is 
necessarily concentrated. It is often impossible in the course of 
long subsequent years to make good the damages suffered by the 
marriage in these early months. In the first years of married life, 
what the husband, though often unconsciously, mainly desires in 
his wife, is that she should be his companion and comrade as well 
as his beloved. For this he has chosen her from among other 
women. But none of these demands can be adequately fulfilled by 
the expectant or parturient mother, by the nursing mother, or by 
the mother pre-occupied in caring for a little child. Thus mother- 
hood deprives the husband of many of his finest hopes — in this 
connection I speak always of the early married life of young 
husbands — and often destroys the charms and attractions which 
the woman possessed before marriage. The young woman doctor, 
who has devoted so many of the years of her youth to serious 
study, with the coming of the child is apt to forget her profes- 
sional and scientific acquirements, and to become just such a house' 
wife as any other woman, whereas had she not so rapidly become 
pregnant she would probably have continued to meet her husband 
upon equal intellectual terms. Undoubtedly all this is in part an 
effect of the eternal triangular duel between maternal duties, con- 
jugal duties, and woman's duties towards her own individuality. 
But none the less we have to ask ourselves what has become of all 
the women doctors and women students who have married? They 
have disappeared. In many cases the cause of this eclipse is to be 
found in the appearance of children too early in married life and 
m too rapid succession. As reflective and intelligent women, how 
few of them have survived the storms of their first experience of 
motherhood. In the cares and troubles of their life as mothers, 


they have, for the most part» allowed all their energies to become 
absorbed. — ^Robert Michels. 


Misogyny, i. e., the physiological and consequently psycholog- 
ical inability to love women is one of the principal sources of the 
pessimism, sentimental world-pain and general ennui found in de- 
bilitated bipeds of the masculine gender. Instead of being aware 
of their congenital or acquired defect, those gentlemen mount their 
Rosinantes and undertake a wonderful cavalry-attack into the 
fields of idiocy. 

I advise those Knightb of the woeful countenance to invigor- 
ate first their constitution. 


The woman's movement, if it is to be logically consistent, 
must not cease to protest against all those external forms of public 
life which imply a depreciation of woman, or a lower estimation of 
woman than of man. Even when such a form may at first sight 
seem to be a mere convention of speech, or to be so entrusted by 
centuries of tradition that most of those concerned have quite 
forgotten Its original significance, protest is none the less neces- 
sary. One of the most striking examples of such conventional 
usages is to be found in the different terminology we employ to 
designate two great classes of womanhood. In all the countries 
of civilised Europe, a sharp distinction is drawn in current speech 
between the married woman (mistress, Frau, madame, se£[ora, 
senhora, mevrouw, etc.) and the unmarried (miss, Fraulein, ma- 
demoiselle, senorita, senhorita, mejuffrouw, etc.). The former group 
of names is reserved to designate legally married women ; terms 
of the second order are applied to all unmarried women, indiffer- 
ently whether these are young women awaiting marriage, elderly 
women who have remained unmarried, or those who, though in 
sexual relationships, have not entered these upon a legalised footing. 
The use of such discriminative terms represents for women as a 
whole an interference, on the part of the man-controlled state, 
of an extremely offensive and morally impermissible character. 


A close consideration of the problem leads us to ask ourselves what 
business it is of the majority whether a woman has or has not 
entered into sexual relationships with a man, and whether before 
doing so she has passed through certain legal formalities. We 
have further to ask ourselves whether the same sort of attitude 
in this matter is exhibited towards men. We know, of course, that 
men are not thus divided into two categories in the light of their 
legalised sexual relationships. A man is addressed as plain ^^Mr.** 
indifferently whether he is a married man or a bachelor, an adol- 
escent, a libertine, or a worn-out rou^. The bachelor would strong- 
ly object to be distinguished from the married man by the use of 
some special honorific prefix — as if, in the German language, we 
were to speak to and of him in the diminutive form as Herrchen A. 
just as we speak in diminutive form of Fraulein B. Compare it 
in English in the case of two well-known names. Everyone speaks 
of Miss Christabel Pankhurst, should they not speak also of Master 
Arthur Balfour? Thus only could we mete the like measure to 
both parties; thus, at least, we should all know at any distance 
that neither of the persons has at yet entered the holy state of 
matrimony. — Robert Michels. 


The demand for emancipation does not in the first instance 
arise from the most oppressed strata of the class, nation, or sex 
deeply concerned; it is always voiced, at the outset, by a few 
idealists belonging to the ranks of the privileged, and not till 
later does it become the war-cry of the most instructed among the 
oppressed. — ^Robert Michels. 


The nervous energy whence thought flows has perhaps noth- 
ing in common with muscular strength and stature. Famous men 
are recruited from the men of small size. The majority of those 
who are celebrated show a height below the average. Plato, So- 
crates, Aristotle, Epictetus, Alexander the Great, Balzac, Mon- 


taigne, Spinoza, Lalande, Linnaeus, Frederick the Great, Napolecm, 
Kant, Victor Hugo, Cavour, Thiers, and so many other guiding 
minds of humanity, have never been distinguished either for the 
power of their muscles or for their height. 



The children of the immigrants show, from the first genera- 
tion, radical alterations in the shape of their heads. For instance, 
the children of the Jews from Oriental Europe change from the 
brachycephalic to the dolichocephalic type; while the children of 
the immigrants frcnn southern Italy, who are very dolichocephalic, 
become brachycephalic. The offspring of these two races, so wide- 
ly different, thus tend to adapt themselves to the common type 
ca^eated by the dimate and the conditions of life in the United 
States. The rapidity with which this transformation takes place 
is all the more ast(mishing because the skull has always be«i con- 
sidered an unchanging portion of the body. — Jean Finot. 


Mankind is progressing toward the brachycephalic form. The 
head, in order to afford room for an ever increasing knowledge, 
must necessarily be enlarged and the brachycephalic form is indi- 
cated to receive and to maintain the number of facts and increasing 
ideas which flow into our brains. — Jean Finot. 


The statements that men have stronger sexual impulses than 
women, or that women have them stronger than men, are false. 
The strength of the siexual impulse in a man does not depend upon 
the proportion of masculinity in his composition, and in the same 
way the degree of femininity of a woman does not determine her 
sexual impulse . . . Contrary to the general opinion, there is no 
difference in the total sexual impulses of the sexes. However, if 
we examine the matter in respect to the two component forces into 
which Albert Moll analyzed the impulse, we shall find that a 
difference does exist. These forces may be called the liberating and 
the uniting** impulses. The first appears in the form of dis- 



comfort "caused by the" accumulation of ripe sexual cells; the 
second is the desire of the ripe individual for sexual completion. 
Both impulses are possessed by the male, in the female only the 
latter is present. The anatomy and the physiological process of 
the sexes bear out the distinction. — ^Weininger. 


Only the most male youths are addicted to masturbation, and 
although it is often disputed, similar vices occur only in the 
mdler of women, and are absent from the female nature. 


Woman is sexually much more excitable (not more sensitive) 
physiologically than man. The condition of sexual excitement is 
the supreme moment of a woman's life. The woman is devoted 
wholly to sexual matters, that is to say, to the spheres of begetting 
and of reproduction. Her relations to her husband and children 
complete her life, whereas the male is something more than sexual. 
In this respect, rather than in the relative strength of the sexual 
impulses, there is a real difference between the sexes. It is im- 
portant to distinguish between the intensity with which sexual 
matters are pursued and the proportion of the total activities of 
life that are devoted to them and their accessory cares. — ^Weininger. 


The most important advantage which will flow from the re- 
cognition of the unity of all the love-sentiments, will be that of 
raising the standard of those forms which are now called base to 
the same dignity with those which are regarded as pure. It will 
be seen that all love is pure, since it is natural; for nature, not 
convention, is the true standard of purity. — ^Lester F. Ward. 


Authoritative moral codes are wholly non-progressive, and 
serve rather to denote the state of society than to secure its ad- 
vancement* — ^L. F. Ward. 


APRIL, 1917 

No. 4 

The American 
Journal of Urology 

and Sexology 

win wBidi mm been rwiiolMitiwI 

Tke American Pim( 

Mill « r^ 




■» * 

>rf'* n 


Obstinate Constipation of 

Infants and Young Children 

is usually a dietetic affair* but is sometimes due to lack of muscular tone. 

While INTEROL is neither a food nor a tonic, it is undoubtedly of service 
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INTEROL moves the child's bowels without the enervation, irritation, 
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INTEROL is a parHcular kind of "mmeral oil." and is not "taken from the same 
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(2) no dark discok>ration on the lead-oxide-sodium-hydroadde test — absolute freedom 
from sulphur compounds — so that there can be no gastro-intestinal disturbance from 
this source; (3) no action on litmus — ^absolute neutrality; (4) no odor, even when 
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linetin ia an extract of killed cultures of a number of strains of the 
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The Lnetin reaction is specific for syphilis; it occurs most constantiy 
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Copyright, 1917, by Dr. William J. Robinson 


Subscriptions and all communications relating to the business or editorial 
department, exchanges, and books for review, should be addressed to THE 
AMERICAN JOURNAL OP UROLOGY, 12 Mt, Morris Park West, New 
York City. 



Dreams: Their Meaning, Structure and Interpretation. By Samuel A. 
Tannenbanm, M.D 145 

The Relations between Sexual Abstinence and Health. By Prof. 
Dr. Anton NjrstrSm 160 

Sexual Abstinence in Women 168 


Theses for the Discussion of Sexual Abstinence. By Dr. Magnus 
Hirschfeld and Dr. Iwan Bloch 171 

Cases of Abnormal and Insane Jealousy. Dr. M. Friedman 174 

Distinctions between the Male and Female Sex Instinct. By Dr. 
Ludwig Reisinger 178 

An "Internal Secretion." By William F. Waugh, M.D 180 

Maternity Superstitions of Filipinos. Elsie P. McCloskey 186 


The Cause of Frigidity in Woman. Walter M. Gallichan 183 

The Libertine Does Not Know Woman. Robert Michels 184 

Free Love An Exploded Theory. Robert Michels 184 

BIRTH-CONTROL BIBLIOGRAPHY. Compiled by William J. Rob- 
inson, M.D., New York, 1917 185-192 

Published monthly by the Urologic Publishing Association, 
12 Mt. Morris Park West» New York, N. Y. 



Treatment of 
Sexual Impotence 


William J. Robinson* M. D. 

Cliicf of tbe Department of GenHo-Urintry DIaeaiet tnd Dermatologj. Bronx Hospital and 
Dispennrj; Bditor The American Journal of Urology, Venereal and Scxnal DiaeMet; 
Editor of The Critic and Guide: Author of Sexual Problemt of Today, Never 
Told Tales, Practical Eugenics, etc; President of the Ameaican SocteCy 
of Medical Sodoloay, President of the Northern Medical So- 
ciety, Sx-President of the Berlin Anglo-American Med- 
ical Society, Fellow of the New York Aca- 
dany of Medidne, etc, etc. 

Unqotstioiiablj and incomparsbly the best, liiiiplast and most thorongb 
book on the subject in the Rngllih lsngiui(e; 


Psrt I— Msstarbstion, Its Prevalence^ Cansea, Varieties, 8jmpt oma» 
Results, Prophylaxis and Treatment Coitua Intermptiia and Its Effects. 

Part II— Varieties, Causes and Treatment of Pollutions^ Spermatorrhea, 
Prostatorriiea and Uredirorrhea, 

Part III— Sexual Impotence in the Male. Every phase of its widely vary- 
ing causes and treatment, with illuminating case reports. 

Part IV — Sexual Neuras^enia. Causes, Treatment, case reports, and its 
relation to Impotence. 

Part V— Sterility, Male and Female. Its Causes and Treatment 
Part VI— Sexual Disorders in Woman, Including Frigidity, Vaginismus, 
Adherent Clitoris, and Injuries to the Female in Coitus. 

Part VII— Priapism. Etiology, Case Reports and Treatment 

Part VIII — Miscellaneous Topics. Including: Is Masturbation a Vice?— 
Two Kinds of Premature Ejaculation.— The Frequency of Coitus.— ''Use- 
less** Sexual E;:citement. — ^The Relation Between Mental and Sexual Activity. 
—Big Families and Sexual Vigor. — Sexual Perversions. 

Part IX — Prescnptions and Minor Points. 

Sixth edition revised mkd enlarged. 
Cloth bounds 422 pages. Postpaid^ $3.00. 


Dr. Robinson's Never Tola Tales, $1.00. Sexual Problema of To-Day. $2.00. 


Vol. Xin. APRIL, 1917. No. 4. 

For Tss Amisican Jourmai. of Usoloqt and S<xoi.ocy. 


Their Meaning, Structure, and Interpretation. 
Bt Samuel A. Tannenbaum, M. D. 

[Continued from March issue.] 

Logical Relations in Dreams. — ^When one considers that the 
activities of the unconscious mind are essentially associative and 
perceptive and that in the process of dream-making the latent 
thoughts are condensed, displaced, distorted, symbolized and shifted 
about in the most wanton manner, the question naturally arises as 
to how the dream expresses the logical relationship existing among 
the mass of thoughts constituting the latent content. How does 
a dream express the idea introduced by the conditional particle 
"if," by the disjunctive correlatives "either — or," by the adverbial 
correlatives "as — so," by the conjunction "because," etc? The 
genius and acumen of Freud have found answers to these difficult 
problems as to others emanating from the study of the unconscious. 
He shows that these logical relations are only clumsdly and inade- 
quately expressed in the dream itself and that their presence can 
very often only be guessed at from a study of the latent content 
elicited by the analysis. When the dream is reconverted into its 
raw material the analyst must, or may, be able to reconstruct the 
bonds that held this material together. 

That in dreams the higher intellectual faculties are held in 
abeyance is proved by the absence in them of any evidence of orig- 
inal arguments, judgments, deductions, conversations, calculations, 
inferences. Whenever these appear in a dream analysis invariably 
shows that they are cmly borrowings from the dreamer's wakinf^ 
experiences before the dream. Dream conversation^, '\'ith certain 



exceptional cases occurring in obsession neurosis, are the distorted 
and displaced fragments of speeches actually spdcen or heard by 
the dreamer while he was awake. These speech fragments often 
sound very absurd in the dream because they are usually attached 
to something to which they are wholly unsuited« Mathematical 
calculations, too, even those of the simplest nature, occurring In 
dreams emanate from the latent content. Dream arithmetic is 
often very absurd owing to the fact that the numerals are lightly 
shifted about as if they were material entities; so that, for ex- 
ample, 6 times 6 will appear asi 66 or as some other numeral that 
had figured in the dreamer's waking mind. In the vast majority 
of dreams these borrowed speeches and calculations are reproduced 
in a distorted form and in a wholly diiFejrent connection and with 
a wholly different meaning frcnn what they had in the waking 
state. If it be objected to this that many have solved difficult 
problems or composed original poems in their dreams, our answer 
is that these achievements were either merely the repetition of for- 
gotten performances or that they were performed while the person 
was half awake. 

But it must not be supposed therefore that logical relation- 
ships and intellectual operations are wholly lacking in dreams; 
little tell-tale indications of these may be found even in the most 
complicated, meaningless, or absurd dreams. Dreams and dream- 
ers vary greatly as to the special device employed by them to 
express these relations and as to the extent to which they are em- 
ployed, and their interpretation therefore taxes the analyst's pa- 
tience and ingenuity to the utmost. 

To express the idea conveyed by the use of the conjunction 
"and*' the dream presents the elements so united either by placing 
them in juxtaposition or fusing them into one or making one suc- 
ceed the other. To express the idea that there is something in 
common between certain elements in the latent thoughts, the dream 
brings them or their representatives together in time and space. 
It follows, therefore, that when a dream shows certain elements 
in spatial or chronological contiguity it means to say that they 
are united by some common bond, that they agree in something. 
What that something is can be discovered only by the analysis. 
This is very much like what we see in some paintings. Thus in 
Blashfield's fine mural painting at the College of the City of New 
York, depicting the spirit of "Kultur," many of the culture 


heroes of andait and modem times are brought together to wit- 
ness a graduation ceremony. 

The relationship of cause and effect ia perhaps more easily 
expressed in dreams than any other, although it not infrequently 
happens that it is not indicated at all in the manifest dream. 
In most dreams it is expressed by a succession of two different 
dream fragments, one of which represents the cause and the other 
the effect. Which one is the premise and which the conclusion can 
be determined only by the analysis. In some dreams the same re- 
lationship is expressed not by two dream elemoits succeeding each 
other but by one being transformed into another. One of my 
patients expressed the idea that she feared her lover because she 
realized that she was not safe in his presence, by seeing him in a 
dream transformed into a fierce cat which was about to spring on 
her. I need hardly add that the fear betrayed her wish. 

To express the disjunctive "either — or," so common in our 
daily speech, the dream makes use of a very simple pro(5ess, namely*, 
fusing the pictures of the alternatives into one figure in such a 
manner as to make it uncertain which one is represented. If in 
the narration of the manifest dream the dreamer makes use of the 
words "either — or** in a certain connection, the disjunctive is to 
be translated by "and." Inasmuch as the unconscious does not 
seem capable of expressing a negation, "neither — nor" is also in- 
dicated by bringing the two members together in a certain con- 
nection; and the latent content alone is capable of interpreting. 
All negation in the latent content is expressed in the dream posi- 
tively and, very often, by inversion; thus, for example, "nobody" 
is often expressed by the presence of a multitude. This serves 
not only as an extremely well-calculated method of deceiving the 
sleeping censor but also of giving expression to the undoubtedly 
frequent wish that things were turned around. All this is not so 
strange as it seems at first glance if one bears in mind that even 
in our highly civilized language many words have had at the 
same time, and still have, directly opposite meanings ("let" means 
to "permit" and to "hinder," "sacred" means "set apart for good" 
and "set apart for evil," to "owe" means to "own" and to be 
"indebted"; also see "rival," "cleave," "leave," "lend," "noble," 
etc.), a characteristic that ia quite common in more primitive 
languages (including a primitive mode of thought) ; moreover, 
many perfectly healthy people often unconsciously say the direct 


opposite of what they mean to say, e. g. "it was very warm" for 
"very cold," etc. Whether a dream element is to be interpreted 
positively or negatively must be determined frcwn the dreamer's 
associations, — a striking corroboration of the popular dictimi that 
"dreams (often) go by contraries.'* ("Extremes meet.") 

A conflict of the will is expressed in a dream by a conscious- 
ness or sensation of hindered movement, of vainly trying to do 
something, e. g. to run away, to walk upstairs, to open a door, 
etc. The dream encounters the least difficulty in giving expression 
to the existence of likeness, association, and agreement between 
certain elements in the latent content; it simply combines or con- 
denses likes into one figure. The expression of opposition and 
contradiction between certain thoughts in the latent content en- 
counters great difficulties in a dream ; but it is usually accomplish- 
ed in one of the following ways: either some other part of the 
dream content (i. e. of the latent thoughts), in some way related 
to the thoughts in question, is inverted, or the elements represent- 
ing the opposed thoughts are fused into a unity (^^=identification). 
Scorn, mockery, contempt, and displeasure in the latent content 
are expressed by introducing an evident absurdity into the mani- 
fest dream or by presenting something in a reversed form. Bui* 
when all is said there is no doubt that we are only on the threshold 
of this phase of our subject. 

Dream 13 (reported by Staercke). — A Dutch physician had 
the following dream: ^^On the last phalanx of my left index 
finger I have a primary syphilitic affection (i. e. a chancre). 

Analysts. — The manifest dream is anything but a wish-fulfil- 
raent ! The dreamer never had syphilis and would never wish him- 
self anything so terrible. Shortly before he had this dream he 
saw a picture of such a chancre in an atlas on diseases of the 
skin and he recalled that he had been taught that the word 
"syphilis" was derived from the Greek "sus" (swine) and "philos" 
(love). "Sus" reminds him of "Susi," a trained hinny he had 
recently seen at a circus; he also recalls with regret that his sis- 
ters-in-law (=:"zusje" in Dutch) are getting too grown up to 
sit on his lap. "Suze" was the name of an Indo-European (of a 
mixed breed — ^like the hinny !) woman whom he loved but who did 
not reciprocate his passion; when he angered her she used to 
stamp on the ground with her foot, — an action that reminded him 
of one of the hinny's tricks. As a child he long harbored a strong 


wish for a sister (==zuster, zusje). When he was seven or eight 
years old he used to play with a little cousin aged five years and he 
often wished she were his sister; a disagreeable experience subse- 
quently led to her repression from his memory. 

In this dream then we find a symbol (syphilis) in which 
several wishes are condensed, viz.: His sisters-in-law, a sister and 
Suze. The index finger is raised when one takes an oath, and in 
Dutch the word ("zweerin") meaning to "take an oath" also 
means "to have a swelling.'' The lesion being on the tip of his 
finger indicates that he goes *to extremes" in his love. He recalls 
that when Suze had a coryza he expressed the wish that she would 
infect him, and he had at various times said that if he loved a 
woman he would not be deterred in his wooing even by the risk of 
being infected with syphilis. In the dream he hcta the infection, 
i. e. he is in love. The intensity of his love is measured by the 
gravity of the infection as well as by the location of the lesion 
("to extremes"). Furthermore, he says, "primary affection" 
means "first love." We may say, then, in brief, that this dream 
means: "I have Suze's love and 1 love her to the tips of my 
fingers," or, "Even at the risk of syphilis I wish I had Suze's 

Tjrpical Dreams. — Considering that dreams are such a 
peculiarly personal psychic creation, each dreamer having not 
only his own peculiar complexes but even employing his own 
dream language, dream imagery, and even dream technique, it is a 
remarkable fact that there are certain dreams that are dreamt at 
some time or other, and even more than once, by almost all of us. 
These dreams, — ^"typical dreams" Freud has named them, — not 
many of which have yet been identified, are of great interest 
because, occuring so often and almost always with identical char- 
acteristics, they presumably always have the same meaning at 
bottom and are therefore specially suited to give us valuable data 
as to the ultimate sources of dreams. 

1. Embarrassing Nakedness. — One of the commonest of these 
typical dreams is that of being more or less naked in a public 
place, of being conscious of the partial nudeness and being greatly 
embarrassed or annoyed thereat and of trying to run away or to 
hide oneself and yet not being able to budge from the spot. It 
is significant that in almost all these dreams the subject is never 
wholly naked and usually wears a shirt or vest which seems just 


long enough or just not long enough to cover the genitals ; at any 
rate the dreamer is always conscious of his genitals. Freud cor- 
rectly interprets this dream as the unconscious gratification of 
the infantile desire to exhibit one's genitals, the embarrassment as 
the reaction to the successful emergence of the reporessed exhi- 
bitionism, and the sense of inhibition as the manifestation of the 
conflict between two opposing desires (the natural, i. e. instinctive, 
and the cultural, i. e. acquired). There is no doubt that in 
paradisal childhood we all enjoy going about partly naked and 
exhibiting ourselves to our parents and near kindred, and that 
even later in life we enjoy opportunities to see ourselves naked 
and to exhibit ourselves (at the seashore, the Turkish bath, the 
gymnasium). A nakedness dream is not necessarily a typical 
dream; to be considered such it must show embarrassment. 

2. Death of Kindred. — Another very common dream is that 
of the death of a person very closely related to the dreamer 
(father, mother, husband, wife, child, etc.). To be regarded as 
"typical" the dreamer must be moved to great grief by the un- 
timely end of the relative in question. In this shape the dream is 
to be interpreted as the fulfilment of a repressed wish for the 
death of the person so dreamt of. Shocking as such an explana- 
tion will undoubtedly appear to those who hear this for the first 
time, there is no possible doubt as to its correctness. The wish 
for the death of someone who stands in the way of the fulfilment 
of our desires (ambitions), e. g. a business rival, or one whose 
success excites our jealousy, or who interferes with our pleasures, 
is one of the commonplaces of our daily life. This is especially 
true of young children owing to their utter selfishness, their keen 
sensitiveness to the presence of a rival, their resentment at physical 
punishment, their unwillingness to be commanded, and their ignor- 
ance of what death is. "I wish you were dead,*' spoken by a child 
means only, "I wish j^ou were away from here so that you could 
not punish me or tyrannize over me or take from me what I like.** 
It is this childish wish that continues to live on in the unconscious 
of the adult and finds fulfilment in the dreams that we are now 
considering. Somctliing in our daily life has resuscitated the 
dormant (repressed) hatred and the wish fulfilhng tendency of 
the psyche does the rest. The grief in these dreams manifests the 
love for the dream-deceased and masks the dreamer's pleasure at 
the p^tification of his wish. 


8. OedipuS'Electra Dreams. — A special type of the dream of 
the death of kindred is the dream by a man of \hf death of his 
father or by a woman of the death of her mother. These dreams 
are of particular interest because they are so often dreamt by per- 
sons who also dream of having coitus with the parent of the 
opposite sex and because by terminating in a pollution they prove 
the sexual significance of the dream. Behind these dreams, which 
are usually very well disguised, there betrays itself nothing modre 
serious than the persistence of the child's first love, the parent of 
the opposite sex, and first jealousy, the parent of the same sex. 
That this infantile love almost invariably takes on a sexual char- 
acter and that its unsuccessful repression plays an extremely im- 
portant role in the development and dreams or fantasies of the 
psychoneurotic, are fairly well established truths. In many of 
these dreams of coitus with a parent the rival parent is the object 
of the dreamer's solicitude and love; but this is only a sop to the 

4. Examination Dreams^ — ^A fairly common dream is one in 
which the subject dreams that he is again at school and has to 
pass an examination, feels himself insufficiently prepared, and is 
extremely anxious and worried about the result. It is character- 
istic of these dreams, and very significant from our point of view, 
that the subject matter of the examination is invariably one that 
the dreamer had no difficulty in passing or passed with honor. 
Ereud says that these dreams are dreamt as a kind of encourage- 
ment to the dreamer when he is worried about the success of 
something important he is about to undertake or about the out- 
come of something he is engaged in. It is as if the dream said: 
"don't worry; you won't fail in this thing any more than you 
did in such or such a subject when you were at school and were 
so needlessly worried." Stekel finds that men have these dreams 
on the eve of an engagement that is to test their sexual potency. 
I have found an interesting sub-variety of this dream in actors 
and actresses which consists in dreaming that one cannot learn his 
part or has forgotten it. This is usually dreamt by one who has 
no difficulty in learning his part and who has never forgotten it. 
The meaning of such a dream is plainly this : "You won't fail with 
what you have in hand any more than you have failed with the 
parts at the theatre." It serves to encourage and cheer the dreamer. 


5. Birth Dreams, — ^To a beginner in psycho-analysis nothing' 
is more surprising than the frequency with which neurotics and 
healthy subjects dream of being bom or of being still unborn^ 
i. e. of being within utero. The reascms for this are probably 
some dim unconscious recollection of one's birth (the individual's 
first experience associated with anxiety), mental preoccupation 
with the subject of birth and everything pertaining to it, and the 
wish to begin life anew. It is characteristic of all birth dreams 
that in them the dreamer experiences intense anxiety. There is 
hardly any limit to the number and variety of symbols employed 
to represent the act of birth, the commonest perhaps being that of 
going through a very narrow (sometimes dark, winding, and 
moist) passage into a large space and of being saved from drown- 
ing. Less common are dreams of taking bread out of an oven, 
taking something from a box, walking down a najrrow staircase, re- 
ceiving a letter, coming out of a house or a small room, being in 
a tight place, or arriving in a strange and unfamiliar place. The 
same idea may be expressed by reversing the process in the dream,, 
i. e., falling into the water, going from a large space into a 
narrow one, putting something into a box, etc. According to 
StekePs interpretation of the law of *bipolarity,' all dreams of 
being bom also deal with the subject of death. 

In women these "birth dreams" often indicate a strong wish 
for- a child. 

Owing to their fantasies about their origin and birth many 
persons see in their dreams large numbers of little men (=sperma- 
tozoa) congregated in one place and running about confusedly, 
they being one in the crowd. These "spermatozoa dreams" (Sil- 
berer) may take various forms, e. g. many little boats sailing up 
and down a river, and express the wish never to have been born 
cr to begin life all over again. 

Life in utero is represented by swimming in the water, being 
confined in a small space, hiding in a closet, lying in a bath- 
tub, being alive in a coffin, etc. Dreams of intra-uterine life and 
of birth are not infrequently combined into one. 

A kind of dream that occurs so often that it deserves to be 
considered a typical dream is that of saving somebody from 
drowning or from the flames. To save scHnebody's life in a dream 
means a desire to possess that person or, if a female, to make her 
pregnant (to give her a life). For a man to save his father's life 


means to repay him for the life he gave, to be quits with him, to 
be indepaident of him; to save his mother's life may mean the 
same things as well as the desire to save her from the brutality of 
the father and to possess her (Oedipus complex) or her love. 
FinaUy we must not overlook the fact that many of these water 
and fire dreams ajre associated with a full bladder and the desire 
to urinate, and that fire and water frequently stand for each other 
and symbolise love, passion, sensuality, life. 

6. Onanism Dreams^ — Owing to the universality with which 
onanism is practiced and condemned, especially in iafancyy child- 
hood, and adolescence, the persistence of the desire for this form 
of sexual gratification finds expression in a vast number of the 
dreams of adults of both sexes under the mask of an almost in- 
finite variety of symbols. The true nature of these dreams, which 
almost always go back to ante-puberty incest fantasies, is attest- 
ed by the fact that they almost always end in a pollution or that 
the sleeper awakes to prevent the pollution. The symbols most 
commonly employed in these dreams are the following: to pull, 
shake, or jerk something; to ride in an automobile, to play an 
automatic piano, to break a pen, to break one's gun, to play 
billiards, to play marbles, to choke somebody, to lay hands on 
somebody, to shoot, to urinate, to do manual labor, to do wrong, 
to spoil a machine, to lose a tooth, to pull a tooth, to soil cme^s 
hand, etc. Those who have a large acquaintance with current 
slang will readily understand these symbols as well as the use of 
certain numerals, e. g. 66, 44, 11 (penis=eleventh finger), 15 
(phallus + five fingers) or 51, etc., to express the same idea. 
Because of the vicious practice of trying to wean children from 
the habit of onanism by all sorts of threats, thoughts of castra- 
tion, insanity, or death are integral parts of most of these dreams. 

7. Dreams of Flying and Falling, — ^There is probably not 
a person living who has not sometimes dreamt of fiying, soar- 
ing gently a few feet above the earth, or of falling from a great 
height. These dreams of fiying are so common, so vivid, and so 
realistic that even the earliest dream critics have tried to explain 
them. Some have actually assumed that the supposed flight con- 
sisted of a real excursion of the "astral body." Recent psycholo- 
gists explain the sensation of flying during sleep to be the result 
of the respiratory movements, a numbness of the parts of the 
skin supporting the weight of the body, and the absence of tactile 


pressure on the feet to suggest contact with the earth ; but if this 
explanation were correct we ought all to dream of flying every 
time we fall asleep. Freud attributes the sensation of flying to 
an unconscious reminiscence of the child's pleasurable sensations — 
sensations that often took on a sexual character — ^when it was 
rocked in the cradle, playfully thrown up into the air, swung in 
a hammock or swinging-chair, etc., and he interprets these dreams 
as the symbolic fulfilment of a desire for coitus. Dreams of flying 
also symbolise ^vaulting ambition,' the wish to be a bird, to be 
piure as an angel, to be rid of one's earthly ties, etc. Dreams of 
falling have also received fantastic anatomico-psychologic explan- 
ations but we prefer Freud's explanation which attributes them 
to the reminiscences of infancy (throwing a baby up into the air 
and pretending to let it fall) and explains them as symbols of a 
moral fall. One of my patients, a married woman who waa com- 
pelled to live in sexual abstinence for a short time, dreamt that 
she fell — in bed. 

The Function of Dreaming. — If dreaming is not the result 
of demoniacal influences, or the experiences of the ^astral bodv,' 
or the hap-hazard working of disconnected groups of brain cells, 
or the psyche's attempt to interpret incoming sensations, and if 
what we have said about the meaning and structure of dreams is 
true, it must follow that dreaming serves a definite purpose and is 
beneficial to the individual. The popular notion that dreams dis- 
turb sleep is flaUy contradicted by our experience which enforces 
the conviction that dreams tend to preserve sleep. The truth of 
this proposition must be evident to all who consider the following 
facts and arguments: 

1. Convenience Dreams. — ^Painful sensations entering the 
psyche from within or from without the body are often wholly 
disregarded by sleeping consciousness so that the sleeper is not 
awakened by them. In other cases the person is not awakened 
by these painful sefisations because he dreams of something utter- 
ly inconsistent with them, as if to deny their existence, or he 
dreams of doing something that removes them. He dreams that 
the painful com is gone, that he is quenching his thirst at a 
banquet, that there is nothing the matter with his neck to prevent 
him performing his acrobatic feats at the theatre, that the sound 
that he hears is not the alarm clock but a bell that he can dis- 
regard, etc. Obviously this is all in the interests of sleep. 


2. Anticipating Dreams. — ^There is a class of dreams that 
encourages the dreamer to go on sleeping by creating the delusion 
that he is not sleeping and dreaming but that he is awake and 
attending (o his duties. Thus a teacher dreams that he is in the 
classroom calling the roll of his pupils or giving a lesson. 

8. Consolation Dreams, — Comforting dreams of all kinds 
have undoubtedly occurred to almost everyone who has ever gone 
to bed with some worry, fear, or anxiety. A sick man f aUs asleep 
and dreams that his deceased baby sister appears to him and 
assures him that he is not yet to die. Another man goes to 
bed worried as to how he will meet a financial obligation on the 
morrow and he dreams that one of his debtors pays an account 
that is long overdue. A mother falls asleep at the bedside of a 
dying baby and dreams that the child is playing in the street. 

4. Censored Dreams. — The elimination of painful thoughts 
from sleeping consciousness so as to permit sleep to continue is 
illustrated in the mass of dreams that we have been considering, 
the meaning of which becomes clear only when the symbols are 
interpreted or when all of the individual's free associations have 
been accumulated and analysed. These are the dreams in which 
the censor disguises the painful (repressed) thoughts that have 
been aroused to activity or re-awakened by the still unsubmerged 
fragments of the day's experiences. These thoughts are of such 
a nature that unless they were sufficiently disguised and distorted 
they would interfere with the individual's sleep. The imaginary 
fulfilment of the repressed desires consequently constitute a com- 
promise between the censor and the ego's desire for sleep and 
serves temporarily to allay the tension, or disturbance created by 
the stirring desires. 

The objection has very properly been raised that dreams can- 
not be regarded as the preservers of sleep because many dreams 
are of such a painful nature that the dreamers awake from them 
in terror. Freud, on the other hand, very properly answers that 
the analysis of these apprehension dreams shows that the dis- 
tressing emotion (fear, apprehension, anxiety) does not emanate 
from the manifest content of the dream but from the latent con- 
tent, that these dreams of being in danger of being attacked by 
some large or fierce beast (bull, lion, dog) or by a burglar widd- 
inf;r a dangerous weapon (pistol, club, sword), or of losing one's 
life by fire or by drowning, and other apprehension dreams, are 



but poorly disguised representatives of forbidden, 
pressed desires of all sorts, chiefly erotic and criminal, and that 
the dreamei* — afraid of his repressed desires — awakes in time to 
prevoit the true meaning of the dream reaching his consciousness. 
The fear is the fear of oneself, — ^the reaction to the repressed 
desire. In these dreams the wish-fulfilment tendency has failed be- 
cause of the censor's failure to discharge his full duty. One of 
my patients awoke in great terror from a dream in which she 
saw a burglar with upraised club enter through the window and 
approach her husband as he lay on the floor unconscious of his 
peril. The burglar's features were stnMigly reminiscent of the 
lover whom she had rejected in a fit of spleen following a petty 
quarrel. Thoughts of her husband's death in some accidental 
manner and without guilt on her part played a conspicuous part 
in her fantasies. 

The attribution of other functions to the dream, such as a 
preparatory function, a cathartic function, a warning function, 
etc., is wholly unnecessary and based upon a failure to realize 
the full significance of the wish-fulfilling tendency of dreams as 
detailed by Freud. 

Prophetic Dreams. — ^The belief in the prophetic nature of 
dreams entertained by many persons in ancient as well as in 
modem times undoubtedly had its origin in the fact that many 
have shaped their conduct in accordance with their dreams with- 
out realizing that the dream only reflected or echoed their more 
or less vaguely defined desires, the enactment of which they post- 
poned because of some present scruple or fear. Many have un- 
doubtedly gone to bed with the wish that they might find a solu- 
tion for their problems in their dreams, and the wish became 
father to the thought. Biblical influence, too, has played its 
share in strengthening the belief in the prophetic function of 
dreams. There can also be very little doubt that in many in- 
stances persons deliberately or unconsciously falsify the recollec- 
tion of their dreams, by adding to or subtracting from them, 
so as to make it appear that the dream foretold something. In 
other instances persons have determined cm a certain course of 
conduct because of the suggestive influence of some dream. The 
hypermnesia which is characteristic of dreams may bring to one's 
mind the features of long-forgotten personages or places that 
one expects to see and that he thinks he has never seen and thus 


give the impression of predicticMi or prevision. Ellis (1. c. p. 9S) 
IS willing to admit that there are proj^etic dreams but we have 
never seen any evid^[ice of it that would bear critical investigation. 
The case for telepathic dreama is somewhat better than for 
pro}^tic dreams. 

Value of Oncircdogy. — ^Even though we repudiate the theory 
that the study of dreams will enable us to foretell future events or 
that in them we may discover communications from ^^our friends 
in heaven and our foes in hell,'' we must not therefore conclude 
that the study and interpretation of dreams are not of the great- 
est theoretical, cultural, and practical consequence. In fact the 
results obtained by the application of the psycho-analytic tech- 
nique to dream criticism in the past twenty years have been so 
interesting and so b^iefidal and hold forth such large promise for 
the future that Freud's brilliant generalizations in this sphere may 
safely be set down as one of the most valuable and solid achieve- 
ments of the nineteenth century. 

From the purely theoretic point of view the psycho-analytic 
interpretation of dreams teaches the valuable lesson that there is 
no accident in the domain of psychic phenomena, that dreams are 
not the children of the chance operations of the mind, that law 
and order prevail in our mental working, and that the psyche of 
the night is continuous and one with that of the day. One of the 
most curious, perplexing, and fascinating prob]|ems of mental 
functioning has at last received its explanation. The discovery 
of the meaning and structure of dreams has served to explain the 
mechanism and hidden purpose of a large number of phenomena 
in human conduct that were formerly supposed to be as meaning 
less and accidental as dreams, viz.: slips of the tongue, slips of 
memory, slips of the pen, and many other "misdoings." With 
this key, too, Fireud has unlocked the portals that lead to the 
understanding of the structure, meaning, and functions of wit 
and humor. And as though in all this we had not enough to be 
thankful for one man's genius, psycho-analytic oneirocriticism has 
opened up unsuspected avenues to the study and explanation of 
the origin of religion, myths, witchcraft, fairy tales, the belief 
in the immortality of the soul, the significance of superstition, 
and the evolution of certain folkloric ceremonials, beliefs, and 


Apart from this theoretical or cultural significance of the 
study of dreams the subject is of importance because of the un- 
doubted influence that dreams have upon our daily life. They 
not only tend to depress or to cheer us, even though the dream 
has been forgotten, but to influence our conduct. In one of my 
own dreams I was reminded of something I would gladly have 
forgotten but which it was important not to forget. In the dream 
I saw a vivid and painful realization of the consequences of failure 
to meet an obligation on the appointed day. Such tricks of 
memory on the part of the unconscious mind are not uncommon. 
A young lady who was very much annoyed and yet flattered by 
the courtebies, pretty speeches, and attentions of her dentist, — 
who even spoke of elc^ing with her and almost made her believe 
what he said, — dreamt that while he attempted to kiss her she push- 
ed him through an open window and he was killed. The dream 
made such an impression on her that she decided never to see that 
dentist again. Considering the effect his conduct had on her, 
which we cannot detail here, it is fortunate that she did so. There 
is absolutely no doubt that persons are often deterred from com- 
mitting certain crimes by a vivid dream realization of the conse- 
quences of yielding to their criminal impulses. 

A number of observers have reported instances in which 
dreams revealed the first symptoms of oncoming organic ailments, 
and the findings of Freud and his disciples encourage us to hope 
that some day the study of our patients' dreams may enable us to 
recognize characteristic features in the dreams of the mentally 
backward, the epileptic, the hysteric, the paranoiac, the alcoholic, 
etc., and to make use of them for purposes of diagnosis. 

"Dreams,*' says Freud, "are the royal road to the uncon- 
scious." In dreams we see ourselves not as others see us, but 
what is more important, as we are. "In somnio Veritas" is much 
truer than has been supposed for in it we can discover the 
evidences not only of our aspirations, our loves and our hates, 
our prejudices and sympathies, and our criminal desires, but the 
true image of our moral, religious, and spiritual constitution. It 
is through the study of dreams that one can attain to perfect 
self-knowledge. The importance then of dream analyses for peda- 
gogic, sociologic, and cultural purposes ought to be self-evident. 

To physicians, and especially to those entrusted with the diffi- 
cult task of treating diseases of the soul, skill in the analysis of 

DREAMS. 159 

dreams is of the utmost practical importance, for the knowledge 
thus gained not only increases our understanding of both the nor- 
mal and the diseased mind but puts into our hands a valuable in- 
strument for the curing of those afflicted with that large class of 
ailments known as the psjchcmeuroses. In time it may even be 
possible to cure, or at least to prevent, some of the psychoses 
(insanity). At present dream analysis constitutes the essential 
thing in the treatment of hysteria, obsessions of all kinds, and 
phobias. Those who have followed understandingly our exposi- 
tion of the characteristics of the unconscious mind, of the mean- 
ing and evolution of neurotic symptcHns, of the meaning and 
structure of dreams, and of the essential kinship betweoi dreams 
and symptoms, will have no difficulty in understanding how a 
patient's realization of the meaning of his symptcnns and dreams 
must lead to a total or partial cure of the malady in which he 
has cleverly taken refuge. 

For the application of the results obtained by dream analyses 
to the interpretation of myths, fairy tales, the nightmare, works 
of art, mental peculiarities of certain celebrities, etc, the reader 
is referred to the writings of Freud, Jones, Rank, Abraham, 
Riklin, and others. 

[Conclusion follows.] 

Translated for The AMtiiCAir Joubnax. of UtoxxxiT ahd Scxoumt. 


By Pbof. De, Anton Ntstsom, Stockholm. 

ASCETICISM and the entire problem of abstinence today 
are based on the asceticism of primitive Christianity. In 
that system, everything that did not lead man to salva- 
tion was sin ; everything "carnal,*' everything appertain- 
ing to the "natural man,'* was Sin, and the Flesh was to be 

The apostles and evangelists taught that continence and 
chastity were the fundamental principles of the christian doctrine. 
What furious diatribes on mairiage and the sexual life do we not 
find in the writings of the fathers of the Church! They con- 
demned the sensual pleasure in cohabitation, recommended the 
suppression of the sexual instinct as the best means of coming 
nearer to Godliness; they proclaimed "that God and the Church 
willed the unmarried state, and marriage was only a connivance." 
But Nature demanded her rights most emphatically from the 
"Saints" who as penitents consecrated their lives to God. It re- 
quired long years of continual and hard mortifications to subju- 
gate "the Demon of the Flesh;" there were times when the Godly 
ones were seized by delirious fits of insanity accompanied by erotic 

This ascetism produced the most violent, hitherto unheard of, 
eruptions of sexual passion among the primitive Christians. The 
Agapaea, or love-feasts, degenerated into veritable orgies and 
were soon prohibited. Later, after the church had established the 
celibacy of the priests, we find new scandals within the church: 
the priests took concubines unto themselves, for they were not 
able to suppress the sexual instinct; after concubinage was pro- 
hibited, many priests enticed the wives and daughters of the 
people, or tried to gratify their sexual wants by fornication, or 
by unnatural means. 

In spite of all these deplorable occurrences within the church, 
there are moralists who attempt to establish a new kind of ascetic 
ideal. Fasts, the drinking of water, the mortification of the flesh 
and all that are to many the only way to a pure life. Yet, man- 
kind has been groaning altogether too long under the yoke of 
Christian superstition, the Christian doctrine of Sin. It is high 
time that this sort of thing be stopped. 



There are not only abstinence fanatics among the theological 
puritans, but also among the physicians. This is to me a psycho- 
logical riddle. Some physicians, as, e. g.. Ribbing, that ignorant 
Swedish professor, are also, so to say, medico-theologians and are 
led, or better, misled by the old Christian faith. They use peculiar 
tactics in their warfare: the exist«[ice of abstinence diseases is 
sans-fofon denied and reported cases do not prove anything. At 
the same time, they dare to exaggerate or to distort the opinions 
of their opponents in an insidious and mendacious manner. 

They proclaim in uniscm: ^Abstinence is not injurious, neither 
to man nor woman P' And they declare in leaflets and books in- 
tended for the general public, that their assertion is based on 
authorities "of the highest trustworthiness.*' It is too bad, but 
it is nothing less than a conventional lie. In fact, those so- 
called authorities discussed the problem of sexual abstinence only 
from an ethical and religious standpoint. If the puritans read 
the books of their opponents at all, they decry them as material- 
istic, irreligious and superficial ; therefore, deserving of no consid- 
eration at alL 

The physicians who discuss the influence of sexual abstinence 
on health, ought to rely oa empiric investigations alone. But 
there are physicians who do not want to listen to everything the 
patients tell them in regard to their sexual conditions; several 
patients told me, that some doctors declared sans-fofon that there 
was no such a thing ^s an abstinence disease, and that the syrop- 
' toms narrated to them were simply caused by over exertion, weak- 
ness, etc. 

Mankind has too long been kept in ignorance of the nature 
and physiological laws of the sexual life. There is an universal 
clamor for instruction on the hygienic life and the prevention of 
venereal diseases. But many of the teachers are not sufficiently 
acquainted with their subject: they have wrong ideas based on 
christian ethics, and they repeat uncritically the preachmwits of 
puritanical "authorities.'' During the Congress of this Society, 
at Mannheim, 1907, a program was proposed with items as : "Ab- 
stinence never causes disease," "The Description of Preventives 
ought not to be Allowed,** and it was declared openly that only 
physicians who are profoundly imbued with a "Holy Idealism** 
and thoroughly ccmvinced of the "Seriousness of the Cause** were 
worthy of giving advice in matters relating to Sex Destructi<Mi 1 


These medico-theologians and spiritualistic healers are certainly 
not the only ones who are thoroughly convinced of the ^^seriousness 
of the cause," but also those physicians who don't believe that 
abstinence is not injurious, and recognize the necessity of dis- 
cussing remedies for the prevention of venereal diseases and preg^ 
nancy. We, too, are serious people! 

Now, it is up to us to restore to the sexual instinct its right 
position and natural dignity. The sexual instinct is of the great- 
est biological impoa*tance; it ia an element of love, and to a very 
large extent not only determines procreation, but also the health 
and happiness of the individual. Love should be the aim of all, 
therefore, after maturity is reached, every individual is bound to 
lead a normal sexual life. To be forced to suppress the sexual 
instinct and relinquish love is a cruel fate and an unnatural evil. 
My experiences and those of several other physicians prove suffi- 
ciently that abstinence may produce serious dangers for body and 
soul. On the other hand, it was found that the normal exercise of 
the sexual functions increases the individual's ability to lead a 
useful and noble life and keeps away sexual evils and erotic fancies 
which so often are produced by abstinence, in spite of the most 
earnest endeavor to resist sexual emotions. Most men come to 
know, sooner or later, the effects of the most powerful force in 
life — ^the natural and unavoidable desire for love. The healthy 
man has erotic feelings and wants ; he desires to love and is bound 
to lead a natural sexual life. The normal gratification of the 
sexual impulse determines the joy and happiness, health and vigor 
to such a degree that it seems incomprehensible differences of 
opinions on sexual abstinence could ever originate in the heads of 
thinking men. 

We must know and understand that the object of cohabita- 
tion is not only the procreation of children — under certain and 
very rigorous conditions. — ^but also the satisfaction of a natural 
\ivant, a sexual urge produced by a super-abundance of spermatozoa 
in the sex glands, accompanied by a stimulation of the sex nerves 
and the whole nervous system. This desire is purely physiological, 
and unless the sexes are brought together through personal sym- 
pathy and love, the sexual impulse is directed towards the other 
sex as such, that is to say, without the stimulus of the higher 
feelings. We must cease to see in the urgings of the sexual in- 
stinct the manifestations of lewdness and base impulses. 


The sexual feeling, if not artificially excited, is a promoter 
of health and vigor. Shall the unmarried individual suppress it 
for "Purity's'' sake? I am ready to admit that there may be 
persons who, impelled by ideals and religious precepts, suppress 
the sexual instinct and go through life as puritanical anchorites. 
But I ask: are these persons healthy and happy year by year 
until they are in the prime of life, 85-40 years old? Some of 
them, while young, rejoice because they have overcome the tempta- 
tions of "Sin"; perhaps they become moral prigs and condemn 
harshly the "weak ones" who fell victims of their impulses. Yet, 
"may he who standeth beware lest he fall !" Nobody knows what 
the end will be. Gradually or suddenly, the sexual instinct may 
make itself felt in the strong. He who was steadfast and firm 
may be driven to masturbation and gradually, become a victim of 
sensuality, in spite of resistance and mental anguish. I am ac- 
quainted with many such developments in persons who consulted 
me and candidly told the stories of their life. 

The prdblem we are discussing at present demands a defini- 
tion of the terms "Health" and "Disease." To be healthy and 
vigorous means to feel well and to be free of pain. However, 
there are imperceptible transitions from perfect health to pro- 
nounced morbid conditions. There are clandestine, lingering di- 
seases which during their indpiency, or perhaps never, give no 
pains and do not disturb, temporarily at least, our well-being. 
Pathologists in general agree that there is disease when a change 
in the tissues has taken place, or when something unusual is going 
on in the body, or that disease is an unusual condition which pro- 
duces disorders in the organs or in their functions. In the main, 
we cdways reason that a disease is a deviation from health and 
that a person is ill when he is not vigorous and active. 

The condition which we call nervousness^ or nervous weakness, 
may be the result of various causes and is generally the transition 
from health to illness. This condition may be transitory and may 
be found in persons who generally feel well. Yet, if such a con- 
dition continues for a while and is produced by serious causes, it 
will grow worse and exhibit lasting and distinct symptoms, such 
as serious disturbances in the nervous system, weakness of the 
muscles, disorders of the digestive organs, anemia, etc. 

The observation is true in many abstinents. For a while they 
are blithe and vigorous and bear well under the enforced condition. 


After a few years they begin to feel uncomfortable and be ill- 
tempered, suffer from neurasthenia, pains in the genitals, the 
back, the abdomen; their mental faculties and efficiency decrease, 

We must, therefore, not only ask whether abstinence is the 
cause of more or less serious diseases, but also whether it diminishes 
well-being, efficiency and pleasure in life. Precisely this fact must 
be established, that abstinents are more or less unhappy, melan- 
choly and inefficient. Many physicians have had the same exper- 
ience, namely, that real diseases are caused by sexual abstinence: 
inflammation and painful congestions of the testicles, or prostate; 
spermatorrhea, excessive pollutions, neurasthenia, impotence, anx- 
iety, neurosis, melancholia etc. Furthermore, abstinents are affict- 
ed with a large number of uncomfortable feelings, nervous disturb- 
ances and many forms of sufferings which must be regarded as 
symptoms of diease. Among these, it is chiefly the increased 
sexual irritability which must be taken into consideration; this 
irritability may develop to such a degree that the most insigni- 
ficant occurrence may cause emissio seminis. 

Abstinents are frequently afflicted with disturbances of the 
circulation and in the organs of digestion, palpitations of the 
heart and general restlessness ; awake or asleep, they are harassed 
by sensual fancies and sexual feelings ; they show various kinds of 
abnormalities and peculiarities and take no joy in life. 

Against the insinuations and accusations made by abstinence 
fanatics, I reply that neither I nor any other experienced physi- 
cian has ever maintained that sexual abstinence is injurious air- 
ways and for all individuals ; I maintain that abstinence, if con- 
tinued too long after maturity is reached, is often the cause of 
physical and mental injuries in persons with normal, strong or 
average sexual impulsed, and that abstinents are often unhappy 
and weak instead of being happy and strong. Those not affected 
unfavorably by the long continued practice of abstinence are per- 
sons with weak sexual impulses or "frigid natures.** 


1. Sexual abstinence is possible during youth through the 
exercise of will-power and an ethical education. 

2. In general, females endure sexual abstinence easier than 
males, during youth. 


3. There are pers<HUB who never suffer firom the effects of 
sexual abstinence; these are, more or less, so-called ^^f rigid na- 
tures'' or individuala who are weakened by disease. 

4. In many men and women otherwise healthy and not of the 
psychopathic constitution, abstinence causes physical and mental 
disturbances and a depreciation in efficiency (depression, sexual ir- 
ritability, sleeplessness, pains, etc.) 

5. (Contra Ribbing, Teuton and others). If the physician 
wants to observe the injurious effects of sexual abstinence, he 
must not deny them a priori^ nor endeavor to see all kinds of con- 
ditions which might have caused the disease, instead of the real 
cause, namely, abstinence. Furthermore, he must not condemn the 
reports of other physicians without thorough investigation. 


The baseless theological morality hitherto in fashion, cannot 
be supported by facts, it does not consider nature and is nothing 
more than high-sounding oratory. Supernatural ethics must be 
supplanted by natural morality based on the fact of the indivisi- 
bility of the human organism and its natural needs. The cham- 
pions of spiritualistic ethics writing on the sexual life propounded 
so many wrong ideas that they fell flat, in spite of their well- 
meaning intentions. They confused the conceptions of right and 
wrong, morality and immorality in sexuality to such a degree that 
they contributed nothing to a solution of this delicate problem, 
which is for many a matter of conscience. 

The absence of sexual emotions is for the moralists the sine 
qua non of decency. 

I do not say that sexual intercourse is necessary for a young 
man who has reached puberty. It is rather beneficial to check the 
sexual impulse and to avoid sexual intercourse, at least for a 
definite time the length of which may differ for different individu- 
als, until the body has reached full maturity and the mental facul- 
ties are sufliciently developed. It is a matter of the greatest im- 
portance for young people to be able to distinguish between 
natural and artificial sexual excitement, and understand to what 
extent they are able by will-power to check this natural impulse. 
It cannot be expected, however, that this power should be employ- 
ed for an indefinite period and be of an absolutely equal efficiency 
in all individuals. The sexual impulse and the natural dispositions 
differ greatly in different individuals, as doesf their education and 


environment. We must distinguish between sanguine and robust 
individuals with a superabundance of strength, vigor and imagin- 
ation, and anemic, weak and sluggish individuals. 

Many experienced physicians believe, as I do, that not a few 
abstinents inherited the unusually weak sexual instinct which en- 
ables them to make a virtue of weakness. 

What sane person who knows the world, will not believe that 
the avoidance of artificial sexual excitement and the resistance to 
sensual allurements is beneficial and useful? But the puritan 
wants more: the complete suppression of the sexual instinct with 
all its manifestations, even within its natural and normal boundries. 
Unmarried persons particularly must suppress it. That means as 
much as suppressing life itself, to annihilate one's own Ego and 
become a mental eunuch, a frigid, unsympathetic fellow without 
feeling, without pleasure in life! 

The puritanical rule demands that a young man be continent 
and that no erotic fancies and sexual emotions disturb him; civili- 
zation must eliminate the erotic. 

For purity's sake, the young person must not read love poems 
or novels, nor go to theatres and art galleries. Does one really 
believe that such a program can be carried out? 

If I and many other physicians maintain that sexual inter- 
course is a necessity for adults and abstinence injurious, we do 
not attack the demands of ethics, that the young must be trained 
to practice self-discipline and strengthen th|e will so that the 
sexual impulse may be restrained as much as possible. As to the 
juvenile age we are of the same opinion as the educators. But 
we differ on the question: for how long can abstinence be insisted 

We demand that ethics be based on physiology and pathol- 
ogy. If the individual does not lead a normal sexual life, every 
moral code is bound to fail. 

Cohabitation is undoubtedly the only reliable means for the 
prevention of diseases and sufferings caused by sexual abstinence. 
This fact can be proven by many cases known to me. 

Sexual intercourse as a demand of nature can be sanctioned 
by every physician, of course, not sooner than after all other 
means have failed to diminish an excessive sexual impulse* Mal- 
thus was right, with certain reservations (cf. ^' Essay on the pririr 
ciple of population'') : "There are very few things done that 


contribute directly so much to the diminution of the general wel- 
fare than marriage without the means to rear children. He who 
marries without die expectation that he will be able to support 
his family, is guilty of an immoral act." 

Malthus' chief precept for the prevention of the procreation 
of children in poor families is ^^moral restraint," ^^ethical checks/' 
**retarded marriage" with a strictly moral conduct during the 
time of this retardation, — the only efficient method for the im- 
provement of the conditions among the poor. 

The ci-devant clergyman declared, from his standpoint of 
christian religion: "I have always disapproved of the preventive 
which Condorcet recommends (the condom) and shall never cease 
to condemn every artificial and unnatural device for curbing the 
growth of population." 

Many young people are willing and able to marry but only 
under the condition of not having many children, as their income 
is not sufficient to sustain a large family. For this reason, they 
must be taught how to apply preventives. 

It is up to those who demand that a man who enters into 
married life must be "pure," i. e. without any previous sexual 
experience, to provide the means for enabling him to marry while 
he is yov/ng. Absolute and permanent abstinence can be expected 
only from a few — and these are generally "frigid natures." 

The following sentences give the main points of my opinions 
and experiences: 

1. Sex instruction for the young must be entrusted to ex- 
perienced and unprejudiced physicians J 

2. The results of sex instruction ought to be: strengthening 
of the will, hardening of body and mind, deflection through occu- 
pation with serious things. 

8. The sexual instruction must give the following advice: 
consultation of a physician in case of diseases and sufferings caused 
by abstinence; immediate consultation when venereal infection is 

4. As sexual intercourse may be necessary for the health of 
the individual — marital or extramatrimonial, this matter to be de- 
cided by the individual — the physician should give leaflets to the 
patient whereby he can find descriptions of reliable preventives 
(chemical or mechanical) and advice on avoiding the use of harm- 
ful remedies. 

Good preventives are the salvation of mankind. 

Translated for The Ahxbicait Joukitai. or Uioix>gt and Sxxoi/xsy. 


PERMANENT sexual abstinence is far more frequent among 
women than among men— at least, among the educated class- 
es. That condition is generally accompanied by circiun- 
stances which affect the state of their mental and physical 
nature at least as much as the lack of purely sexual enjoyment. 
Together with sexual abstinence goes as a rule celibacy. The 
latter means, in many cases, want of the n^ecessaries of life and 
an unfavorable social position. Further must be taken into con- 
sideration the nongratification of the maternal instinct and of the 
abstract amorous longings. Both appertain, in a broader sense, to 
the province of the sex instinct and are, in many cases, more de- 
veloped than the purely sensual desires, the libido proper, which 
resides also in the chaste maiden, not as an actual but as a poten- 
tial force. 

Many females practice undoubtedly permanent abstinence 
without any appco^nt injury to their health. It does not seem that 
abstinence induces necessarily a premature physical decay or any 
perceptible diminution of the mental faculties. The anthropologi- 
cal type of the Old Maid is to be found only amongst such 
females who live in an unfavorable milieu. The emotional priva- 
tions that go together with abstinence are by far more respon- 
sible for the existence of thisi type than the renunciation of the 
purely carnal gratifications. 

But in a considerable number of cases continence is liable to 
produce disease. Whether and to what extent these effects will 
manifest themselves, the sexual and nervous constitution and the 
conditions under which the individual lives, as well as the whole 
mental disposition of woman will have a decisive influence, the 
sexual functions in woman's life being of greater imporUnce than 
in man's. 

From puberty until the 30th year abstinence affects in general 
the health of the individual less than after this period; not on 
account of an intensification of the sexual-erotic desires with ad- 
vancing years, but the pro6;pect of marriage and sexual gratifica- 
tion disappears more and more, and this may affect the mental om- 
dition in a most injurious manner. Of the different forms of the 
sexual constitution, the frigid and the torpid (but chiefly the 
frigid) is by far more frequently found in woman than in man. 



This is perhaps the cause that abstinence is generally easier for 
females than males. 

Also the neuropathic disposition is in wcnnan of tener combined 
with the frigid than the libidinous constitution. The preralence 
of the latter will always, sooner or later, produce local disturbances 
(irritability, ediauffement, etc.) which are often the stepping- 
st<»es to masturbation. Such a condition is liable to develop a 
fatal proclivity for self-pollution with serious consequences for 
the nervous system; if the individual makes efforts to resist these 
inclinations, an aggravating case of sexual hyperesthesia with 
various nervous concomitant manifestations may ensue. Under 
these circumstances, chiefly if the environment is apt to stimulate 
the sexual excitability, the neuropathic disposition develops fre- 
quently anxiety-neuroses, states of dreaminess and mental depreo- 
sion. Widows who are compelled to perpetual abstinence, after a 
longer or shorter period of married life, suffer frequently from 
more or less serious cases of anxiety-neurosis. The most serious 
nervous disturbances (hystero-neurasthenia, hysteria, hystero-mel- 
ancholia, serious anxiety-neurosis) we find among women who are 
obliged to abstaii} continually from sexual gratification, on ac- 
count of the impotence of their husbands, but who are not free 
from being sexually tantalized by their impotent mates. 

Not only during the period of sexual activity is abstinence 
injurious to the nervous system. Also during the time of the 
climacteric and long afterwards, does the lack of sexual gratifica- 
tion frequently cause nervous and mental disturbances (chiefly, 
loss of sleep, states of depression, excessive emoticmal excitability, 
-local ccMnplaints). 

The consequences of relative; and temporary abstinence show 
in individual casesi similar differences as those of absolute abstin- 
ence. Some women, whether they have sexual intercourse or sus- 
pend it for months and years, are not troubled with any disorders 
whatever, while the same privations cause in others serious ailments, 
in a very short time. Several authors see a causal connection 
between abstinence and chlorosis, anemia and various gynecological 

It must be admitted that under certain conditions which have 
yet to be investigated, such a connection may exist. 


1. The present differences of opinions on sexual abstinence 
cannot be removed by quoting authorities pro or can, but through 
a careful examination of clinical experience. 

2. The clinical experience does not justify a final and 
general statement on the influence of sexual abstinence. 

S. Sexual abstinence may, on one side, increase the efficieni^ 
of the individual and be practiced without any injury; on the 
other side, it may produce disturbances, or diseases of a pro- 
nounced character. 

4. These different results are determined by the duration of 
abstinence, the age of the individual, his or her sexual and ner- 
vous constitution, the conditions under which the individual lives, 
and, in a measure, by the whole mental disposition. Females en- 
dure, generally, abstinence easier than males. 

5. The majority of diseases that are caused by abstinence, 
are of a non progressive character and yield to hygienic and 
clinical treatment. 

6. Diseases contracted through intercourse with prostitutes 
exceed in quantity and quality those that are caused by abstinence. 

7. Considering the inadequacy of our present prophylactic 
devices, the recommendaticm of sexual abstinence for the preven- 
tion of venereal diseases is, without doubt, clinically justified; 
however, such advice should not be given as a matter of routine. 

Transltted for The Amxbzcan Joukhal or Uiology and Sixology. 



Bt Db. Magnus Hibschfeld, and Db. Iwan Bloch. 

1. The difference of opinions as to the advantages and dis- 
advantages, the practicability and impracticability of sexual ab- 
stinence is to be traced back to the fact that the ardor of the 
sexual impulses as well as the power of resistance of the central 
nervous system present objectively great individual differences. 

2. Exact results can only be obtained by an abundant and 
carefully sifted comparative material which is scarce at present 
and also difficult to obtain as the majority of men, by means of 
the "sexual mimicry" attempt to show in sexualibus conformity 
with the contemporaneous standard of morality. 

8. Whether sexual abstinence is favorable to the human or^ 
ganism, unimportant, or injurious, is essentially a medico-scientific 
question. Every other theory must be subordinated to biological 

4. The brain is the controlling organ of abstinence. It is 
decided by physical factors whether we are temperate, abstemious, 
or dissolute. Retentio libidinis, not retentio seminis, is the de- 
ciding factor in regard to abstinence. 

5. The sexual activities are the result of the co-operation of 
reflexive and restraining mechanisms. The reflex mechanism is 
made up of sexual stimuli or corresponding ideas which product 
cumulatively central sexual tensions. The latter press periodically 
to a centrifugal sexual relaxation (suspension). The controlling 
and restraining mechanism is based on ethical, hygienic, philoso- 
phical, religious^ social and other counter-acting conceptions. 

6. The analogy of all other reflex actions demonstrates that 
the optimum for the organism lies between a necessary minimiun 
and a permissible maximum. It is a priori not probable that one of 
the strongest and most complicated reflexes is exempt from this 

7. For an unprejudiced scientific study of this problem it is 
up to those who plead for a suppression of the sexual instinct in 
adults, to prove the positive advantages of a long continued sup- 
pression or, at least, the injurious effect of a non-infectious sexual 



8. That platisible assertion, repeatedly made use of in the 
literature on sexual abstinence, blunders by comparing two hetero- 
geneous conditions. The physician should not try to combat one 
evil by another, but each by itself. 

9. The problem of abstinence is concerned with an important 
phase of human life whidi is decisive for the preservation of the 
species (procreation) as well as of the preservation of the indi- 
vidual. The development and growth of the individual is closely 
connected with the development and the activity of sexuality. 

10. The diseases caused by abstinence affect principally the 
nervous system as the real organ of abstinence. They are chiefly 
light, serious and aggravated cases of sexual neurasthenia and 
hysteria. It would be erroneous to conclude trom the functional 
nature of these diseases that they are harmless and easily curable 

11. We have knowledge of a considerable number of cases 
concerning sexually normal individuals in which the symptoms 
enumerated by Touton sub 8-lS of his theses, must be excluded. 
Those patients were chiefly affected with a greatly diminished 
efficiency, sleeplessness, cephalic depressions, anxiety neuroses, ex- 
aggerated irritability, etc. Pharmaceutical, hydrotherapeutic, 
dietetic, psychotherapeutic and other methods were inefficacious, 
but sexual intercourse produced the effects of a spedficum. 

IS. According to unequivocal observations in cases of ethic- 
ally highly developed individuals who practiced continence (with- 
out masturbation) for years in spite of an ardent libido and only 
for ethical reasons, abstinence produced finally chronic impotence 
(Iwan Bloch). 

18. Max Marcuse's opinion that homosexuality may be caus- 
ed by sexual abstinence must be rectified by taking into considera- 
tion that the cases he refers to present only pseudo-homosexual 
acts, equivalent to masturbation, but not to homosexuality proper 
which is developed neither by abstinence nor satiety. 

14. The disturbances occurring in abstinents are essentially 
the same as those of other sexually disappointed individuals, i. e., 
of masturbators, impotents, persons who are forced to have a 
sexual intercourse which is inadequate to their individuality, as, 
e. g., women who never have orgasms, on account of the ejaculatio 
praecox of their husbands. 


16. The different forms of abstinence must be dassified ac- 
cording to duration and modus agendi. Thus we derive four banc 

16. As to duration we must distinguish betweoi a perpetual 
(i. e.> life long) and a temporary abstinence. In a case of tem- 
porary abstinence the length of time must always be stated. For 
its valuation in individual cases, the intensity of the desire is the 
deciding factor. Where there is no desire, there can be no ab- 

17. As to the modus agendi we distinguish between an ab- 
solute and a rdative abstinence. The first means abstinence from 
every voluntary sexual activity, the second continence from an 
adequaiie intercourse. The masturbator who wants sexual in- 
tercourse and the hetero sexual woman who has sexual relations 
with persons of her own sex, abstain from adequate sexual activi- 
ties (cf. Dr. H. V. Miiller's lecture at the annual convention of 
the D. 6. B. 6., in Dresden). The injuries are here not as great 
as in cases of absolute abstinence, but are liable to be considerably 
increased through a long continued practice. 

18. It is the physician's duty to discuss four points with the 
patient after an examination of his sexual constitution: a, the 
advantages, b, the disadvantages of sexual abstinence, c, the bene- 
ficial results, d, the dangers of sexual intercourse (chiefly, with 
prostitutes). Moreover, the factors which determine the intensity 
of the impulses and restraints must be taken into consideration 
(environment) . 

19. AU this done, it is up to the patient which course he 
will follow. The sexual life of an adult person is one of his, or 
her, most intimate and private affairs; we should only interfere 
when a free will is violated. 

SO. Regardless of this individual judgment, we cannot help 
admitting, generally speaking, that a irelative sexual abstinence, if 
performed voluntarily, may produce favorable cultural results 
(prevention of venereal diseases, sexual equivalents, etc.). 

Translated for The Akkkican Jouihai. or UiouxiY and Sixozx)Ct. 


IN his *^Psychologie der Eifermcht^** Dr. M. Friedman, Mann- 
heim, Grermany, reports the following cases of pathological 

A. F.9 a merchant, 89 years old, of a psychopathic 
family, respectable and industrious, is getting along well with his 
fellow-workers and all the world, except his wife. He is no drinker. 
He asks me to help him, because his wife wants it. Everybody 
said he was jealous without reason, but he could not believe it. 
Yet, before suing for divorce, he wanted to show himself concilia- 

She was a poor, pretty, gentle girl of an untarnished reputa- 
tion when he married her, 8 or 4 years ago; S'he is now 24 years 
old, home-loving, well-behaving, modest, yet, he had "reasons*' for 
believing her unfaithful. Since the first day of her married life 
she had repeatedly intercourse with an army-officer and one of his 
friends. At least, he had strong reasons for being suspicious. 
While remaining in the lavatory for a considerable time, she made 
a date with the army-officer. Three or four times he saw the 
officer leaving the window, as often as his wife went to the lava- 
tory. He wrote first to the army officer, entreating him to leave 
his wife alone; then he stopped him in the street. The result was 
a suit for verbal injury and a sentence. He is obliged to shift 
around, in no place can he stay more than a few months, in order 
to avoid quarrels on accoimt of his wife.' This, of course, was 
also injurious to his business affairs. "His wife has deceived him 
dozens of times" : coming home unexpected, he found her only half 
dressed, or changing her clothes; she was then always quite em- 
barrassed. Several times, he noticed distinctly the smell of male 
sperma on her underclothes. He has tried to catch her during the 
act (flagrante delicto) many times, yet she was too astute and 
always escaped. During the night, he must hold her hand to be 
able to feel when she leaves the bed. He lie» awake for hours, or 
tries to wake up in the night, to watch his wife. He has tied her 
arm and the door of the bedroom to his hand with twine; he has 
equipped the door with catches which only he understands to 
remove, and put wax-seals on the lock. Scattering ashes on the 
floor, he found her foot-prints. He did not believe her excuse that 
she got up to use the chamber-pot. Yes, the seals and locks had 



never been touched^ but just this circumstance made him suspicious, 
as his wife knew always how to thwart his schemes and to efface 
the vestiges. 

Yet, his main proof is the Confession. She herself did admit 
it, therefore it must be true. How did he succeed? Trying in 
vain, for 2 or 8 years, to *^get" her, he gave her a beating when 
everythmg faned. He was ready to forgive everything, but she 
had to make a clean breast. As she persisted in her denials, he 
used a ruse, saying: You see that we can't get along that way, 
admit everything and I wiU be at ease again and everything will 

be forgiven and forgotten. She said, she was willing to comply 
with his wishes. He asked: The officer has winked to you, ain*t 
that true? Didn't he come to your room one day and left after 
kissing you and putting his hand under your petticoat, etc ? 

After he got what he wanted, he wrote down on four large 
folios all his observations and, of course, the Confession. Her 
subsequent denial did not prove anything. It was all right that 
he had it black on white. Her contradictory statements were evi- 
dence of her guilt, etc. Thus he embarrassed the poor woman more 
and more and she could not stand it any longer. She is thoroughly 
disgusted listening by day and night to sexual matters and details 
of which she had never heard anything before. I reproached the 
patient for his indecency and the foolishness of that ^^Confession." 
He listened patiently although he did not believe me; he was a 
rather good fellow and always courteous and accommodating. He 
swallowed sedatives for weeks, without raising any objection. And 
how did the matter end? After three months he had left the ciiy ; 
two months later, I got a summcms to appear in court, because 
he had instituted divorce proceedings against his wife on the 
ground of adultery and desertion. As I have not heard of it 
again, it seems he withdrew the complaint. 

Another instance of jealousy : 

A mechanic, 45 years old, marries a good-looking widow, S4 
years old, who keeps a cigar store as a means of livelihood. She 
is a woman of good reputation and character, he a man of good 
habits, careful of his appearance, industrious. Soon after the 
marriage ceremony he begins to be excited, restless, domineering 
and talkative. He is very much in love with his wife, his libido 
is ardent. Jealousy seizes him; he jumps at conclusions; he has 



^^dkcovered*' a love affair with the landlord and two or three 
custixners. This patient does not need further evidence: he has 
the proofs in hand. The landlord likes to talk with his wife; she 
was once too Icmg in his apartments — ^this is sufficient. 

The landlord recdves anonymous cards full of indecent im- 
putations and then is openly accused. The result is a sentence for 
insult. Daily scenes follow; he scolds his wife continually and 
pulls her by the hair ; then he begs her to forgive him. The busi- 
ness begins to decline because he drives the customers away with 
his rudeness. The formerly thriving cigar store is sold. He can- 
not stand it any longer in the factory and quits. He wants to be 
**his own boss'* and to watch his wife. They start together a new 
business, an agency. This violent jealousy lasted for S or 8 
years ; then the patient became calmer and reconciled with his wife. 
Yet, he never admitted that he had been wrong. He meant, it 
was probable that his wife had not done the worst thing and 
thrown away her honor. His jealousy never returned and he re- 
mained cured. 

A Case of Insane Jealousy: Max M., teacher, 48 years 
old. Formerly in good health, has from his S4th year all 
kinds of quarrels with the minister and the inhabitants of 
the town, instigates trouble among them and says he is 
not weU treated. Is several times removed to other porticms 
and remains quiet and orderly for several years ; 48 years old, he 
is seized with violent jealousy against his wife; he is married since 
16 years and has 5 children. Her conduct was always excellent. 
A miserable scoundrel had put something in his ear, telling him he 
knew that his wife had committed adultery with three men. 

M. is getting more and more excited. He feels that his wife 
wants to poison him ; the pancakes had a peculiar taste that day ; 
he was ill afterward and vomited. A few days later during a night 
in May, 1908, he seizes a hatchet, chases his wife, who is far ad- 
vanced in pregnancy, out of the house and rings the alarm bell. 
Three fellows who want to kill him are lying in wait for him. He 
writes to the public attorney and his superiors, declaring that his 
wife had illicit relations with the mayor and two other men since 
a long time. He has peculiar expectorations and notices traces of 
poison on the counter panel. He stays away from school, flees 
and institutes a law suit for divorce. 


May SOy 1908, M. is placed in a lunatic asylum. There he is 
quiet, s^isible, polite and on good terms with everybody. Of 
course, it was a trick of his wife and the mayor to get him into 
the asylum ; now, they can continue their adulterous relations. He 
continues his law suit for divorce and s^ids denunciatory state- 
ments to the public attorney. The story of the events of that 
night in May is repeated ad nauseam. He asserts that he is per- 
fectly well and that it was only that poison which made him ner- 
vous for a short time. His wife oifered him repeatedly decoctions 
of the poisonous honey-suckle. M. ocMitinues to produce more and 
ever more cases of adultery to incriminate his wife. She tried to 
poison him already in 190S and 1908. In 1894, he caught her 
when she was lying in bed with a certain Schmidt who escaped. 
In 1895 she invited all the members of a singing society to come 
to her kitchen and to have sexual intercourse with one after anoth- 
er. Later she enticed a calciminer who was working near her 
kitchen ; during winter, a neighbor paid her nocturnal visits in the 
kitchen. The intrigue with the mayor followed. His wife, that 
satan of a woman, always denied everything. She was domineer- 
ing, spoiled and capricious. He always held his peace and put 
up with the most atrocious abominations as he wanted to wdrd off 
a scandal; he had always kind words for his wife in spite of her 

M's wife w€us not successful with her attempts to keep him in 
her home for several months ; she was obliged to flee at once. 

The patient remained in the institution for years; he was 
always the same, all the time peaceable and well-informed ; but his 
mania was absolutely incorrigible; ^^it wsls too strange, indeed'' 
that he could not convince the authorities, doctors and others as to 
the "real and true'* state of affairs. 

Discharged after three years, he lived by himself; the family 
received his pension ; he supported himself well with private lessons. 
His deportment was natural and inconspicuous. His intellectual 
faculties were not diminished; his individuality was not impaired 
in any way. But he ccmtinued to stick to his ideas with the most 
obstinate tenacity. 

Above instance of maniacal jealousy is reported by Jasper, 
in the ZeitscJmft fiir die gesamte Neurologie find PsychUUrie, vol. 
1, 1910. 

Translated for The Ambiican Journal or Ukouxit and Sbxouwy. 



Bt Dr. Ludwio REismosB 

IT is a conspicuous fact that in none of the numerous sexologi- 
cal works is the etiology of the specific differences betweai 
male and female libido discussed, and this in spite of the 
consensus of opinion regarding this question. Excepting a 
few authors, all noted investigators are of the opinion that the 
sexual instinct of woman is not aroused previous to her having 
sexual intercourse, while in man this imperious power manifests 
itself spontaneously. Max Marcuse discusses a work of Fraenkel, 
who maintains that a sexually inexperienced woman does not suffer 
as keenly under abstinence as man does, and that woman's poten- 
tial sexual instinct has to be incited by coition. In his extensive 
work The Sexual Life of Woman, Kisch declares that "from the 
moment in which woman has got sexual enlightenment and ex- 
perience, she is in possession of sexual stimulations the contrecta- 
tion and cohabitation impetus of which is as powerful and impul- 
sive as that of man.'' In his comprehensive work The Sesnud 
Life of our Time, Booth expresses himself in a similar vein. The 
conception which sees in the prevailing social conditions the cause 
of woman's imposing upon herself restraints, may not be quite 
correct, because these conditionsi spring necessarily from the bio- 
logical nature of woman. This opinion is shared by Kisch who 
points to the difference between the male and female sex instinct 
when he writes that "in woman the sex instinct is more susceptible 
to the impulses of the will than in man, and the ardor of woman's 
sexual passion is more easily placed under control than that of 

man " Consequently, woman's reserve is not a product 

of social conditions but the natural result of her disposition by 
virtue of which the will has the power to check the impulse. More- 
over, Kisch declares that "in the female organism there is a wider 
field for the satisfaction of the sexual instinct than in the male 
organism." By a kiss, or even by the mere consciousness of being 
admired, a woman may feel herself compensated for the depriva- 
tion of the sexual act. The same is maintained by Forel who says 
that flirtation is for many persons a substitute for love and sexual 
intercourse. By pointing to the fact that suppression of the 
libido is let^s harmful to the organism of woman than that of man, 

Zeitschrift f. Sexualwissenschaft, Nov. 1916. 



Kisch has advanced a striking argument which shows that modesty 
and reserve have their origin in nature and are not products of 
civilization. For if woman's psychic attitude were not rooted in 
her physical disposition, abstinence would be as harmful to her 
as it ia to man. The biological cause of man's aggressiveness and 
woman's passiveness is undoubtedly to be found in the biological 
difference of the sexual organs, to which fact physicians and 
physiologists have paid too little attention. The phenomenon that 
already during puberty man has voluptuous feelings, is due to 
two factors, namely, pollutions and erections. While to the normal 
virgin pollutions are unknown, they appear in man at the age 
from fourteen to sixteen and draw his attention to the ordinary 
mode of detumescence. The erections produce an annoying feel- 
ing of tension in the genitals and force the young man to seek 
means by which the detumescence impulse may be appeased, which 
is often accomplished by resorting to masturbation. For this very 
reason it becomes quite evident that those autliors are wrong who 
claim that both sexes are equally addicted to masturbation. For 
as woman is free from the organic incentive of aggressiveness, she 
is not so much disposed to practice self-abuse. Fraenkel may be 
right when he states that once in her life about every third woman 
(86%) performed masturbatory manipulations. The objection 
might be raised that the menses produce an hyperemia of the fe- 
male genitals which corresponds to the erections in man, and that 
therefore libido is not foreign to the virgin woman. This is to be 
refuted by pointing out the fact that because of the loss of blood 
menstruation is more likely to be followed by exhaustion, and 
that the imperfect erection of the clitoris cannot be compared with 
the h3ri)eremia of the powerful corpora cavernosa of the penis. It 
is by these physiological differencesi that the psychic distinction 
in the libidu of the two sexes becomes evident, and which vindicates 
the opinion of those who claim that it is only after sexual inter- 
course with man that woman becomes familiar with the feeling of 
voluptuousness. To be sure, the reflections which are connected 
with the painful experiences made during defloration, will exercise 
an inhibitory influence, and at first, effect a resistant attitude. In- 
tensive erections and the accumulation of sperm cells evoke in man 
impetuous urgings towards detumescence, while in the absence of 
these masculine peculiarities even a sexually experienced woman is 
enabled to curb her passion and to bring her libido under the 
control of the will. 

Contributed to The AiieftiCAN Jouinal of Uiologt and Ssxology. 


Bt William F. Wauoh, M. D. 

N-ature in her wisdom has provided many little arrangements, 
safeguards, compensations, corrections, and accommodations, to se- 
cure the harmonious balance of our physiologic functions, under 
all the widely varying conditions of human exist^ice. Some of 
these have been long since recognized. Others, we just begin to 
appreciate the possibility of their existence. We may safely as- 
sume that still others exist which we may in time learn to know. 

Not long ago it wasi suggested that arteriosclerosis might be 
attributed to a lack of that exercise to which the bloodvessels of 
savage man were subject. The vicissitudes of nomadic life, with 
it& alternations of starvation and gluttony, provided for over-and- 
under-filHng with blood, hence the necessity for elastic fibers in the 
vessel walls. Civilized man never gets really hungry and eats too 
much, hence his vessels miss the intended exercise, and degeneration 
ensues. The ductless glands were looked upon as useless relics of 
the pre-development period, and sources of peril to the owner. 
The genius of Sajous gave us the key to the riddle, and now the 
internal secretions, their physiology and pathology, form one of 
the most valued chapters of modem medicine. We might cite the 
digestive enzymes and the hormones as further discoveries along 
the line of uncovering the intricate design of the human machine, 
which led our predecessors, who knew so much less about it than 
we now do, to see in it convincing evidences of the presence of 
a Designer. 

We now come to a proposition which we advance with some 
diffidence — ^because it is one that we see no possibility of proving 
or disproving. It must remain a hypothesis, to be favored or con- 
demned according to the bias and the observation of each indi- 
vidual. This is, that the female requires for her own systemic 
harmony the secretion of the male genitals. 

Every observant physician has noted the common improve- 
ment in health that follows the woman's marriage. She "settles 
down," physically as well as psychically. Well, this may be at- 
tributed to her conviction that her future is provided for; she has 
now protection and support assured for herself and her coming 
family. She has won her life-battle and wears the crown of 



matronhood. Maybe also, the establishment of hannonious sexual 
relations and the prospects of maternity contribute to her peace- 
ful contaitment, and hence to har settled health. But to the at- 
tentive observer there is something above and bey(md all these con- 

Without maternity, without maintenance or the security of 
wedlock, the woman who has contracted habitual although illegal 
sexual connections experiences a dedded constitutional alteration. 
This is nuMre than the satisfaction of sexual appetite, which in 
woman is ccxnmonly subordinate to the maternal instinct. The 
woman's nature is rounded out and completed, aa the *^old maid's" 
never is. Who ever knew of a perfectly normal old maid? 

We have in mind a case — ^a woman who passed the moiopause 
years ago, an invaUd for twenty years, with no particular ailment, 
yet always ^something the matter:" readily relieved but never en- 
tirely well. Her case is analogous to one of autotoxemia, or of 
lime-starvation, yet is neither that nor any other recognized dys- 
craaia. We are sure — as only an elderly family physician can be — 
that the woman is pure in thought as in action, that she never con- 
sciously felt a sexual desire, yet it is our conviction that she 
suffers that form of starvaticm that results from the lack of the 
male secretion absorbed into the pelvic circulation. 



Elsie P. McCloskey (American Journal of Obstetrics) des- 
cribes custcNns and superstitions regarding pregnancy and child- 
birth among the Filipinos. Many of these practices are decidedly 
harmful. During the months of gestation the ignorant woman's 
mind is constantly disturbed by the many superstitious beliefs that 
are recounted from generaticm to generation, and steadfastly ad- 
hered to. The young women especially are in continual mental 


terror lest some of these things be violated, and the consequences 
are dreadful to contemplate. During the course of even a normal 
pregnancy it is necessary for the midwife to make frequent ex- 
aminations, and not infrequently she considers it proper, to ^^change 
the position," or "place the baby." A very prevalent and most 
terrifying superstition is concerning the "aswang," an imaginary 
being, half man and half beast, which prowls around at night, 
and is the terror of the pregnant woman and all her relatives, 
because he watches to get the child and the blood. It is necessary 
for her to sleep under a black cover so that the "aswang" cannot 
see her. If she goes out after dark she must wear the hair loose 
down her back, which is her protection against the "aswang." 
The wearing of tight belts and strings around the waist during 
pregnancy will insure an easy delivery. For the same purpose 
the pregnant woman is forced to engage in the most strenuous 
exercise, as grinding rice, etc. 

Midwives in some localities believe that the fetus of the 
eleventh pregnancy attended by them should die, in order that 
they may be considered good midwives. However, in many in- 
stances the Filipino woman cannot afford the luxury of a mid- 
wife. In some provinces men act as obstetricians and are regarded 
as better qualified for this occupation, as they are stronger and 
can apply more force in kneading, pressing, squeezing, pulling 
and pushing. Short stout clubs, made of wood, stone, or burned 
clay, are used for these operations. To ease the labor pains, 
"bagabaga leaves" are burned near the patient that she may get 
the odor. The waist is tied about tightly during labor to make 
sure that the child passes downward instead of upward. The 
delivery of the placenta is awaited before the cord is cut, but 
if the placenta is not expelled within an hour, it is pulled away 
by traction on the cord, and if this proves too difficult, the cord is 
severed and the placenta is left in the uterus. A soup made 
from small pieces of the placenta and given to the mother as 
her first postpartum nourishment prevents fever, weakness, and 
other forms of illness. The mother is given large quantities of 
rice and urged to eat, so that the abdomen will be filled, as it 
was large before. The waist is tied after laboor to prevent the 
abdomen filling full of wind when the patient breathes deeply. 
Her abdomen is rubbed with oil for twenty-five days so the uterus 
will bec(Hne soft and send out the blood. Hemorrhage is encouraged 
by propping the patient up with pillows. Frequently the patient 


is almost exsanguinated, and death from hemorrhage maj occur 
without any ^ort being made to stop the bleeding. Sleep is not 
allowed because it produces a tandencj to insanity. Frequently 
the patioit is allowed to sit up and even to stand, within a day 
or two after deUvery. If there is a suspicion that the uterus is 
still *^w,^ a fire is made of charcoal in a large earthem pot, and 
the patioit stands astride this, surrounded by blankets and sup- 
ported by her friends. It requires about an hour of this treatment 
to cause the uterus to ^^dry-up.** No antiseptic precautions are 
known ; old rags are used about the parturient. The writer, who 
is Principal of the G^ieral Hospital School of Nursing, at Manila, 
saw a woman who gave a history of eclampsia with the following 
treatment. While she was unomscious she was placed in a sitting 
position on a red-hot stove; when she regained consciousness she 
was suffering from a severe bum, which produced extensive loss 
of tissue and large scars. It is said that this hot-stove treatment 
is quite common. 

All sorts of superstitions are in vogue concerning the care of 
the infant; it must be guarded from the ^^aswang'' and must be 
fed with curious ccmcoctions. The writer saw a new-bom child 
with many cauterizations about the umbilicus, made with hot bam- 
boo, as a cure for convulsions. After birth the child is washed in 
lukewarm water; some use cocoanut oil to clean the grease away. 
The child is not fed during the first three days, but a purgative of 
castor oil is given. After the three days of purgative, maternal or 
artificial feeding is given and ccmtinued irregularly until the age 
of six months when cooked rice or any other available food is sub- 
stituted. In a certain district the people believe that newborn 
babies should not be cured of illness for they are angels, and if 
they become sick and die it is because God wants to keep them 
near him. 


The frigidity, or sexual anesthesia of a great many women 
appears to be em inherited quality ; but we must always remember 
that such a state of feeling has been induced and fostered by 
artificial means for many ages, and is probably not a fundamental 
and specific feminine characteristic — ^WUltxe M. Galuchan. 



The more womoi the libertine has known the less will he be 
likely to understand woman as a whole, because those specimens of 
the sex of whom he has had experience have always been viewed 
from his own particular outlook. He may be deeply experienced 
in the art of love, be a greater expert in matters of feminine un- 
derclothing than the manufacturers of these articles are themselves, 
he may have cultivated extraordinarily acute powers of observa- 
tion in the science of comment eJies $e donnent^ but though he may 
know "women,'' he does not know Wmnan. For the very reason 
that he has acquired a hypertrophied knowledge of one side of 
feminine life, the libertine is altogether unable to understand that 
the ideal type which his mind has forged as the antithesis of the 
real type of his actual experiences, possesses the same sexual 
characteristics (though perhaps in a more natural and normal form) 
as those women whom he has learned to despise. It is thus a per- 
fectly logical sequence that the demand for absolute feminine 
purity should come, not from the idealists, who prize and esteem 
a sane sensuality in women as a precious gift of civilisation, but 
from those elements of the masculine world which have need of an 
unattainable idol because the uncleanness of their own minds makes 
them sense always in women those characteristics which all wom^i, 
in virtue of their sex, necessarily share with prostitutes — i. e., with 
those from whom the men we are considering derive all their no^ 
tions of womankind. — ^Robert Michels. 


As an end in itself, free love is an exploded theory. The 
socialists, who at one time were singing paeans in favor of free 
love, have long since been silent on this subject; those among them 
that had entered free unions will now for the most part be found 
safely married to their old loves, or to other women. For the com- 
munity at large, free love is to-day a peril which may readily 
degenerate into general corruption; for the right-minded indivi- 
dual it is a kind of sentimental essay, which with the birth of the 
first child, will give place to the legalised union of marriage. 





Abbott, Dr. Frederick Wallace: Limitation of the family. Taun- 
ton, Mass., 1891, 25 p. 

Abortions: A mother's plea. Critic and Guide. Feb. 1906, p. 54. 

Alexander, C. : Der Kampf gegen den Geburtenriickgang, Med. 
Klin., 1914, No. 9, p. S97. 

Alison, Sir Archibald: The principles of population and their con- 
nection with human happiness. Edinburgh, W. Blackwood and 
S<m, 1840, 2 vol. 

Allbutt, Dr. Henry Arthur: Artificial checks to population: Is the 
popular teaching of them infamous? A history of medical 
persecution. George Standring. London, 1909, 85 p. 

Allbutt, Dr. Henry Arthur. The wife's handbook. London, R. 
Forder, and others. Numerous editions. [For publishing this 
book at a low price so as to make it accessible to the masses 
Dr. Allbutt was tried by the Royal College of Physicians of 
Edinburgh and by the General Medical Council of Great Bri- 
tain. He was adjudged guilty of **infamous conduct'' in a 
professional respect, which sentence carries with it the erasion 
of the name from the Medical Register, and disqualification 
from practice.] 

Allbutt, Dr. Henry Arthur: Disease and marriage. London, 
George SUndring, 1901, 80 p. 

The Trial of Dr. Henry Arthur Allbutt, of Leeds. By the General 
Medical Council of Great Britain and Ireland, at 299 Oxford 
street, 'London, on November 28, 24 and 25, 1887, for the 
publication of "The Wife's Handbook" at so low a price. 
With press critidsma on the same and letter from Mr. Joseph 
Latchmore, of Leeds, to Sir Henry W. Acland. Stanningley. 
J. W. Birdsall, 81 p. 

Allen, Dr. Oscar: Giving information about the prevention of ccm- 
ception. Critic and Guide, 1911, p. 229. 

Ames, Dr. Luther, L. : Prevention of conception. Critic and Guide, 
1909, p. 445. 

Amusing editorials about birth control. Critic and Guide, 1915 
p. 186. 



Anonymous. A rational or private marriage chart. For the use 
of all who wish to prevent an increase of family. By an 
Ohio physician [most likely, Dr. Daniel Winder], Mansfield, 
O., 1858. • 

Antikonzeptionelle Arzneistoffe. Heilkunde. p. 469-471. Berlin, 

Arendt, Dr. E. : Bemerkungen zur Operativen Konzeptionsverhin- 
derung. Centralbl. f. Gynaek, XXI, p. 1S18-1S28, Leipzig, 


BaflTett, Dr. E.: La depopulation plus sp^cialement envisag^e au 
point de vue obstetrical. Paris, 1908, 166 p. 

Bangs, Dr. L. B. : Some of the effects of withdrawal. Tr. New 
York Acad. Med. (189«), 1898, IX. 119-184. 

Barensfeld, E. D. : A human document. Critic and Guide, 1915, 
p. U9, 

Baum, Dr, M. Die kiinstliche Beschrankung der Kinderzahl. 
Berlin, 1898. 

Beale, Octavius Charles : Racial Decay. A compilation of evidence 
from world sources. London, 1911, 439 p. Rabidly anti- 
birth control. 

Benedict, Dr. A. L. : Prevention of conception. Critic and Guide, 
Oct. 1907, p. 119. 

Bergeret, Louis Fran9is Etienne. The preventive obstacle or 
conjugal onanism. The dangers and inconveniences to the 
individual, to the family and to society of frauds in the ac- 
complishment of the generative functions. Translated from 
8rd French edition. New York. Turner and Mignard, 1870, 
188 p. 

Berta, Luigi: Beitrage zum Problem des Neomalthusianismus. 
Archiv. f. Sozialwissenschaft u. Sozialpolitik. 88. H. 8. p. 

Bertillon, J.: Une enquete sur la prophylaxie anticonceptioneUe. 
Chron. Med. XII, 160-168. Paris, 1906. 

Besant, Annie: The law of population. Its ccmsequenoes and its 
bearings upon human conduct and morals. Bound Brook, N. 
J., Asa K. Butts, 1886, 47 p. 
Besant, Annie: Marriage. LondcHi, 1884. 


The Queen vs. Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant. L(Midon. 

Freethought Publishing Co., 1877, 855 p. 

The Birth Control Review. Established February, 1917. 

Blackwood, Dr. W. R. D. : The prevention of conception. Med. 
and Surg. Reporter. IX. p. 894-396. Philadelphia, 1888. 

Blackwood, Dr. W. R. D. : Prevention of conception. Critic and 
Guide. April 1906, p. 118. 

Blaschko, Prof. A.: Greburtenriickgang und (Jeschlechtskrankhei- 
ten. Leipzig, 1914, 4ift p. 

Block, Anita C. : Socialism and prevention of conception. Critic 
and Guide, 1913, p. Wft. 

Bonnard, Albert : La natalite en France. Biblioth. Univer. Lau- 
sanne, 1909, V. 55, p. 225-256. 
Bomtraeger, J.: Der Greburtenriickgang in Deutsohlaiid, seine 

Bewertung und Bekampfung. Berlin, 1912, 168 p. 
Bossi, Dr. L. M. : Les consequences gyn^cologiques du Mathusia- 

nisme. Gyn^cologie, X. 226-229, Paris, 1906. 
Bowers, Dr. Edwin, F. : Limitation of families. Critic and Guide, 

1916, p. 146. 
Bowers, Dr. Edwin F. : Dr. Robinson and his work. Crtic and Guide, 

1918, p. 137. 
Bowker, J.: Large families among the poor. Critic and Guide, 

1911, p. 271. 
Boynton, Dr. C. E. : Many or few children. Critic and Guide, 

Nov. 1903. 
Braun, Dr. M. : Die willkiirliche Beschrankung der Kinderzahl. 

Ein Mittel zur Vorbeugung der Empfangnis. Budapest, 1895, 

74 p. 
Braun, R. und Winternitz, J.: Kritische Bemerkungen iiber die 

verschiedenen antikonzeptionellen Massnahmen. Monatsschr. 

f. Hamkr. und Sex. Hyg., IV. 494-506, Leipzig, 1907. 
Bredis: Die Kiinstliche Unfruchtbarkeit vor dem Grericht, der 

Wissenschaft und der Gresellschaft. St. Petersburg, 1911, 

109 p. 

Brentano^ Lujo: The doctrine of Malthus and the increase of po- 
pulation during the last decades. Lcmdcm, 1910. Econ. J. 
XX. 871-898. 

Brentano, Lujo: Die Malthus'sche Lehre und die Bevolkerungsbe- 


wegung der letzten Dezennien. Miinchen 1909. K. B. Akad. 
d. Wissensch, p. 667-625. 

Brownell, Jane Louise: The significance of a decreasing birth-rate. 
American Academy of political and social science, 1894. 

Budge, Dr. Siegfried: Das Malthus'sche Bevolkerungsgesetz und 
die theoretische National-Oekonomie der letzten Jahrzehnte. 
Karlsruhe, 1912. 

Budge, Dr. Siegfried: Zum Malthus-Problem. Eine Antikritik. 
Arch. f. Sozialwissenschaft, Tubingen, 1913^ XXXVIII, 

Butler, Dr. George F. : Race suicide or race improvement? Critic 
and Guide, 1911, p. 68. 

Butler, Dr. George F. : Scaring away the stork. A few thoughts 
on race suicide. Critic and Guide, Jan. 1907, p. 17. 
•^ c. 

Cailhol, Dr. E. A. de: Conception. South Clin. XIII, 1-18, 1890. 

Capellmann, Fakultative Sterilitat. Aachen. 1897. 

Cauderlier^ G. : ]^tude sur les lois de la population et la loi de 
Malthus. Soc. d. statist, jour.f vol. 42, p. 51-68. 

Cavour, Camillo Benso di, Conte: Un manoscritto Cavouriano su 
Malthus e Francesco Ferrara. Risorgimento Italiano. Torino, 
191«, Anno 6, p. 61-7«. 

Chadwick, Edwin: The Malthusian Theory. East Sheen, 1888. 
8 p. 

Chalmers, A. K. : The declining birth-rate, its causes and effects. 
Eugenic Review. London, 1917, vol. 8, p. 322-828. 

Chapman, Charles Hiram: Jezebel. A Comedy. Published by the 
Author, 50 p. A fine satire on the official opponents of birth- 

Charity and the limitation of children ; suggestions from a physi- 
cian to the president of a charity organization. Critic and 
Guide, 1911, p. 131. 

Charles, Dr. Etta: Race suicide; The mother's side of the question. 
Critic and Guide, 1908^ p. 440. 

Chisholm, George, G. : Malthus and some recent census returns. 
Scott.-Geogr., vol. 29, p. 458-471. Edinburgh, 1913. 

Chunn, Dr. W. P. : The prevention of conception ; its practicability 
and justificability. Maryland, M. J., XXXII, p. 340-843. 

Clark, W. B. and Robinson, William J. : What is marriage with- 
out children? Critic and Guide, 1912, p. 231. 


Clappertcm, Miss Jane Hume. What do we women want? Pamph- 
let. W. H. Reynolds, London. 

Commander, Lydia Kingsmill: The American Idea. Does the 
national tendency toward a small family point to race suicide 
or race development? New York, 1907, 885 p. 

The control of births. Editorial in the New Republic. Mar. 6, 

Cossa: II principio di populazione di T. R. Malthus. Milano, 1895. 

Costa, A.: Les lois de la populaticHi d'apr^ M. Gustave Cau- 
derlier. Rectification de la Th^orie de Malthus. Soc. d. 
Statist, de Paris, vol. 48, p. 8-28, 1901. 

Crackanthorpe, Montague Hughes: Population and progress, 
London, Chapman and Hall, 1907, 180 p. 

The Critic and Guide, New York. Published Monthly. First is- 
sue January, 1908. Founded and edited by William J. Robin- 
son, M.D. 

Curtius : Die Abnahme der Greburtsziffer im Regierungsbezirk Mag- 
deburg. V. f. gerichU. Med. 47, 1914, H. I. 

Czempin, Dr. A.: Uber Konzeptionsverhiitung. Zeitschr. fiir 
arztl. FartbUdung, III, p. 578-574. Jena, 1905. 


Darwin, Leonard. Quality Not Quantity. The Eugenic Review. 
London, Jan. 1917, p. 897-881. 

Declining Birth-Rate. Its causes and effects. Being the report 
of and the chief evidence taken by the National Birth-Rate 
Commission, instituted with official recognition, by the Educa- 
tional Council of Public Morals — for the Promotion of Race 
Regeneration — Spiritual, Moral and Physical. London, 1916^ 
450 p. 

Denis, Hector: La Philosophic du XVIII Sifecle et Malthus. 
Humanity Nouv., Annee 3, p. 1-16. Paris, 1899. 

Dri^sdale, C. V.: Free women and the Birth-Rate. Freewoman, 
No. 80, 1911. London. Also separate reprint, 

Drysdale, Dr. Chas. R. : The life and writings of Thomas R. 
Malthus. London, 1898, 180 p. 

Drysdale, Dr. Chas. R. : The population question according to T. 
R. Malthus and J. S. Mill. London, 1898, 94 p. 

Drysdale, C. R. : The small family of France and the United States. 

Malthusian, XXVII, 83-86. London, 1908. 
Drysdale, C. R.: Should the state regulate the birth-rate? Mal- 
thusian, XXI, 88-87. London, 1897. 


Drysdale, C. V. : Can everybody be fed? A reply to Prince Kropot- 
kin. Geo. Standring, London. 

Drysdale, C. V.: Diagrams of international vital statistics with 
description in English and Esperanto together with a table of 
correlation coefficients between birth and death rates. London, 

Drysdale, C. V.: The empire and the birth-rate. A paper read 
before the Royal Colonial Inst. Mar. 24, 1914, 19 p. 

Drysdale, C. V. : Morality and the prevention of conception. Critic 
and Guide, 1917, p. 57. 

Drysdale, C. V.: Neo-Malthusianism in England. Critic and 
Guide, 1918, p. 325. 

Drysdale, C. V.: Havelock Ellis, W. J. Robinson and A. Grotjahn. 
Small or large families. Birth control from the moral, racial 
and eugenic standpoint. Critic and Guide Co., New York. 

Drysdale, C. V.: Neo-Malthusianism and eugenics. London, 1912, 
81 p. 

Drysdale C. V.: "Practical Eugenics." Critic and Guide, 1913, 

p. 887. 
Drysdale, C. V.: The small family system* Is it injurious or 

immoral? Prefatory note by Dr. Binnie Dunlop. 119 p. 

London and New York, 1914, W. B. Huebsch, and The Critic 
and Guide Company. 

Drysdale, C. V. : War and the limitation of offspring. Critic and 

Guide, 1914, p. 415. 
Drysdale, C. V. : Wages and the cost of living. Geo. Standring, 

Drysdale, Dr. George: The elements of social science or physical, 

sexual and natural religion. An exposition of the true cause 

and only cure of the three primary social evils: Poverty, 

prostitution and celibacy. London, 592 p., Ntmierous editions. 
Duffart, Charles: Le Malthusianisme en France et les moyens de 

la restreinte. La Rev., vol. 53, p. 285-309. Paris, 1904. 
Duggan, Dr. M. : The ethical and imperative need for the use of 

contraceptives. Med. Herald, vol. 84, p. 161-164. St. Joseph, 

Dunlop, Dr. Binnie : National happiness under individualism. Greo. 

Standring, London, 


Dupons de Nemours : Exaroen du livre de M. Malthus sur les prin- 
cipes de population auquel on a joint la traduction de quatre 
chapitres de ce livre supprim^ dans Pediticm f ranfaise, et une 
lettre k M. Say sur son traits d'^conomie politique. Phila- 
delphia, 1817, 159 p. 

Du Pujnode, Michel Gustave Partounan: £tude sur les princi- 
paux economistes, Turgot, A. Smith, Ricardo, Malthus, J. B. 
Say, Rossi. Paris, 1868, 498 p. 


£in einfadies und natiirliches Mittel zur Verhiitung der Bin- 

pfangniss. Leipzig, 29 p. 
Elberskirchen, Johanna: Zur Frage des sexuellen Praventiwer^ 

kehres. Heilkunde, p. 160-168. Berlin, 1909. 
EUiott, Dr. S. B. : Aedoeology. A traetise on generative life. 

Including pre-natal influence, limitation of offspring, and 

hygiene of the generative system. Boston. Arena Pub. Co., 

1893, 5^60 p. 
Ellis, Havelock: Birth Control. Phys. Culture, Sept., Oct., Nov., 

Ellis, Havelock: Birth control and eugenics. Critic and Guide, 

April, 1917. 
Ellis, Havelock: Essays in war time. Further studies in the task 

of social hygiene. New York, 1917. 
Ellis, Havelock: Impressions and comments, 1914. 
Ellis, Havelock: The problem of race regeneration. 
Ellis, Havelock: The task of social hygiene, 191ft, 
Ellis, Havelock : War and the birth rate. Critic and Guide, 19l6f 

p. 251. 
Elster: Geburtenzahl und Geburtenwerth. Universum, 1913. 
Embury, Dr. Philip: The birth-control meeting. Critic emd 

Guide, 1917, p. 78. 
The Endowment of motherhood. Brit. M. J., 11, 1051, 1906. 
Engelman, Dr. (Jeo. J. : Sterility of American marriages. Critic 

and Guide. June, 1904, p. 182. 
Ensor, Greorge: An inquiry concerning the populati(Mi of nations: 

Containing a refutation of Mr. Malthus's essay on population. 

London, E. Wilson, 1818, 608 p. 
Ernst: Die Kiinstliche Beschrankung eines aUzu reichen Kinder- 

segens. Dresden, 1892. 


Eulenburg, Dr. A.: Uber coitus reservatus als Ursache sexueller 
Neurasthenie bei Mannem. Intern. Centralbl. f. d. Physiol, 
and Path, der Harn. and Sex. Org., IV., p. 8-7. Leipsig, 1893. 

Everett, Alexander Hill : New ideas on population : With remarks 
on the theories of Malthus and Godwin. Boston, 18^, 126 p. 

Everitt, Col. W. H. : The falling birth-rate. [Antimalthusian.] 
Geo. Standring, London. 


Fahlbeck: Der Neo-Malthusianismus, Ztschr. f. soc. W. VI., 514- 
5S6. Berlin, 1908. 

Fahlbeck: Der Neo-Malthusianismus in seinen Beziehungen zur 
Rassenbiologie und Rassenhygiene. Arch. f. Rassen u. Gre- 
sellsch. Biol., vol. IX, p. 30-48. Leipzig, 191S. 

Fair, Dr. H. D. : A physician's story. Critic and Guide, 1916, 
p. 91. 

Ferdy, Dr. Hans: Zur Greschichte des Coecal-Condoms. Ztschr. 
f. Bekampfg. d. Greschlechtskrankheiten, III, 141-147. Leipzig, 

Ferdy, Dr. Hans: Die Mittel zur Verhiitung der Conception. 
Gynaek. Studie f. prakt. Aerzte u. Geburtshelfer. Berlin and 
Neuwied., 1890. 51 p. 

Ferdy, Dr. Hans: Sittliche Selbstbeschrankung, Behagliche Zeit- 
betrachtungen eines Malthusianers iiber die begriffliche Wand- 
lung des "Moral Restraint'* in dem Jahrhundert 1808-1903 
und die Ausbreitung des Neo-Malthusianismus. Hildesheim, 
1904. 5^04 p. 

Femau, H. : Zur Bevolkerungsfrage. Eth. Kultur, 1914, No. 8, 
p. 59-61. 

Fetter, F. : Versuch einer Bevolkorungslehre ausgehend von einer 
Kritik des Malthus'schen Bevolkerungsprincips. Jena, 1894, 

97 p. 

Field, J. A.: Beginnings of birth-control movement. Surg. Gyn. 
Obst. XXIII, p. 185, August, 1916. 

Field, J. A. : The early propagandist movement in English popu- 
lation theory. Repr. fr. Am. Econom. Rev., April, 1911. 

Field, J. A.: Publicity by prosecution. A resume of the birth- 
control movement abroad. The Survey, Feb. 19, 1916. 

Finch, A. EUey: Malthusiana. Elustrations of the influence of 
nature's law of the increase of human life, discovered and veri- 
fied by Malthus. London, 1904. 84 p. 
[To be continued m the May and concluded in the June %$$ue,\ 

Vol XUL MAY. 1917 No. 5. 

The American 

Journal of Urology 
and Sexology 

with 'whidh has been consolidated 

Hie American Practitioner 



Straining at Stool . . . . 

is minimized, and often overcome, by the judicious use of INTEROLi wa^ 
softens the fecal mass, and lubricates it all along the colon and rectiun, past ^Wj-> 
sphincter, without irritating or abrading the mucosa. ^ ^ 

Thus, there is less danger of ulceration; bowel evacuation is facilitated, and ^ 
the patient made happy on this latter account cJone, — entirely aside from 
INTEROL'S beneficial relation to the accompanying autotoxemia. 

Also, INTEROL is of great comfort to the patient suffering from hemorrhoids 
or fissures, because it makes the fecal mass soft and plastic, so that it is passed 
with less difficulty and discomfort, and congestion is relieved. For these 
reasons, INTEROL* has been suggested as a propf^^laeHc measure of these 
conditions, both for adults and children. 

^INTEROL is more than "ordinary mineral oil": (I) it posaeeseo t0kcUot ItAfkaHng hod^ 
so that it din^ to the fecal mass-^INTEROL has efficient "spread and mix" properties 
(2) no "lighter ' hydrocarbons to disturb the kidneys (3) no sulphur compounds to oisturb 
digestion (4) no odor or flavor, so that the patient can take it and derive its benefit. 

Pint botdes at druggists. *INTEROL booklet on request. 
VAN HORN AND SAWTELL, 15 and 17 East 40th Street, New York City 




Hay Feyer Vaccine, Spring 

For the Prevention and Treatment of 
Rose Golds or Spring Hay Fever 

Har Fever Vaccine Spring Mnlford consists of 
the protein extract obtained from the pollens of timothy, rye, 
red-top and several other grasses— the cause of so-called rose- 
colds, or Spring or Summer hay fever — dissolved in physiolog- 
ical saline solution and accurately standardized. 

The Vaccine may be used without preliminary diagnostic 
tests, Spring hay fever being caused mostly by the pollen from 

Antnmn Har Fever is nearly always due to the pollen 
of ragweed. 

If treatment does not give entire relief, skin tests may be 
made to discover possible hypersusceptibility to pollen not con- 
tained in the Vaccine. 

Hsy Fever Vaccine Spring la furnished In: 

lOBlalnUit 4 •■•rlla alaaa BrTiBtH of cimdnmlsd Btrenctbi, |S,00 
In ■iucle irrlnxes " D " itmvth, IM 
STiliice A ocoiUdiu O-Wttfi m^. extnuit o( Uie pollen proteiii 

laordarlal BBvelfr "Sprlal" or "Full" u Bar b* 'mIiW. 

For I^mmniJ-jition Treatmenl of Ha7 Fever, first da»e 
(STrinfte A) ahimld be tfiTen at leaal SO days before expeoted 
attaek, followed by B, C and D at five-day intervals. Syringe D strengtii 
Hay Fever Vaccine should be used at weekly intervals during the enure 
period of accustomed attack or until immunity is established. 

There are no oontralndioallona to the therapeutic or prophylactic 
use of Hay Fever Vaccine Mulford so far as known. A small percentage 
of patients may be hypersensitive to the protein extracts, in which case 
the doses may oe reduced. 

FsU Utanl-n will b* aallad bfm r««>Ht 

H. E. MULFORD CO., Philadelphia, D. S. A. 

asEOt Mannfaetnrlng and Bioli^oal Chemlata 

Copyricfat. 1917. by Dr. WUlUun J. RoMbsob. 


Subscriptions ami M com mu mcmtions rslatiug to ths hutimsu or editofiai 
iepartmsnt, sxchangss, omd books for review, should be wiiressed to THE 
AMERICAN JOURNAL OP UROLOGY, 12 Mt. Morris P^rk West, Norn 
York City. 



Breams: Their Meaning, Structure and Interpretation. By Samuel 
A. Tamenbanm, 1I.D IS^ 

Female Exhibitionism. A Psychotexual Study. By B. S. Talmey, 
IL D. 212 

Sexual Abstinence. By Dr. L. Loewenfeld 223 


A Case of Continued Priapism. Dr. Albert B^ Mowry 228 

The Baby Survived! Dr. 1. W. Irvin t 229 

Genital Mutilation. Dr. W. W. Houser 230 

Two Views of Marriage. Augnste Comte 230 

A Civilization Built on Sand. HaTelock Ellis 230 

Male Superiority. Lester F. Ward 231 

The Source of Woman's Power. Walter Heape 231 

You Can't Fool Nature. Walter Heape 231 

The History of a Rose-Fetichist A. Moll 232 

The Chief Cause. RoM:her 232 

To-day a Crime, To-morrow a Duty. Prof. Nystrtfm 232 

RobioMni, M.D. 1917 233-240 

Pnbliahed monthly by tfie Urologic PnMiaWng Aaaocfa rt ioB, 
12 Mt Morris Park Woat, N«w York» N. Y. 




Treatment of 



William J. Robinson, M. D. 

Chief of the Department of Geoito-Urinary Diseases and Dermatologr. Bronx Hospital and 
Dispensary; Editor The American Journal of Urology^ Venereal ana Sexual Diseases; 
Editor of The Critic and Guide: Author of Sescual Problems of Today, Nerer 
Told Tales, Practical Eugenics, etc.; President of the American Society 
of Medical Sociology, President of the Northern Medical So- 
ciety, Ex-Presioent of the Berlin Anglo-American Med- 
ical Society, Fellow of the New York Aca- 
demy of Medidne, etc, etc 

Uiuio^ttloiiably and incomparably the best, aimplett and moat thorough 
book on the subject in the English language. 


Part I— Masturbation. Its Prevalence, Causes, Varieties, Symptoms, 
Results, Prophylaxis and Treatment. Coitus Interruptus and Its Effects. 

Part II— Varieties, Causes and Treatment of Pollutions, Spermatorrhea, 
Prostatorrhea and Urethrorrhea. 

Part III — Sexual Impotence in the Male. Every phase of its widely vary- 
ing causes and treatment, with illuminating case reports. 

Part IV — Sexual Neurasthenia. Causes, Treatment, case reports, and its 
relation to Impotence. 

Part V— Sterility, Male and Female. Its Causes and Treatment 
Part VI — Sexual Disorders in Woman, Including Frigidity, Vaginismus, 
Adherent Clitoris, and Injuries to the Female in Coitus. 

Part VII— Priapism. Etiology, Case Reports and Treatment 

Part VIII — ^Miscellaneous Topics. Including: Is Masturbation a Vice?— 
Two Kinds of Premature Ejaculation. — ^The Frequency of Coitus.- "Use- 
less** Sexual Excitement— The Relation Between Mental and Sexual Activity. 
—Big Families and Sexual Vigor.— Sexual Perversions. 

Part IX— Prescriptions and Minor Points. 

Sixth edition reviaed and enlarged. 
Cloth bound, 422 pagea. Postpaid, $3.00. 


Dr. Robinson's Never Told Tales, $l.oa Sexual Problems of To-Day, 92J0O. 


Vol. Xm. MAY, 1917. No. 6. 

For Tb« Amsucav JovmnAi. of Uioloct a«d Ssjcologt. 


Their Meaning, Structure, and Interpretation. 

Bt Samuel A. Takmsnbaum» M.D., New Yoek. 


Interpretation Technique. — ^Inasmuch as Freud aduered the 
interpretation of dreams during the subjection of his patients to 
the usual psycho-analytic routine, it follows that the analysis of 
a dream proceeds in accordance with the technique employed in the 
analysis of a psychoneurosis or of a symptom. This technique is 
the same whether one attempts to analyze the dream of a neurotic 
or of a healthy individual. It must be said at once that there are 
no hard and fast rules for such analysis. Some persons take very 
naturally to the technique, others have to be trained to the method 
of free associations. The experience, skill, and patience of the 
analyst are extremdy important factors in the successful conduct 
of an analysis; but this is not to say that the result, i. e. the 
interpretation, is dependent upon the analyst. Given a certain 
dream, the interpretation, if properly conducted, must be es- 
sentially the same no matter who the analyst is. One analyst's 
experience or insight may, indeed, enable him to elidt something 
that would escape a less competent analyst. The length of time 
that has intervened between a dream and its attempted analysis 
may have a great influence in determining the result of the anal- 
ysis; a short time after the dream was dreamt the resistances to 
its interpretation are often much greater than they are several 
weeks or months later. Healthy persons ahnost invariably make 
very poor subjects for dream analyses because they have no suf- 
ficient motive for imparting their free associations to the analyst 
and because they have no adequate reason for overcoming thdr 
resistances to the realization of their own repressed complexes. The 



intelligence and culture of the subject undergoing analysis are 
necessarily important factors in determining the result of the 
investigation; but, for all that, very gratifying results are often 
obtained from the analysis of persons with only a very poor educa- 
tion and even of young children. 

As far as the analyst is concerned success in luiravelling the 
meaning of a dream wiU depend upon his mastery of the theory of 
the subject, his skill in the application of that theory, his sover- 
eignty over his own complexes (a sovereignty which can be gained 
only by submitting oneself to a thorough psycho-analysis and by 
analyzing one's own dreams), his freedom fnnn psycho-analytic 
^blind r.pots," his acumen, and his thcnrough acquaintance with the 
details of the patient's life. The analyst must approach every 
dream without any predetermined conclusions and must refrain 
from anything resembling suggestion. He must be particularly 
on his guard against falling into traps set for him by patients who 
will dream him dreams to fit in with his theories, hobbies, peculiar 
beliefs, and prejudices. The larger the analyst's culture, the more 
human his sympathies are, the more thoroughly scientific he is, 
the bigger man he is, the greater will be his success in ferreting 
out his patient's secrets and getting down to the bottom of the 
neurotic's soul. 

It is unquestionably best not to mention the subject of dreams 
and their analysis to patients at the beginning of the treatment. 
Freud's patients told him their dreams spontaneously and unasked, 
just because **they happened to come into their minds," and, if we 
are patient, the same thing will happen to us. A patient who 
does not tell us his dreams is suppressing them, — certain proof 
that he is not following orders (^Ho tell everything that ccmies into 
his mind") and does not want to be cured. In my own experience 
patients do not tell their dreams unless their attention is directed 
to them or unless they are requested to naxrate them. I ask a 
patient about his dreams only when the rest of his analysis has 
brought me satisfactory evidence of the presence of positive trans- 
ference on his part Then I ask: ^don't you dream? have you 
had any especially impressive dream of late? or at any time? what 
did you dream last night?" This is very often absolutely necessary 
because, owing to their superstitiousness, — all neurotics are super- 
stitious, — ^these patients are very averse to repeating their dreams 
or to discussing them ; they have an idea, owing to the neurotic's 
unconscious belief in the omnipotency of his thoughts, that to talk 


of dreams makes them come true. ("Talk of the devil and he is 
sure to appear.'') They also know in a vague way that their 
dreams r^ect their true selves and they therefore reject them as 
"meaningless, crazy/' It is advisable, in addition to overcoming 
these difSculties, to assure such patients that, notwithstanding the 
opinion of some psychologists to the contrary, the habit of re- 
calling and observing one^s dreams does not interfere with normal 
sleep any more than studying <me's thoughts interferes with think- 
ing. It is not at all improbable, finally, that the reason why 
European patients tell their dreams unsolicited to the analyst is 
the fact that knowledge of the theory and practice of psycho- 
analysis is much more general abroad than here. 

Patients are no longer required to bring their dreams to the 
analyst all written out or to cultivate the habit of recording them 
at the moment of waking. We no longer instruct the patient to 
keep a pencil and a pad of writing paper at his bedside. Experience 
has shown that this practice only disturbs the patient's sleep and 
does not lead to better analysis tiian if the patient is permitted to 
take his chance about remembering his dreams. The dream that 
one ^forgets" is probably one to which the dreamer would bring 
no interpretive associations even if he remembered it. If the 
resistances to the complexes that occupy the patient's mind have 
been overcome, the dream dealing with them will be recalled without 
any effort. For purposes of record, or for scientific reasons, the 
patient may be asked to keep a record of certain of his dreams or 
the analyst may reduce them to writing at the patient's dictation. 
IVeud has very shrewdly suggested that important data for the 
interpretaticm may be obtain^ by instructing the patient to repeat 
his dream and noting the changes and modificati<ms, additions and 
omissions he Introduces and then concentrating the analytic atten- 
tion on these *Veak spots." Dreams or porticms of dreams or 
dream details recalled while a dream is being analyzed are invari- 
ably of great significance and intimately connected with the mat- 
ters then under discussion ; special attention must be given to these 
addenda thus snatched fnnn oblivion. 

Not infrequently it happens that patients dismiss a dream as 
unworthy of critical analysis because only a "meaningless frag- 
ment" of it remains in their memory. But if the analyst will bear 
in mind that nothing in a dream is insignificant or meaningless 
and will encourage the patient to start a chain of associations 
from the despised fragment he will sooner or later be rewarded by 


a store of very significant matter and, very often, by a sudden 
recovery of other parts of the forgotten (repressed) dream. No 
dream fragment is too unpromising for analysis, even though it is 
that part of the dream which is so well-disguised that the psyche 
is unafraid to expose it to the analyst's skill. It is in the handling 
of these trifles that the master analyst shows himself. 

Inasmuch as there is no dreamless sleep, the failure on the part 
of the patient to report or to recall any dreams for several suc- 
cessive days or weeks must be interpreted as manifestations of 
resistance to the analysis or to the analyst. When this resistance 
is called to the patient's attention and its cause discovered and the 
difficulty adjusted, he will dream again. The patient must early 
gain the conviction that although dreams are the royal road to the 
unconscious, they are not the only road, and the temporary absence 
of dreams is no bar to the further progress of the analysis. If 
one will only conscientiously obey the rules laid down at the begin- 
ning there will always be found matter enough for discussion. 

Theoretically speaking, every dream can be fully analysed; 
but in actual practice this is rarely, if ever, accomplished or even 
attempted. By a complete analysis is meant one that discovers the 
dream inciter, the conscious wishes, some foreconscious matters, at 
least one infantile (unconscious and repressed) wish, and that ac- 
counts for every part of the manifest content. The experienced 
analyst knows that every dream of an adult embodies the fulfilment 
of more than one wish and he is therefore not satisfied with mere 
superficial interpretations, no matter how sensible and logical they 
may be ; but he will also be very careful not to attempt to oread too 
many meanings into a dream or to find all of his patient's com- 
plexes in one dream. If a patient's dreams are very long and 
complicated or very numerous he must not be permitted to waste 
his and the analyst's time by narrating them and attempting to 
interpret all of this material ; he must recognize in such a bewilder- 
ing mass of dream matter a manifestation of resistance and omtent 
himself with analysing as much of it as his hour will permit. What 
remains unanalysed may be safely assigned to oblivion or may be 
taken up for consideration when nothing else presents itself to the 
associating mind or when the patient recalls no new dreams. 
Preference must always be given to the dreams of the night preced- 
ing the patient's visit to the analyst. By doing this the analyst 
keeps in touch with his patient's present complexes and resistances, 
his present cares and anxieties. The hidden matters, the unacted 


desires, in an incompletely analyzed dream are sure to recur in suc- 
ceeding dreams and perhaps in language more easily comprehen- 
sible than in the dream that was wholly or partially neglected. 
Chance may be trusted to serve us in this matter if we adhere to 
the rule which requires the patient at each session to begin his 
assodaticms with the first thing that enters his mind and to con- 
tinue an automatic and uninterrupted flow of ideas from that point. 
But there is no objection to a systematic attempt at a complete 
analysis of one's own dream or of the dream of a healthy person 
who wishes to learn the theory and the technique, — in fact one 
cannot conceive of a better training for the would-be analyst. 

Speaking from a practical point of view we may say that 
although almost every dream can be made to yield some meaning, 
one comes across quite a large number of dreams which cannot, 
at least for the time being, be successfully interpreted. In these 
cases the temporary resistances are too great to be overcome. The 
forces which brought about the disguised presentation of the 
dreamer's inmost thoughts are on the alert not to permit anyone 
to penetrate the disguise. Later, when the subject has lost some 
of its emotional significance or when the individual has overcome 
his repugnance to thorough self-knowledge or when time has 
healed some wounds, the hitherto impenetrable dream yields up its 

The first dreams of a patient undergoing analysis are of the 
utmost importance and suggestiveness to the analyst, notwith- 
standing ihe fact that most of these are almost never more than 
only partially analyzed. These dreams contain the patient's 
symbols in their pristine purity, — uninfluenced by the analyst's 
iJieories, — ^his own peculiar dream mechanisms, his most important 
psychic conflicts, allusions to his psychic traumata, his attitude 
to the neurosis, the physician, religion, society, etc At this stage 
of the treatment the patient is not aware of the analyst's skill in 
reading his secrets in his dreams or of the hidden meaning of 
dreams, and he therefore makes use of only very simple means of 
disguising his thoughts. It is no doubt a great temptation to 
the analyst to interpret such dreams, but if he has had any ex- 
perience he will know that to do so is a serious tactical error. If 
a dream is interpreted before positive transference has been estab- 
lished, i. e. before the patient has acquired confidence in the analyst 
and in the technique, the patient will reject the interpretation, his 
resistances will be increased, and he may give up the treatment 


before it has done him any good. When the patient's resistances 
have been overcome and he is ready to analyse his dreams himself, 
i. e. when he has learned to appreciate the significance and uni- 
versality of the law of psychic determinism, the interpretation, 
perhaps even superficial interpretation, of one of his dreams will 
often be followed by a perfect flood of repressed matters. Not- 
withstanding this, some of these first dreams, like certain symptoms, 
are not interpretable until the whole neurosis has been analyzed. 
When one considers even only these things it must be evident how 
absurd it is to attempt a "side-walk analysis'* of a dream submit- 
ted by a sceptic or by one who has no better motive than curiosity. 
If a patient shows a great deal of resistance even after trans- 
ference has been established, the analyst may accomplish wonders 
in breaking down this resistance if, with the knowledge at his dis- 
posal, he successfully interprets some dream with which the patient 
presents him. The temptation to interpret a dream solely by the 
aid of one's knowledge of dream symbolism is sometimes very great, 
especially if the analyst wishes to make a powerful impression on 
his patient or to win his admiration, but the conscientious analyst 
will refrain from this dangerous experiment unless he is compelled 
thereto by circumstances. In the analysis of dreams, as of neurotic 
symptoms, the patient should be told \he meaning of the par- 
ticular thing under investigation only when he is on the verge of 
discovering it for himself, i. e. when the data that have been 
elicited will bear the interpretation put on them. 


It happens now and then that a patient insists that he has 
nothing more to say, that he is "talked out," that he has had no 
dream for many nights, and the analysis seems to have reached a 
dead spot. To get over this difficulty the analyst may request his 
patient to improvise a dream. Such dreams, made up on the spur 
of the moment and without any pauses for reflection, difi^er very 
little from actual dreams and fantasies (day dreams) and are just 
as susceptible of analysis and interpretation. The law of psychic 
determinism governs here just as elsewhere. The unconscious or 
foreconscious complexes seem to be lying in wait for the signal 
from the operator which will permit them to be flashed on the 
screen of consciousness. The content of improvised dreams, the 
secondary elaboration of night dreams and the conscious falsifica- 
tion of dream details, are all expressive of important and signif- 
icant processes in the individual's psyche. This, it may be in- 
cidentally remarked, is a sufficient answer to the very superficial 


objection that is so often urged against dream analysis, viz.: 
that the analyst has no warrant for the dreamer's veracity and 
that the translation of a dream into words is already a distortion 
or falsification. 

Freud advises against taking superfluous notes during a 
dream analysis. At the most the analyst may jot down, in a book 
provided for the purpose, a few important data, especially dates 
and names. The more completely the analyst relaxes and sur- 
renders himself to the free intake of the patient's comments the 
less likely is he to miss some of the free associations or some 
significant gesture or other symptomatic act, and the more likely 
is lie to perceive the associative connection between the patient's 
scattered and rambling thoughts. If the analyst attempts to take 
voluminous notes in longhand he must make a selection from all 
the data that the patient offers him and he thus incurs the danger 
of selecting only what seems to fit in with his theory of the partic- 
ular case under investigation; and by rejecting what at the mo- 
ment seems unimportant to him he may shut his mind's eye to the 
key to the problem confronting him. Stenographic notes are open 
to several objections, the chief ones being that they take the 
analyst's attention away from the patient, are fatiguing, and 
become more and more unintelligible with the lapse of time. 

As in other psychological experiments it is absolutely essen- 
tial for successful analysis that the investigator and the subject 
shall be impartial, attentive, comfortable, and perfectly fresh. 
They must not begin their study with a preconceived notion of 
what they are going to find ; they must not hope or expect to find 
this or that "complex." They must apply the rules of procedure 
seriously and not speculate about what they are doing and whether 
they could not get results in some other way, etc. If either one 
is tired or ill or cannot get his mind on the work it is best to dis- 
continue the analysis temporarily. Irritation from external causes, 
e. g. noise, a draught, an uncomfortable chair, glaring sunlight, 
etc., must be removed just as soon it is noticed. Some of my 
patients think that they can associate much more freely if they 
are permitted to smoke during the session and I see no reason for 
not letting them do so. The patient's position is the same as dur- 
ing the analysis of a neurotic symptom. 

The dream having been narrated, the analyst says to the 
patient: "Now, taking the dream as a whole, does it remind you 
of anything? of what? what recent experiences, mental conflicts. 


worries, fears, desires, longings, etc., are reproduced or echoed or 
hinted at in the dream? Say absolutely everything that comes into 
your mind, that floats into your mental vision, and omit nothing 
that may strike you as trivial or discreditable.'' In reply to these 
questions the patient is sure to produce a large body of facts and 
reminiscoices of whidi the dream is a condensed summary. Then 
the dream is divided or split up into its constituent sentences, 
clauses, phrases, striking words, and each one of these is made the 
point of departure for a train of associations. ^^What does this 
word or phrase or action suggest or remind you of?** With 
reference to the speeches that occur in the dream as direct quota- 
tions the patient is asked: ^Vho used those words? <m what occa- 
sion? to whom were they spoken? how were they altered by the 
dream? what is the significance of the alteration ?'' In the same 
manner each personage in the dream is made the starting point 
for a chain of associaticms. Numerals and new word-formations 
are treated in the same manner. There is usually very little dif- 
ficulty in discovering in this way the ccmscious and f oreconscious 
meanings of most dreams. Until the patient has learned to carry 
out the above instructicms and to overcome his resistances to the 
procedure he will find all sorts of objections to doing as he is told 
or he will stubbornly insist that he has nothing to say, that noth- 
ing comes to his mind. But the skilled analyst has an answer to 
every objection cmd can meet every difficulty if he has patience, 
tact, and a real interest in his patient. If the patient insists that 
nothing comes to his mind when his attention is directed to a certain 
dream element he is told to try some other word, action, situation, 
phrase, or personage in the dream, and he is questioned about them 
until his tongue is loosened or until his thoughts begin to flow. 
Now and then a difficult dream is suddenly made easy if the dream 
is turned around, L e. the incidents in the dream are reversed, the 
last coming first and the first last. It is also permissible to turn 
certain elements in the dream around, i. e. to replace them by their 
opposites, e. g. "oltf' by "young," "tall** by "short,'' "many" by 
"none," "high" by "low," "beautiful" by "ugly," **near" by 
"far," "male" by "female," etc. The justification for this pro- 
cedure is to be found in what was said about the technique of dream 
construction. Similarly we may try the effect of converting the 
active into the passive, the subject into the object, and adverbs 
of time into adverbs of space, or vice versa. Thus, **I was re- 
warded" may mean "I was punished"; "it was very near" may 


mean **it happened long ago" ; "he struck me" may mean "I struck 
him", etc. The emotions felt by the different personages in the 
dream must also be made the nucleus for a group of associated 
ideas and it must not be forgotten that the dream is not analyzed 
if the latent content does not justify those emotions. Occasionally 
the floodgates of memory will be thrown wide open if the analyst, 
following StekePs rule, will substitute for the dreamed emotion 
some other emotion, perhaps its opposite, e. g. grief for joy. That 
the substitution has been correctly and warrantably made will be 
proved if it is the means of eliciting latent thoughts which explain 
or harmcmize with the latent content or meaning of the rest of the 
dream; if not, it will lead nowhither. 

Matters that are only hinted at or referred to in the patient's 
comments or that may be inferred from them must be brought out 
in full detail by careful and judicious questioning. Incomplete 
data must be supplemented with additional information. The 
manner of the patient's speaking (e. g. hesitation, slurring), his 
gestures, conduct and emotions during the analysis must all be 
noted carefully for they may serve as hints to the analyst concern- 
ing matters that would otherwise not be elicited. Sentences or 
phrases that seem to be equivocal are almost invariably significant 
of another meaning than what appears on the surface, and the 
analyst must be on the alert for such hints from the unconscious. 
Thus, for example, if the patient says that a certain inference or 
interpretation "may be so" it is safe to interpret his words as a 
confirmation of the inference; so too such locutions as "not that 
I know or' or "not that I remember" are to be regarded as affirma- 
tions. Inasmuch as one of the censor's methods of repressing 
something from consciousness is to invest it with an element of 
doubt the analyst may wholly reject this element from the patient's 
narrative and treat the doubtful things as unpleasant realities. 
If the patient vacillates between two accounts of an incident ex- 
perience teaches that the first or original account is the correct 
one and that the alternative account is the manifestation of the 
attempt at repression. This rule also applies if the patient doubt- 
ingly substitutes another personage for one originally mentioned. 
Undue vehemence or an excess of emotion (laughter, anger, scom> 
pooh-poohing) in rejecting the analyst's interpretation, comment, 
or inference, is a sure sign of the correctness of the analyst's 
deducticm. Symptomatic acts accompanying the analysis often 
serve to elucidate the dream or to corroborate the interpretation. 


For the interpretation of a dream it is of the utmost impend 
tance to pay special attention to those parts that have been omit- 
ted from the original version and that are recalled during the 
analysis. These recollected fragments show most clearly the workr 
ing of the censor and are therefore clues to important repressed 
matters. The practical analyst must develop a kind of instinct 
for searching out all such ^Veak spots'' in the dreams submitted 
to him for analysis. Among these ^Veak spots" are to be included 
those parts of the dream that appear to be peculiarly ^^harmless" 
or ^insignificant/' or that are very logical in their construction. 
Important matters are very apt to mask themselves behind tri- 
vialities" which are not likely to attract the subject's attention. 
Of the same nature are those parts of the dream about which the 
dreamer reports that they were obscure, confused, or uncertain. 
^^Nodal points," for reasons that we have explained, are important 
centres for free associations and it is advisable to come back to 
these often during an analysis. The experienced analyst will be 
particularly on his guard against dreams that very frankly man- 
ifest such tabooed matters and forbidden relaticms as are usually 
very carefully concealed and repressed. The object of these frank 
dreams is almost invariably to throw the analyst off the track, to 
divert him into false paths, and to mask something of much 
greater seriousness than appears on the surface. But this is not 
to deny that many dreams (^^confirmatory dreams") very frankly 
deal with pathogenic onnplexes that have heexk elicited prior to the 
dream. Notwithstanding this, most dreams run ahead of the treat- 
ment; and even these frankly confirmatory dreams present the 
unmasked complex from a new angle and open another pathway 
into the mysterious maze of the neurotic souL 

Many a dream gives up its secret if one bears in mind that the 
most prominent personage (also animal or object) in the dream 
represents the dreamer himself who is thus identified with that 
personage. (The counterpart to this rule is furnished by works 
of fiction in which the **heroes," as far as these are original crea- 
tions, are personifications of the authors. David Copperfield, in 
the novel of that name, is Charles Dickens. Hamlet is Shakes- 
peare. Wilhelm Meister is Goethe. The innate selfishness or ego- 
centridty of all human nature leaves no room for doubt as to the 
validity of this rule.) Less obvious, but no less true, is the rule 
that every personage in the dream represents some phase of the 
dreamer himself. (The dramatis personae in a work of fiction, 


except as they reproduce historical or recorded fact, are only 
mouthpieces for the novelist or dramatist who calls them into being. 
It is recorded of Groethe that in deliberating on some subject he 
would carry on an animated debate on that subject with several 
imaginary personages, everyone of whom, of course, gave ut- 
terance only to Goethe's own arguments. Leonardo da Vinci, in 
his celebrated painting of ^^ihe Holy Anna, the Virgin, and the 
Infant Jesus,** depicts himself in the Infant, hia mother and his 
adopted mother in the two smiling women, and — as Freud has so 
brilliantly shown — ^his unconscious homosexuality in certain details 
of the composition itself.) Experience and reaaon tend more and 
more to bring home the conviction that personages in the dream 
whose features are unknown to the dreamer or whose features are 
so indistinct that he cannot identify them are the dreamer himself. 
In this way the dreamer transfers upon another something of 
which he is himself guilty or gives expression to the idea that in 
doing a certain thing he was not himself, did not act like himself, 
or appeared like a stranger to himself. Unknown personages in a 
dream are invariably only composite figures all of whom can be 
identified if the patient concentrates his attention upon particular 
features of the dream personage, e. g., his clothes, gait, size, eyes, 
nose, etc. One of the ways to identify such a dream individual is 
to ask the patient to name the first person who occurs to him as 
he visualizes the person in the dream. The law of the association 
of ideas is warrant for the correctness of the identification. The 
analysis of a composite portrait, accomplished by letting the mind 
play freely around each element entering into the onnposite image, 
often serves in itself to interpret the dream in which it occurs. 
The presence in a dream of a collective or composite personage is 
to be regarded as an indication from the unconscious that the 
individuals so fused resemble each other in certain respects of great 
significance to the dreamer, or that the dreamer wishes they so re- 
sembled each other. 

The interpretation of the dreams of one night, where there 
are more than one, is facilitated by the empirical rule that the 
dreams of one night all proceed from the same complex or group 
of OHnplexes, constitute an indivisible whole, and often manifest 
the dreamer's groping for different — more acceptable — solutions 
of some painful or difficult conflict. So too the dreams of several 
successive nights may deal with the same subject 


The synchronous appearance in a dream of certain elem^iis 
that stand for certain thoughts means that there is some logical 
relationship between those thoughts. When one dream element 
immediately follows another, or one dream immediately follows 
another, or one dream element immediately changes into another, 
it usually means that the latent ideas represented by these 
elements or dreams stand in causal relationship to each other. 
Evident absurdity in the manifest dream means that the dream 
refers to something in the latent content which the dreamer in his 
waking state characterizes as absurd. "Either — or*' in the manifest 
dream is to be translated by "both — and." Neologisms are to be 
analysed by splitting them up into their constituents and then 
associating freely to them all. 

Perhaps no rule in the interpretation of dreams is of gpreater 
importance than this : thoughts that immediately follow each other 
bear an important relationship to each other though this may not 
appear on the surface. Where the association between successive 
ideas is a very superficial one (e. g. an assonance, rime, pun, etc.) 
we may rest assured that there is also a deeper bond of great 
emotional significance between them. What this important matter 
in the backgroimd is must be brought out by the analysis. 

The question has frequently been asked, "how does the 
analyst know that this interpretation is correct, that he is not 
dictatorially forcing something down the patient's throat?** The 
answers to these questions are several and convincing. The cor- 
rect analysis of a dream brings about an improvement in the 
patient's mental condition, throws light on one or more symptoms 
or on the evolution of the neurosis, and is followed by the ameliora- 
tion or disappearance of some symptom. Not infrequently one 
notes in the patient's demeanor, facial expression, gesture, or 
vigorous expression of assent a vehement confirmation of the cor- 
rectness of the analysis. The patient says: "yes, you are right; 
I know it, I feel it." Unconscious affirmation of the correctness 
of an interpretation or deduction is also to be found in the fact 
that the patient at once produces associations harmonizing or 
according with the analyst's assertion though not directly or ob- 
viously confirmatory of it. Now and then a patient unwittingly 
confirms the correctness of an interpretation by a peculiar guilty 
little laugh which is not warranted by the associations. Another 
unconscious "yes" consists in the patient sa3'ing in response to 
an interpretation: "I knew you would say that," whereby he ack- 
nowledges that the thought was his own even before it was com- 


munieafted to him. Sudi comments as '^periuips,'' *hiot that I 
know of," ^'toq may be right,'' etc, are also to be regarded as 
tmconscKKis affirmations. That the analyst is rig}^ in his inter- 
]»etation will be eridenced by the fact that the patieit makes 
some irrdermnt or ilk^kal commoit on what he hears, or acts as 
if he had lost his usual intdligence, or unknowingly shakes his 
head in approval, or is guilty of some symptomatic act confirma- 
tofy of the interpretation. If the analyst has be«n careful in 
rpiujiing his condusion he will not be moved from it by the pa- 
tient's "no" or "you are wrong," but will r^^rd such dissa[it 
as a manifestation of that r^M^ession whidi makes it impossible 
for the neurotic to radixe the revealed truth. 

Sexual matters embodied or hinted at in dreams must be 
investigated and discussed in that courteous, dispassionate, and 
sdaitific manner which should characterise all of the psychoana- 
IjTst's conduct. Whoi the time is ripe and the patient is ready 
for it his sexual life mu^-t come under the analyst's scalpel just 
as any other matter. 

Symbolization is, as we know, one of the most important 
mechanisms in dream construction. It is essential for the analyst 
therefore to devote his special attention to the art of recognizing 
the symbols in his patients' dreams and of converting or translat- 
ing them into the ideas they stand for. Unless he acquires skill 
in doing this he will never succeed in wholly interpreting a dream 
or in getting down to the true meaning of the dream in the un- 
conscious. The patients' free and unforced associations are in 
reality only emanations from the conscious and foreconscious 
spheres, the unconscious content of the dream — the dream builder 
proper — being concealed behind the symbols therein Notwith- 
standing the fact that many of the disciples of the dominant 
sduK^ of psychologists rail and sneer at the Freudian's employ- 
ment of a "cipher of symbolism" the truth is that psychoanalysts 
have hitherto been too cautious in this matter and have not suf- 
ficiently availed themselves of the key that their researches in 
various fields of mental phenomena have put in their hands. 
Although Freud« Stekel, and others have been able to attach a 
specific — ^very often sexual — meaning to a large number of terms 
and objects occurring in dreams, fantasies, and elsewhere, psycho- 
analysts resist the temptation to employ this knowledge in un- 
veiling some of the hidden stuff of the conscience. The reasons 
for this self-control, for this sacrifice, are several. The inter- 


pretation of a dream frcHn its symbols alone would, in the first 
place, if it were possible, reveal only one meaning of the message 
from the unconscious, — ^a message which in adults, especially in 
neurotics, is, in all probability, always overdetermined. In the 
second place, the therapeutic effect of a dream analysis, our only 
desideratum, results not from a knowledge of the meaning of the 
dream but from overcoming the patient's resistances to the realiza- 
tion of the presence and significance of forfoidckn desires forced 
out of consciousness by the endopsychic censor. Unless these re- 
sistances have been overcome, the interpretation of the dream 
symbols will inevitably arouse the patient's contempt for the 
analyst as for the treatment and serve to increase his resistances, 
thus bringing the treatment to a halt. There is no surer way 
of breaking down the neurotic's resistances to dream interpreta- 
tion than letting him discover the presence and the meaning of 
symbols in his dreams for himself and from his free associations. 
Time and patience and skill in questioning (not in suggesting!) 
will inevitably bring this about. A conscientious psychoanalyst 
will rather leave a dream uninterpreted than hazard an interpreta- 
tion from its symbols. And yet there is no denying that oc- 
casionally such an interpretation by an expert may prove of the 
gpreatest value in suddenly overcoming the patient's resistances, 
by making him realize that some cherished secret is known, thus 
opening the floodgates of m^nory. Such a tour de force may 
be resorted to in extreme cases when nothing eke will make the 
patient talk or when the treatment has reached a ^^dead spot" 
(i.e. a point whence there is no progress) and in patients thor- 
oughly familiar with symbolism and not resistant to the proce- 
dure. A patient's reiterated assertion that a certain element in 
a dream really suggests nothing and recalls nothing to him is 
to be regarded by the analyst as a hint from the unconscious that 
at that point in the dream something is to be turned around or 
regarded as a symbol. 

In the third place, notwithstanding the fact that owing to 
the influence of current jests and witticisms, biblical lore, literary 
usage, and so forth, certain words and objects have almost uni- 
versally acquired a symbolic signification, there are undoubtedly 
many individuals who do not attach a symbolic meaning to these 
familiar terms and objects, — ^to whom a nightingale is only a 
nightingale, no matter what it is to readers of Bocaccio. This 
individual factor must always be reckoned with by the analyst. 


The daisy may be only a little yellow flower to a great many 
people but it is much more to a Wordsworth. Even racial and 
national factors must be considered by the scientific analyst: 
white is not everywhere the symbol for purity, black the symbol 
for mourning, or a veil the symbol for chastity. Linguistic and 
religious influences, too, unquestionably play an important role 
in affixing symbolic meanings to certain words. 

And, in the fourth place, no one knows better than the practis- 
ed psychoanalyst that many individuals employ a symbolic voca- 
bulary that is peculiarly their own and that is the product of 
their occupation, their experiences, their associations, etc. He 
would indeed be bold who in the face of only these difficulties 
(there are others) would easily presume to interpret a patient's 
dream from his symbols rather than from his free associations. 

What, it might be asked, would it benefit the analyst to have 
a key to the symbols in his patients' dreams? It would give him 
a due to some of their conflicts and complexes before they real- 
ized that they were betraying themselves and before they learned 
to disguise their complexes beyond detection. That is why the 
first dreams after the beginning of the treatment are of such im- 
portance and why they should be preserved for reference. At 
times, again, and that not infrequently, the analyst's interpreta- 
tion of a dream from its symbols serves to loosen the patient's 
tongue, overcome his resistances, and hasten the progress of the 
treatment. And almost always the knowledge of the meaning of 
the dream symbols serves as a kind of control on the patient's as- 
sociations. Stekel and other experts even profess thus to be in 
a position to know what progress the patient is making, what his 
attitude to the analyst is, and what the prospects of an ultimate 
cure are. These, it seems to us, are justification enough for 
setting down the following few practical rules for the guidance 
of the young psychoanalyst in interpreting the dream symbols 
of the average human being living in a fairly civilized community : 

A man in authority, or in a position of command, or en- 
dowed with extraordinary powers, represents the dreamer's father. 
Such personages are the king, the president, the ^^govemor," the 
Czar, the Emperor, the giant, the great magician Hermann, a 
great lawmaker, a general, a policeman, an ^^old man," etc. 
Amrnig these we must also include Grod and his great antagonist, 
the Devil — both of whom are only projections of opposite aspects 
of the father. Women in authority, — the Queen, the Czarina, 


the Empress, the good fairy, the witch, an "old lady," etc. — ^are 
personifications of the dreamer's mother. The young prince or 
princess personifies the dreamer. 

All staff-like objects, especially if they are long, round, cylin- 
drical, or sharp-pointed, e.g. a sword, knife, club, hat, pen, pencil, 
cigar, finger, foot, toe, banana, candle, hatpin, paper cutter, ruler, 
twig or branch, etc., may represent the phallus. 

All objects, etc. fitted to serve as receptacles, e. g. a box, 
trunk, coffin, bottle, stove, pocket-book, a hole, the eye, the ear, a 
sewer, hat, heaven, hell, etc., may stand for a female, the uterus, 
or the vagina. A woman is often represented in a dream by a 
chamber or by some object (bed, board, table) fitted to lie on. 

Any object that rises, collapses, or fits into something else 
may be employed as a symbol for the phallus. This includes such 
objects as an umbrella, a balloon, a thermometer, an opera hat, etc. 
This is also true of the dreamer* kindred in the dream, e.g. his 
little brother or sister, the little one, the little fellow, a "naughty 
boy," etc. 

Many activities which resemble coitus or are in some way 
analogous to it are often employed as symbols for sexual inter- 
course, such as ploughing, boring, sewing, shooting* pushing, 
ramming, stabbing, etc. Flying and faUing are very frequwitly 
so employed. Many phrases capable of a double meaning are 
taken advantage of by the dreamer to depict coitus, such as *to 
go with (coire) somebody," *Ho know someone" (in the biblical 
sense), "to have a good time," "to converse with a person" (crim. 
con.), "to be operated on," "to be vaccinated," etc. landscapes 
are favorite modes of depicting a female or her genitals, as in 
the celebrated passage in "Venus and Adonis." Complicated 
machinery very often represents the male genitals. Infection in 
a dream refers not only to poisoning but also to impregnation 
and to venereal disease. All wrongdoing in a dream refers to 
repressed criminality and often to adultery, rape, etc. 

Many words occurring in dreams are employed with a sex- 
ual signification. Thus *to be alive" means to be potent, "to 
die" "to become impotent," "to bum" "to be in love" or "to be 
sexually excited," "to be cold" "to be frigid," "to rise" "to get 
an erection," etc. 

Animals of a certain kind, e.g. mice, rats, frogs, lizard?^ 
worms, and "other such small deer," especially the snake, be- 
cause of their shape, sliminess, supposed toxicity or viciousness, 

DREAMS 5209 

or preference for dark cavities, are frequently employed as symbols 
for the male genitalia; others because of their softness, hairiness, 
etc., e.g., a squirrel, mouse or kitten, for the female genitalia. 
Large animals, a horse, a bull, a dog, especially beasts of prey, 
(lions, tigers) are employed by most dreamers to symbolise sexual 
passion, strong emotions, men, women, etc. As a mere matter 
of precaution «igainst misunderstanding we add that all these 
symbols may be overdetermined and symbolise many things. E.g., 
a dog may stand for a certain individual, for fidelity^ shameless- 
ness, etc.; a cat for a woman, a man, treachery, cunning, etc. 
Small insects stand for reproaches, spermatozoa, germs, children, 
etc. Of all living things the bird is, probably in all languages, 
the commonest symbol for the penis, and the bird's activities 
(singing, mating, flying) for coitus. Stdcel is probably right 
in concluding that animal dreams which mask the sexual passion 
are most frequent in sexually unsatisfied women. 

Flowers and fruits play such an important part in our 
daily lives and we symbolise so many ideas by them that they 
might be expected to be so employed in a great many of our 
dreams. And so they are. Flowers, horticulture, and gardening 
are exquisite dream symbols for the menses, coitus, marriage, 
children, the genitals, death, etc. The meadow is a beautiful 
symbol for one's beloved, wife, or mother; the gardener for one's 
father or death; nuts or apples for the testes. 

It is almost needless to say that metals and colors are very 
often employed in a symbolic sense. Thus, wood is female, iron 
male, gold feces. White is purity, yellow envy, green jealousy, 
red fire (blood, life, passion, semen), black mourning, blue peace 
(happiness), etc. As might be expected, the planets in the heavens 
are also employed symbolically; the sun is the source of life, the 
creator, the father, the phallus ; the moon is the gentler sovereign, 
the mother, the vagina, the gluteal region; the stars are the 
children, and so forth. 

Birth dreams and onanism dreams we have already discussed. 

The perversions and inversion also find symbolic expression 
in our dreams. Homosexuality is represented by the same sjrmbols 
as heterosexuality, the persons however being of the same sex. 
Representing something in a dream as turned around is often a 
hint of repressed homopsychism. Anal erotism is expressed by 
doing something backwards, going behind somebody, using the 
back door, having it in the back, etc. ; fellatorism by eating, drink- 


ing milk, chewing sweets, sucking a stick, biting a pencil, etc.; 
cunnilingus by "going downstairs,** **being a down-town mer- 
chant,** "putting one's head in the bush,** "going south,** etc.; 
sadism by some act of cruelty; masochism by grieving or suf- 
fering, being attacked, etc. 

Right and left in a dream have, as Stekel has shown us, im- 
portant symbolic significance. Anything that is represented as 
being on the right side is right morally, is correct, appropriate, 
normal, heterosexual, religious, or masculine; what is on the left 
side is not right, is wicked, improper, inverted, perverse, incest- 
uous, impious, criminal, adulterous, or feminine. Straight and 
crooked in a dream are to be interpreted exactly as right and left. 

The psychoanalyst must not omit to note the presence of 
functional symbols, such as the garret, roof, or upper story for 
the mind; sweeping, cleaning, washing dirty clothes, etc, for the 
treatment; the burden, chain, prison, companion, friend, enemy, 
servant, etc, for the neurosis; going out for awaking; closing 
shop for going to sleep, etc. The analyst is symbolised in the 
dream as a detective, street cleaner, washer-woman, a busy-body, 
old fool, dupe, professor, teacher, etc. The dreamer's views on 
religious matters, especially if he is* a neurotic, find symbdic ex- 
pression in very many dreams. 

Many of our emotions are symbolised in our dreams. Dark- 
ness means hopelessness, despair, as well as death, etc; bright- 
ness means hopefulness, gaiety, animation. In this connection 
one must bear in mind Stekel's rule that in a dream any emotion 
may be a substitute for another. 

Two rules first formulated by Stekel deserve to be borne in 
mind by every dream interpreter. The first is that a liquid men- 
tioned in a dream may represent any other liquid ; thus blood may 
represent milk, urine, saliva, semen, etc. The second rule is that 
everything a person has a pair of, e.g., ears, eyes, hands, dbows, 
knees, testes, breasts, glutei, checks, heels, may represent any 
other pair. 

Man's innate selfishness and vanity make him greedy, covet- 
ous, and resentful of restraint. In his dreams, "the domain of 
unlimited egoism,*' he is omnipotent, omniscient, all-exoeUing and 
all-possessing. There is no crime that a human being will not 
commit in his dreams. And inasmuch as these criminal desires and 
fantasies play such an important role in the neurotic's sufferings, 
because of the inexorable "law of retaliation/* the analyst must 


learn to recognize the symbols of these criminal impulses in the 
Inferences to courts, lawyers, policemen, criminal acts, etc. in his 
patient's dreams. Owing to the child's and the neurotic's long- 
ings for the death of any individual who stands in the way of 
the gratification of their desires, the dreams of adults, whether 
healthy or neurotic, are rich in symbols signifying death or 
dying. It is unthinkable to attempt to enumerate these here. 
The dreamer sees someone, perhaps he doesn't know whom, in a 
box, in a coffin, stretched out, all in white (or in black), looking 
very pale, very cold, very feeble, sick; or he sees someone who 
personifies death, e. g. a well known personagCi a figure in black, 
a stranger, an old man, a king, a sergeant, a gardener, a grave- 
digger, an undertaker, a great captain, etc., or he depicts some- 
one as departing, disappearing, going on a long journey, flying 
away, being arrested, ascending, descending, marrying, etc 

What makes the interpretation of all symbols a matter of the 
greatest difficulty is the fact that the neurotic takes a bipolar at- 
titude to almost everything that engages his attention. Where 
he loves he also hates ; his impiety and worship of the devil (the 
projection also of his wicked impulses) he offsets with piety and 
worship of God; thoughts of death are relieved by thoughts of 
birth ; his criminality he offsets with excessive scrupulousness, etc. 
Because of this phenomenon most, if not all, of the above symbols 
represent not only themselves but their opposites, so that, for 
example, **fire" may stand for "water," dying for being bom, a 
cradle for a grave, punishing for rewarding, etc Another im- 
portant rule to bear in mind is this : all sexual symbols are bisex- 
ual; anything in a dream may represent its opposite. A snake 
is, by a kind of metonomy, as appropriate a symbol for the vagina 
as for the phallus. This clue will enable the cmalyst to lay bctre 
the bisexuality of all human beings, especially of neurotics in the 
making of whose ailments and character psychic hermaphrodism 
is an important factor. 

In conclusion we urge the student, if he would master the 
subject of symbolism and many other interesting phenomena 
characteristic of dreams, to study Stekel's fascinating book. Die 
Sprache des Traumes (Wiesbaden, 1911), and if he would learn 
to know the theory of dream construction and the technique of 
dream analysis to devote himself to the mastery of Freud's epoch- 
making book, Die Traumdeutwng^ fourth edition (Leipzig, 1915), 
and above all to the analysis of his own dreams. 

ddSl Broadway. 

Contributed to The Aicckican Touknal or Ukolocy and Sexology. 


A Psychotexual Study, 

By B. S. Talmey, M. D., New Yoek. 

Exhibitionism is an anomaly in which the patient derives a 
certain satisfaction from, or experiences the highest libido, at the 
exposure of his sex organs to the gaze of the other sex. 

Two conditions are necessary to constitute the perversion of 
exhibitionism. The exhibitionary act must consist in the exposure 
of sex-organs, and secondly, the motive must be to gain by the 
very act an erotic end i. e. the orgastic acme, either spontaneoasly 
or by masturbatic help. An exhibitionary act as such does not 
constitute an anomaly. Men reveal their bare legs, arms and chests 
on the beach of the ocean and are not exhibitionists for that mat- 
ter. Neither is the man, who would expose his genitals to invite 
coition, an exhibitionist. Here the libido is not experienced by the 
exhibitionary act but is expected to be gained by the congress later 
on. The organs are exposed because they have an erotic effect 
upon the observing individual. 

The time exhibitionist is not concerned in the erotic effect his 
actions may have upon the other sex. The other sex plays the 
same rdle as the fantastic picture in the imagery of the autoerotic 
day-dreamer. The pervert has no interest in the erotic excitement 
of his observer. The more the women and girls are frightened 
and scream, at his approach, the more he is satisfied and the 
higher is his libido. The pervert is not bent upon congress. In 
fact the male exhibitionist is, as a rule, impotent of copulation. 
The exhibition is really a substitute for the impotent congress. 

In its essence, female exhibitionism shows the same pathog- 
nomonic symptoms: the exposure of her sex organs to the male 
sex and the experience of erotic libido by this very exposure. Fe- 
male exhibitionism is mostly found in women who, for one reason 
or another, are unable to experience libido during normal congress. 
They seek and find libido in the exposure of their sexual attributes. 
Hence the exhibitionist has no desire for coition, and the state of 
erotic excitement of the male, which is of the greatest concern to 
the normal woman, because without male excitement there is no 
erection and consequently no congress, is of no interest to her. 
The pervert is thus a sexual egoist. She is interested in her own 
libido only. She does not need the active aid of the male for her 



libidinous experience. An unexcited, indifferent, disgusted or even 
hating onlooker, who turns his back to her action, is sufficient for 
her purpose. 

The male exhibitionist practices his antics at any time, in any 
place, near a girls' school, before his window, in the entrance-hall 
of an apartment, or on the stairs of a flat-house, etc. Female 
exhibitionism needs proper surroundings. If the female exhibi- 
tionist wished to act in the same way, in the same places, as the 
male, all she could do would be to lift up her clothes. But then 
she would only reveal her abdomen, the mons veneris, and thighs, 
none of which are sex-organs. Even the exposure of the vulva 
needs certain facilities and proper surroundings. It requires a 
reclining position. The female exhibitionist, therefore never reveals 
this part of her body, and for that reason female exhibitionism is 
supposed to be a great rarity. Krafft-Ebing, the father of sex- 
ology, is of the opinion that cases of exhibitionism thus far record- 
ed are exclusively those of men. The same opinion is shared by 
many other authors. 

The recorded cases of male exhibitionism are, as a rule, taken 
from the annals of court proceedings. The patients had been 
hailed to court for exposing their genitals in public places, in the 
presence of girls and women. The few cases of female exhibition- 
ism thus far described by medical writers (Love p. 272, Woman 
p. 140) are really only exhibitionary acts. The women lifted up 
their clothes and invited the males to erotic practices. Such acts 
do not constitute the true anomaly of exhibitionism where the 
genitals must be exposed without any desire for coition. 

If by sex-organs are meant the primary organs only, then 
the anomaly of exhibitionism would not only be a rarity in the 
woman but an entire impossibility. The female primary sex organs 
are inaccessible to exposure. 

The main primary female genitals are situated within the 
abdominal cavity and not accessdble to the sense of sight. The 
remaining two sex organs, clitoris and nymphae are inconspicuous 
and hidden behind two large skin folds, the labia — ^hence the Latin 
name "vulva" — the folding door. Even in the unnatural knee- 
elbow or lithotomy positions, with the limbs separated, only the 
folding-door is visible. The complete exposure of the vestibule 
can only be effected by manual separation of the two skin folds. 
Such separation reveals, at the same time, the anal region, the 


exposure of which has such an unesthetic effect upon the normal 
refined observer that any woman, even the pervert, will shrink from 
effecting it, 

^^Multa viroa nescire decet. Pars maxima rerum 
Offendat, si non interiora tegas.** 
In the natural vertical or horizontal recumbent positions even 
the two skin folds or the vulva are removed from sight by the 
interior aspect of the thighs. What in these positions, with ad- 
ducted thighs, can be seen besides abdomen and thighs is the mons 
veneris, a hairy triangular area, which is neither a true sex-organ 
nor does it offer a particular esthetic sight. 

The female primary sex organs are thus inaccessible to ex- 
posure. The Greek nude art of the female never shows the least 
trace of the primary sex-organs, and the ancient Greek artists can 
not be accused of prudery. They did not hesitate to represent the 
male genitals. But the artist representing only things perceived 
by the sense of sight could not reproduce the female primary sex 
organs because in the usual position of the model these organs are 
not visible. When the artist wishes to call the attention to sex he 
has to choose the secondary sex characters. When the Venus of 
Medici wishes to emphasize the woman's importance as wife and 
mother she shades with her left hand the mons beneath which are 
hidden the organs emblematical of the wife, with her right hand 
she points at her breast as a symbol of the mother of the race. 
No trace of any primary sex organs can be detected even in this 
particular sex statue. 

If therefore the female exhibitionist wished to imitate the 
actions of the male in public she could only expose the mons and 
adjoining parts which, but for the erotic effect, are the most un- 
esthetic parts of the entire female body and are not a proper 
subject for exposure. Such an exposure may serve the purpose 
of the vicious who wish to arouse desire. The exposure of the 
mons has a great erotic effect, not because any genitals are revealed 
but because, owing to the proximity of the sex organs, the fantasy 
supplements the missing organs. Owing to the proximity of the 
sex organs, the bare legs have a greater erotic effect than the bare 
arma, although the legs have no more relation to sex than the arms, 
and are esthetically less attractive than the latter. The priestesses 
of Venus vulgivaga, when dancing the cancan in the moulin rouge 
in Paris, do not reveal the least particle of the bare skin of legs 
and abdomen. What they really expose are their drawers. Still 


they obtain the same desired erotic effect, because this apparel is 
worn close to the genitals, and the fantasy can see the latter under 
the cover. 

It is through the vivid fantasy that things which have no 
relation to sex may have an erotic effect upon the observer. The 
nude as such is not obscene. The ancient Greeks could not find 
any erotism in the nude. They met it on every step in their cities. 
If a child would be taken often into the bath-room by the parents 
every time each parent takes a bath, it would grow up without 
finding anything obscene in the nude body, nude picture^ or nude 
statue. The obscenity complex lies within us, produced by our 
perverted education. If the exposure of thighs and abdomen has 
nowadays a vast erotic effect it is because we are all more or less 
affected by our early instructions, and our fantasy is abnormal. 
Advantage is taken of this abnormal state of our psyche by the 
vicious or hyperesthetic. Such women may expose these parts to 
incite desire. But the exhibitionist does not intend to afford an 
erotic effect to the other. She wishes self-satisfaction, derived from 
the exposure of her real sex-organs. Exhibitionism is a perversion, 
and a perversion is primitive in nature. It does not appeal to 
emotions which are a product of early education, not found in 
primitive man. 

Feminine exhibiticmism can, therefore, only consist in the ex- 
posure of the secondary sex-characters^ such as the broad hips, 
graceful waist, abdomen, bosom, breasts, long graceful neck, 
luxuriant hair, round arms, small hcinds and feet, graceful ankles, 
etc. Considering that a part of these secondary sex-characters is 
normally always exposed, it is easily seen that there is no direct 
line of demarcation between the normal and the pathological 

Even the normal woman is ever bent upon making her charms 
most conspicuous, and the secondary sex-characters exert the 
greatest charm on men. Hence there is no dividing line between 
the normal and abnormal exhibition. The two pass into each other 
by imperceptible gradations. Both conditions show the same 
elements, but the perversion exhibita them in exaggerated or ab- 
normal groupings. 

There are two reasons, a purely animal and a hiunan reason, 
why some exhibiticmistic impulses are slumbering on the soul-basis 
of even the normal woman. Exhibitionary desires are, in the first 
place, based on the same impulses as coyness, in all females among 


the higher animals. The female voluptas, or sexual impulse, does 
not need the male to be aroused. Nature renews itself in yearly 
or semi-annual periods. The seasons of the blossom or of rut 
arrive at the expected moments in obedience of a rhythmic law. 
Menstruation is equivalent to rut. The sex impulse in the female 
of the species announces itself without the help from outside, it 
is autochthonous. The male's desires must be aroused by the fe- 
male. The ordinary internal hormones do not suffice to effect 
erection. [?] Spontaneous erection is a rarity.* The female desires 
do not need to be aroused to the point of erection. In her pas- 
sivity an unexcited, indifferent, disgusted or even hating female 
may participate in erotic activity. The male can not be raped. 
The female has first to arouse his desire for her. She must consider 
his state of sexual excitement. Without his excitation by the fe- 
male there can be no erection or union. An unexcited male is an 
impossible partner. The female can only experience libido when 
the male participates in the experience. 

This condition is the basis of coyness and coquetry found in 
the females of all higher animals. The female, in the mating stage, 
asks and refuses at the same time. She simulates resistance. This 
coy resistance serves to increase the male's desire, and his increased 
Yoluptas increases her libido. Amorous sportiveness of advance 
and withdrawal or erotic coquetry is thus the natural instinct of 
the female throughout the animal kingdom. Coyness and coquetry 
have thus become sex-determiners in all females, the human female 
included. She also asks while seeming to refuse, she also wooes 
while appearing to be wooed. While so wooing, she is naturally 
anxious to dii^play her specific female attributes. 

* This is rather a peculiar statement, to say the least. Spontaneous 
erection in perfectly healthy, normal males, living a continent life, 
is of great frequency. It is of daily occurrence. In many people it is 
so common, as to be annoying, and they come to the doctor for treat- 
ment. And I am not referring here to priapistic tendencies, either, but 
to normal erections. In fact, the entire paragraph is incorrect and 
deserves criticism. The libido and its various manifestations, internal 
and external, are much more spontaneous in the male than they are 
in the female. That they manifest themselves at a much earlier age 
in the male than in the female everybody agrees. But practically 
everybody also agrees that the voluptas in woman develops generally 
only after she has had some sexual experience. In some this preli- 
minary "initiation" period lasts several months or several years. This 
is never true of the male. And the male would experience libidinous 
manifestations and would have erections if he were brought up in a 
secluded room or spot where his eyes never beheld a woman; if he 
were brought up in ignorance of the existence of such a thing as 
woman. W. J. R. 


The other reason for the female's desire to display her charms 
before men is based on specific human considerations. During the 
rutting season, among the higher animals, the male does, with a 
few exceptions where the young are brought up with difficulty, 
usually live in polygamy. The male can impregniBite a number of 
females, while the female, once impregnated — and this usually 
takes plade at the first congress — does not admit the male any 
more. Her sex-needs are satisfied by one congress, his sex needs 
are more exacting. Under natural conditions, where the males and 
females are equal in numbers, the male is at a disadvantage in the 
satisfaction of his sex-urge. Hence, once he has been aroused by 
the female^ he has to woo for her favor. She has the choice. He 
has to display his physical charms to be chosen, hence the beauti- 
ful plimiage and song of the male bird, hence the antler in the male 
deer, the mane in the lion, etc. 

In man the conditions are reversed, the females are in greater 
numbers. Wars and hazardous industries decimate the males. 
Man lives in monogamy ; even in the lower strata of society where 
among the young people, in the beginning of their sex-life, a 
certain promiscuity prevails, later on the couples settle down to 
monogamy; hence a certain number of females must remain un- 
mated. This surplusage of women creates a certain competition 
among the females for the favor of men. Hence the female has 
to do not only the arousing of his passions but also the wooing, 
and she silently does it by displaying her female charms. Her age- 
long struggle to maintain herself economically by means of the 
erotic effects she produces upon men has also taught her that the 
display of her aphrodisiac lures is the best weapon in her hands. 
For this reason, in the untold ages, only those variations among 
the females of the human species were able to survive who pos- 
sessed a certain love and ability to display their charms. In the 
course of time this love of display has become a female sex- 
determiner, just as her emotions of timidity, coyness^ coquetry, 

With this love of display comes in conflict the emotion of 
modesty, founded upon the law of obstacles (Woman p. 842, 7th 
edition), which forbids her displaying any part of her body. For 
this reason her manoeuvres and designs in exciting the male 
become very complicated. To arouse male desire she has to display 
her physical charms. But modesty forbids her the display of the 
very parts of her body which are erotically exciting and excitable. 


Modesty commands her to cover these parts. Henoe she has to 
take refuge to the most subtle contrivances and artifices in dress 
and ornaments. Her f ^ninine nudity haa to be veiled in a manner 
to intensify her secondary female characters. She has to display 
her person, yet be covered. She beids all energies upon the 
enhancement of her attractiveness by the cultivation of the 
physical charms which have a provocative effect upon the observer. 
She is highly solicitous over the luxuriancy of her hairs fineness of 
her skin» rotundity and correct lines of her bosom, thinness of her 
waist, smallness of her hands and feet, etc. All these seductive 
lures serve to evoke the male desire and yearning for her. She 
attributes the highest importance to the preservation of the bloom 
of her body, to the increase of her {Aysical beauty, to personal 
adornment, to the enhancement of her charms, and to the display 
of her aphrodisiac lures through dress, finery and ornaments. The 
intention to bring her charms into the contest for his favor may 
be hidden to her conscious ego, still it is at the basis of the culti- 
vation of her physical charms and of the care of her toilet. By 
these means she wishes to draw men to her. She feels that without 
material devices of splendor, without ingenious contrivances of 
grace, she could not please men. 

In these efforts of female ostentation, fashion comes to her 
aid by clothing her in a way that the secondary sexual character- 
istics are shown as on a tray. Fashion ia not influenced by esthetic 
or intellectual considerations. It accommodate itself to the 
changing conditions of eroticism and sexuality. Fashicm meets 
the needs of sexual variety by increasing and augmenting the fe- 
male charms and attractions. Fashion often frees the last intimate 
details of the chest and accentuates the hips and posterior parts. 
Besides the purposely tantalizing dothea that conceal so little, 
fashion often leaves large parts of the body, sudi as the arms, 
shoulders and especially the chest, entirely uncovered. 

The main and most important secondary aex-character of the 
woman, which may be classed as a genital organ, although it first 
appears at the time of puberty, is the f onale bosom or breast, the 
symbol of the mother of the race. **The bosom of the woman,*' 
says Berge, *4s the organ by which she is able to express herself 
most ingeniously. Its undulations were always her most expres- 
sive and skillful rhetoric. The bosom represents the woman's 
language and her poetry, her history and her music, her purity 
and her lon^ng, her policy and her religion, her worship and her 


art, her secret and her convention, her character and her pride, 
her consdoasness, her magic mirror and her mystery. The bosom 
is the central organ of all female ideas, desires, and humors.'' Fcnr 
this highly alluring organ fashion dictates ample nudity on a good 
many occasions. 

Fashion thus proves that even in the normal woman there 
dwells a certain exhibitionistic trait. Few men could lend them- 
selves to the ridiculous exhibition of their virile diaracters to gain 
female favors, while few w<»nen will shrink from the public display 
of the specific female attributes to increase desire. Most womai 
possess less shyness of showing their nudity than men. In the heat 
of exhibitionism, it is not so rare for a woman to show all her 
intimate charms. 

But while the normal refined woman will not hesitate to bare 
her dieat, shoulders, and arms, she will draw the line at the breasts 
with their erectile nipples. She is even more averse to exposing 
to the gaze of men these erectile organs which change their con- 
sistency and size at the least desire than to revealing the mons 
veneris. Even in the doctor's office she is shy to leave these organs 
uncovered. While one breast is examined, she will try to cover 
the other, just as the man tries to cover the erectile penis, when his 
abdomen is being examined. 

Women as well as men seem to be averse to exposing their 
erectile organs to the gaze of others, be the latter of their own or 
of the other sex. The female exhibitionist, on the other hand, will 
display just this most important secondary sex-organ. The 
pathognomonic sign of exhibitionism is the facility with which the 
patient exposes her breasts and nipples to the gaze of men, at the 
least occasion. This exposure is the most infallible symptom of 
exhibitionism. To the normal woman even the exj>osure of the 
vulva during examination or treatment is less painful than the 
forced exposure of the nipples during the examination of heart and 
lungs. The exhibitionist, on the other hand, finds great delight 
in the exhibition of these erectile organs to the gaze of the 
examiner as the following histories among others plainly show. 

Case 1. Mrs. L. thirty years of age, mother of two children, 
was sent to the writer for the examination of hegr lungs for tuber- 
culosis. When in the course of the ex€tmination her mammae were 
touched the mamillae suddenly became erected and protruded from 
the base about 15^ cm. The normal woman always tries to cover 
the mammae, one way or other, even during the examination ; our 


patient ostentatiously- exposed them and seemed to take pride in 
the size of the mamillae. Instead of immediately going to the 
dressing room to dress herself after the examination, she remained 
standing in her exposed conditicm in the front of her doctor and 
discussed the mode of treatment for a considerable laigth of time. 
When her attention was called to the fact that she may catch cold 
in her chest, she answered that she was very hot. Her face was 
indeed glowing, probably from erotic excitement. This exhibition 
of breasts and nipples was repeated every time she came to be 

These repeated exposures of the main secondary sex-diar- 
acters showed plainly that the patient was suffering from the 
anomaly of exhibitionism. She did confide to the writer that she 
was suffering from orgasmus retardatus and she seemed to find the 
missed libido in exhibitionism. 

Case S. Miss 6., eighteen years of age, was sent for exam- 
ination for appendicitis. She was to take off her corset in the 
adjacent dressing-room. When she reentered the office she had on 
only a small silk shirt and was holding up her drawers with her 
hands. As soon as she lay down upon the examination table she 
immediately pulled up her shirt and pushed down her drawers, so 
that her entire body from neck to knees was fully exposed. After 
the examination she put her drawers in order, but she left her 
chest fully exposed and in this condition she discussed her case 
for some time without the least embarrassment. Her mamillae were 
all the time in a somewhat erected condition. 

This young girl was otherwise very modest in her behavior. 
Still at the first oppoortunity when she had to appear in a some- 
what nude condition in the presence of a man she showed im- 
mediately her exhibitionistic tendencies. 

Case 8. Mrs. T., a young French lady, came to the writer to 
be examined for the determination of the length of her pregnancy. 
When she left the dressing room she only had on her shirt cmd 
drawers. The shirt was low cut as to fully expose her breasts 
and mamiUae. After the examination she remained in this exposed 
condition in the front of the desk and discussed her conditicm for 
a certain length of time. 

In the delicate condition of this patient — she was seven months 
pregnant — ^no normal woman would act in this way. She would 
immediately cover herself and put on her clothes and then discuss 
her case. 


Case 4. A French lady of about thirty-five years of age, 
unmarried, was sent to have her lungs examined. W!hen she left 
the dressing room and entered the office every piece of her clothing 
was removed from the upper part of her body as far as the waist- 
line. When she was told that her lungs were in perfect order, 
she answered that she expected this verdict since her chest was so 
well developed. The French physicians have told her that the 
lines and curves of her bosom show the most artistic form. She 
remained in her exposed condition for some time, narrating her 
experience in Paris. After the first examination she often called 
again and each time she undressed in the same manner to be 

These repeated calls show that her exposure was not mere 
vanity. No normal woman being herself convinced of the healthy 
condition of her lungs, her doctor confirming her diagnosis, would 
call again for repeated examinations, especially when told that 
there was no necessity for such examinations^ 

Case 5. A young Italian girl of twenty was sent for the 
differential diagnosis between ovaritis and appendicitis. She came 
out from the dressing room holding up her petticoat with her 
hands^ thus covering the abdomen. Otherwise she was entirely 
nude. She was told that she did not need to take off her shirt« 
She was told that she was suffering frcnn a neuralgia of the right 
ovary and did not need any local treatment. Still she called often 
for repeated examinations and each time exposed herself in the 
same way as at the first call. 

This young girl was by no means so prosperous as to reck- 
lessly throw away her money on unnecessary examinations. Still 
she continued her calls;, because in the doctor's office she had the 
best excuse to indulge in her exhibitionistic proclivities. 

Case 6. Mrs. S., thirty years of age, was treated by Apos- 
toli's method for a small uterine firoid. At the first examination, 
the constrictor cunni executed contractions seldom found in normal 
women in such a degree. At the second call she left the dressing 
room entirely nude and excused her appearance that she did not 
wish to have her clothes wet by the sponge-electrode. After the 
treatment she often remained in her exposed condition in the front 
of the desk and conversed for a while before she would think to 
dress again. 

This patient was the only one in the writer's experience — 
and he has observed exhibitionistic tendencies in a good many other 


patients not mentioned here — ^who exposed her entire body without 
any real necessity. All the others Oiily exposed their manmiae. 

These cases show that female exhibitionism is not such a rare 
anomaly as some authors seem to think, who set up aa the criterion 
of the anomaly the acts observed in the male. The female exhibi- 
tionist seems to need a certain excuse for exposing her seomdary 
sex organs. She, therefore, manifests her exhibiticmistic ten- 
dencies in such places as the doctor's office or the tailcnr's shop, etc., 
where in the nature of things some parts of her body have to be 

Li the doctor's office she often has to aasume the horizontal 
recumbent position where the vulva can easily be exposed. But by 
the exposure of the vulva, or the folding door, no real sex organ 
is revealed. Furthermore the unsightly view of this part of her 
anatomy has a certain unesthetic effect upon refined and esthetic 
natures, and this unesthetic effect neutralizes the erotic effects. 
Hence she instinctively keeps these parts covered. But when she 
has the opportunity to expose her main secondary sex organs she 
takes advantage of this opportunity, as the six cases among otl^rs 
show. It requires a certain kind of undressing for a woman to 
expose her organs. She cannot spring unobservedly a surprise on 
the passers-by on the street, as the male exhibitionist may do. 
Hence she chooses her victims in places where she has to undress 
anyhow. In the privacy of the office, in the presence of one man 
who is chivalrous not to betray her, she may indulge in her ab- 
normal pastime with impunity. Her actions remain secret, and 
she never comes in conflict with the penal code. Her actions are 
seldom a matter of public record, and female exhibitiumsm is sup- 
posed to be a great rarity. But when woman's behavior is studied 
in the doctor's office, it is found that female exhibitionism is not 
rare at all. To be sure, the chaste woman does not make a fuss 
in the doctor's office. The woman or girl who, pretending too 
much modesty, fusses a great deal about being compelled to un- 
dress is always suspected of being a masturbator. Still the normal 
woman wiU know to protect her modesty even during a gynecolog- 
ical examination. The exhibitionist, on the other hand, throws 
away her modesty even at examinations that do not require any 
great exposure. It is hence, in the doctor's office where female 
exhibitionism must be studied. 

12 W. 128d Street. 

Translated for The AitmcAii Jousjiai, ov Ubos^ooy awo SixoIiOOT. 

By Dr. L. Loew£kf£Ij>, Munich, Germany. 

Opinions in medical circles differ concerning the influence of 
sexual abstinence on health, — as much today as decades ago. 

The keen interest in this subject during recent years has ap- 
parently accentuated the acerbity of the controversy to such a 
degree that to-day, as in politics and economics, we may speak of 
defenders and opponents of sexual abstinence. 

These differences in opinion cannot be explained merely by 
the accidental differences in the mass of experiences accessible to 
medical men discussing the question; the chief reas<m must be 
found in the inclination, so very common amcmg physicians, to 
overestimate the value of their own personal experience and to 
neglect the facts reported by the other side. 

This problem cannot be solved by theoretical assumptions, 
whatever they may be; it can be solved only by experience — but 
not the limited experience of an individual, which, because of 
peculiar circumstances in the mUieu, the observer's professional 
practice and other causes, may lead to a particular mass of ex- 
periences confirming a particular theory. As long as those who 
study this subject are not thoroughly convinced that they must 
base their judgment on facts and not on sentimental idiosyncrasies, 
we cannot expect the j^ysidans to acquire a unified and truly 
scientific conception, in place of the existing widdy divergent 
opinions. Before we approadi our subject more closely, it must 
be absolutely plain to us what we mean by the term sexual absti- 
nence, wherein the opinions differ so much. Sexual abstinence is, 
according to my opinion, the suppression of all voluntary ac- 
tivity whose aim is the satisfaction of sexual desires. This defini- 
tion indudes masturbation as well as sexual intercourse. 

As continence differs in regard to duration and degree, we 
have to distinguish between several kinds of sexual abstinence: 

a) An absolute and permanent continence, or, at least, one 
continued for a considerable time after puberty. 

b) A relative one, i. e., a continence occasionaUy relieved by 

c) A temporary one, i. e., one lasting for a shorter or longer 
period, for months, or even years, after a preceding time of reg- 
ular sexual intercourse. 



Occasional masturbation, necessitated by circumstances, is a 
case of relative abstinence. However, masturbation is accompanied 
by permanent abstinence from sexual intercourse and is practiced 
with or without injury to health, must be excluded from our dis- 
cussion. As sexual abstinence shows different concomitant cir- 
cumstances and effects in the male and female sex, we shall first 
discuss its significance on the health of the male. 

I. AbsoUiie continence, continued for a long period after 

As affecting the health of the individual, three groups are 

a) Cases in which the physical well-being and efficiency of 
the individual are not diminished at all, or, at least, not in any 
large degree. 

b) Cases in which various disturbances of a longer or 
shorter duration occur, but no serious and lasting injuries. 

e) Cases in which the latter do occur. 

My experience of life-long continence is based chiefly on 
observations made on Catholic priests whose sexual instincts were 
by nature not strongly developed and whose conditions of life 
undoubtedly did facilitate sexual abstinence. 

I am unable to determine to what extent continence affects 
celibates in general. According to my experioice, I can only say 
that Catholic priests suffered, in rare cases, from nervous disorders 
caused either by continence alone, or in conjunction with other 
injurious habits; and that such auctions may last until the suf- 
ferer reaches a ripe old age. Besides these instances among the 
Catholic clergy, I know only cases of temporary continence. My 
impression is that young men under 26 years of age suffer less 
from the effects of abstinence, L e., their health and general well- 
being is less affected, than persons of from 26 to S6 years of age. 
However, in this group I observed cases in which continence was 
practised without any injurious effects. W)e should jump at con- 
clusions if we assume that these were cases of persons with poorly 
developed sexual instincts; this is true of a few, but not of all, 
cases. Among th^n were men pf normal libido, but of simple 
habits and great activity. 

Of far greater importance than age are the constitutional 

I was formerly of the opinion that the origin of diseases of 
continence was to be found in the so-called neuropsychopathic 


predisposition. This theory has, during recent years, been crit- 
icized by many and in a very fair manner. The fact that said 
predisposition was not discernible in all the diseases caused by 
continence was adduced as an argument to prove that sexual 
abstinence without the presence of any predisposition, causes nerv- 
ous disorders and other diseases. 

To dwell IcHiger on the elucidation of this hypothesis would 
be superfluous, because of the explanations already given. 

Through recent experiments I reached conclusions that differ 
from my former views which were not based on the assiunption of 
a morbid predisposition as the cause of diseases of continence. In 
a treatise published not long ago, (Loewenfdd, **The Sexual 
Constitution and Other Sex Problems,'* Wiesbaden, 1911) I try 
to demonstrate the existence of a sex constitution which must not 
under any circumstances be confounded with the general constitu- 
tion and which, in all individual cases, shows important diver- 

Groing carefully over the field of my investigations, I readi 
the conclusion that on the broad average, a certain number of 
reciprocally opposite constitutional types is discernible, which, 
representing a series of gradations, lead to a connecting medium 
through which the opposite elements disappear. 

Let me enumerate these constitutional types of which one ex- 
cludes the other: 

fa) The strong and the weak sexual constitution; 

b) the erethic and the torpid; 

c) the libidinous and the frigid; 

d) the plethoric and the anemic. 

As to the qualities of these constitutions, I refer to my treatise 
and will only point out the fact that, as the designation indicates, 
sexual strength and power of resistance is at the base of the 
first cond[>ination ; for the second, sexual irritability or lack of it ; 
for the third, sexual desires or their absence; for the fourth, the 
nutritive condition of the sexual apparatus. 

The importance of these constitutional types on the effects 
of sexual abstinence can be easily appreciated. Continence is 
undoubtedly a frequent cause of diseases among individuals of 
erethic, libidinous and plethoric constitutions. Such persons are> 
so to say, endowed by nature with a sexual dispositi(m. Exactly 
the opposite is the case with persons of torpid, frigid and anemic 
constitutions, chiefly ivith the first and second. 


Our task becomes s(xnewhat more difficult when we proceed to 
investigate the influence of the robust and the weak sex constitu- 
tion. We may admit unhesitatingly that continence is not easy for 
a person of a robust sex constitution^ but whether it causes diseases 
cannot be decided in an off-hand manner. 

As to persons with a weak sex constitution, we can safely 
assume that continued and strict continence diminishes considerably 
their sexual potency. But the moderate restriction of the sexual 
functions for persons of this constitution is an absiJute necessity, 
at least during a certain period of life; otherwise, their sexual 
power would atrophy. 

It is important to determine the extent of these sexual types 
at the present time. First, it must be admitted that the different 
constituticmal types are not equally represented in both sexes« My 
experiences are chiefly f rcMn m^i of the educated class who are the 
dxief representatives of the erethic constitution ; the libidinous and 
the weak type can be found quite frequently among than, the 
frigid and torpid only in rare instances. The same can be said of 
the pronounced anemic, plethoric and robust constituticm. Among 
m^i of this class those c<mstitutions prevail whidi make continence 
a cause of diseases. This observati(m concurs with Freud's theory, 
^^that continence among the majority of our society people is a 
constitutional impossibility.'' 

It cannot be maintained that this prevalence of unfavorable 
constitutions is caused by congenital conditicms. They are in many 
cases the consequences of juvenile transgressions. 

The relations between the neuropathic disposition and the dif- 
ferent sex constitutions are for both sexes of an ever changing 

Tie relations between the neuropathic disposition and the dif- 
ferent sex constitutions enumerated above, are of a varying nat- 
ure ; this holds good in regard to both sexes. A certain disposition 
may be connected with constitutional forms favorable to the devel- 
opnent of diseases caused by abstinence as well as with such as 
have an opposite influence. Cases of this kind we find chiefly 
among wcmi^i ; of the former, among men. Among men the neuro- 
pathic disposition is often associated with an erethic, weak, or 
libidinous constitution, chiefly with the first and second. Next in 
importance to age and constitution considering the effects of 
abstinence, are the conditions under which an individual lives, his 
mUieUf nutrition, occupati(m, etc. Everything that enhances the 


sexual desires and weakois the power of resistance renders absti- 
nence more difficult, e. g., oyerfeeding, too much meat and alcohol, 
a sedentary life, lack of regular mental and physical work, lasciy- 
ious books and shows, intimate social intercourse with persons of 
the opposite sex, as between an engaged couple before marriage. 

Modem life in a large city with its manifold attractions, as 
dancing parties and innumerable social f uncticms of every descrip- 
tion, theaters, restaurants with female help, etc, force upon the 
man of the educated class many sensual allurements which render 
the observance of sexual abstinence exceedingly difficult, even for 
an individual sexually more or less indiffeorent. Nevertheless, ex- 
perience teaches me that even in a large city a young man is well 
able to abstain from sexual intercourse without risk to his health. 

If the sexual constitution of the individual is fairly favor- 
able, plain food and devotion to a congenial occu}>ati(m facilitate 
the sublimation of a normal libido to such a degree that the 
physical and mental efficiency is raised and not lowered by conti- 

Considering the great number of unfavorable constitutions, 
of neujropathic dispositions and an imhygienic way of living, e. g.> 
the excessive use of alcohol, it is by no means astonishing to find 
that sexual abstinence is a frequent cause of diseases. 

Among the serious troubles we observe increased pollutions, 
disagreeable sensations in the region of the seminal chords, the 
testicles and the perineum, an exalted emotionalism, fits of the 
^^blues," and last, but not least, frequent mental aberrations and 
flights of the imagination towards the realm of sex. This lowers 
the efficiency of the individual to a greater or lesser degree. Ab- 
stinents of a more advanced age also suffer from cephalic conges- 
tions. In less frequent instances than in these transitory disturb- 
ances which, as a rule, are easily removed by the observance of 
hygienic precepts, there are cases of a dironic and moore serious 
nature as the results of continence, e. g., neurasthenia in its va- 
rious forms, anxiety neurosis, deep depression (melancholia), 
compulsion ideas and compulsion sensations. The origin of many 
of these cases can be attributed to continence; others, however, are 
caused by harmful influences of a different kind; in the majority 
of them an inherited neuropsychopathic disposition is apparent 
(e. g., the compulsion manifestations are caused by a disposition 
based on complexes.) 


I have never observed that satyriasis and prcmounced psydioses, 
excepting melancholia, were the consequences of abstinence. These 
cases, however, are rare and occur only in individuals of pro- 
nounced libidinous constitutions. Several authors regard con- 
tinence as the cause of impotence after a preceding period of 
copious pollutions and painful swellings of the testicles, some of 
them followed by atrophy. Yet I have observed swellings of the 
testicles in only a few instances and these as a temporary mani- 
festation only, and impotence only among abstinents who were 

II. Relative abstinence can be practiced without any apparent 
injury to the health of the individual, but it may produce the 
same results as absolute continence. These disturbances manifest 
themselves the sooner, the longer abstinence is practiced and the 
less frequently the sexual desires are satisfied. 

III. This is likewise true of temporary continence, continued 
for months, or even years. 

In cases of nervous diseases (chiefly neurasthenia) the inter- 
ruption of the usual sexual intercourse is liable to produce inju- 
rious results in the condition of the individual within a very short 
time, say, one to two weeks. 



Dr. Albert E. Mowry reports the following unusual case: — 
The patient, colored, twenty-six years of age, claims he has had 
coniinuous priapism since his earliest recollection, and as his work 
is that of a laborer he finds it hard to arrange his clothing so as 
to protect the constantly engorged member from traumatism. His 
chief complaint, strangely enough, and the one that led him to seek 
medical advice and aid, was the fact that he was to a greater or 
less extent impotent, notwithstanding his priapism. 

!Examination reveals a fully erect penis of rather unusual 
proportions, length about nine and one-half inches and drcum- 
ference about five inches. 


A marked arterial pulsation is to be felt within both corpora 
cavernosa, showing an enormous and abnormal arterial blood sup- 
ply to the penis. In fact, the arterial pulsatio?! can be noted and 
counted across the room. The veins that have to do with the 
return flow of blood from the penis apparently have not increased 
in i:alibre to an extent corresponding to the over generous arterial 

A physician in Texas, whom he consulted for relief, injudi- 
ciously removed one testicle with no benefit. 


On November 5 last, a warm Sunday morning, at about 11 
o'clock, a workman at the electric-light plant of this city, while 
passing down the nearby alley, heard a faint cry from an out- 
house and, investigating, found a crying newborn infant lying in 
the filth of the pit. The babe, a fine boy weighing eight pounds, 
when rescued, although thoroughly chilled was very much alive. 
The cord, it was found, had been severed about eight inches from 
the navel. 

The mother of the child, as has since developed, was a strong, 
healthy girl 21 years of age. She had been skating the evening 
before, and went home at about 10 o'clock, going to bed with her 
sister. As she told later on, labor pains came on shortly after. 
She stood it as long as she could, then got up and entered the out- 
house back of the lot, where the baby was bom quite soon. She 
caught the child in her hands., tore the cord, and threw the baby 
into the cloaca. After the placenta came, she wiped up what blood 
there was with waste paper, then went back to bed — her sister and 
mother remaining in ignorance of her condition as well as of what 
had taken place. The next day, as well as each day thereafter, 
she was out on the street with her sister, and feeling good, as she 
declared. WTien eventually accused, she firmly denied all charges, 
but finally had to confess. Asked, how she could have had the 
heart to dispose of her little babe in the way she did, she coolly 
leplied, "I was just desperate and hardly knew what I was doing.'' 
Can vou beat it? 

The above is repoarted by Dr. I. W. Irvin of Auburn, Nebr. 
There are many, many such cases in this broad land of ours. 

[A nice comment on our civilization. W. J. R.] 



Dr. W. W. Houser (Am. Jour. Ctm. Med.) reports the fol- 
lowing interesting case: — ^A man thirty-fire years of age, who had 
a handsome wife and several nice children, sent for me. Arriving 
at his home in the woods, I found him with a steel trap clinging 
to what remained of his scrotum. After some questioning, he told 
me that he had made an effort to castrate himself with a hatchet 
while sitting astride of a log. Taking off the trap, I found that 
a large part of the scrotum and one testicle had been taken off. 
Being a hunter and trapper, he had placed the cut edges of the 
scrotum in the jaws of the steel trap in order to stop the flow of 

I secured the artery and stitched the cut edges of the scrotum 
together, but the pressure of the trap had he&i so strong and pro- 
tracted that scrotal integument sloughed off until there was only 
enough of it left to cover a small part of the remaining testicle, 
which latter was tightly drawn up into the outer opening of the 
inguinal canaL However, it finally healed over, and his good- 
looking wife continued to have children just the same as before 
that little somewhat injudicious incident. — ^As to the psychology 
of this case, I cannot say, but think it grew out of jealousy on his 


I. Marriage is an institution whose dissolution is already at 
hand . . . Loosening of the marriage tie makes for the extension 
of menial growth. It is, therefore, good. Half or more of the 
mcuntal evils are due to the idea of the permanence of the union . . . 
Man has learnt that where the highest development is desired there 
must be a great degree of mental freedom. — Freewoman^ July 
4th, 1912. 

II. ^^Our hearts are so fickle that society has to intervene in 
order to keep in check aU the vacillation and caprice which would 
otherwise cause human existence to degenerate into a series of 
aimless and unworthy experiments." — ^Auguste Comte. 


No culture can be permanent and complete so long as military, 
political, and industrial rulers are employed for purposes of 


government; for in the hands of such rulers the finer human 
impulses might at any moment be swept off the face of the earthy 
leaving scarcely a trace behind. — Havdock Ellis, 7^ Nineteenth 
Century. A Utopian Retroipect. 1901. 


The superiority of male mammals ia a remarkable fact, but 
is due to causes which many naturalists fail to understand, and 
which are little creditable to the male character in generaL Not 
one particle of it is attributable to their noble efforts in protecting 
and supporting the females or their own offspring. It can not 
in any sense be said to have he&i *4ntended'' by nature. Superior- 
ity itself has never constituted a final cause. This male superiority 
is simply a secondary sexual character. It has been acquired by 
fierce combats among the males for the possession of the females. 
It is this, and not the labor of brain and muscle in quest of food 
and shelter, that has given the stag, the stallion, the bull, and the 
li(m their superior size, strength, and beauty. — ^Lester F. Ward. 


A woman's usefulness, her value to society, and there- 
fore her power and her happiness, depend, not on her likeness to 
but on her dissimilarity from man. By training her recessive male 
qualities she can never attain to more than a secondary position 
in the social body ; but by cultivating her dominant female qual- 
ities, by increasing their value, she will gain power which no man 
can usurp, and will attain that position as a true complement of 
man which is essential for the permanence of the vigor of the race. 
— ^Walter Heape. 


The laws which govern the natural discharge of the 

generativie functions cannot be infringed without causing de- 
rangement thruout the body. This fact is true for both men and 
wcrnien. That is to say, it is certain that if a woman is not in a 
condition favorable for breeding she should not breed, and that a 
man whose generative impulse is strong should not be compelled 
to suppress it. Violation q{ either of these rules will result in 
derangement thruout the body. Altho a woman under the above 
conditions may rear children, she will thereby lay up for herself 


lasting ill-health; and altho ftudi a man may switch off his gen- 
erative energy to the other organs for a time, he will suffer from 
overstrain of those organs eventually, because they have been 
unduly stimulated and because they have not been givoi proper 
time in wliich to recuperate from strain by diversion of energy 

from them Li order to exist to the best advantage, in order 

to do the best work and retain a properly balanced condition of 
body and mind, each organ of the body must be worked to its 
normal capacity, failure to do this must result in abnormality in 
one or another direction. And this is true for both men and wo- 
men. — ^Walter Heape, Sex Antagonism. London. 1913. 


A philologist, thirty years of age, had never masturbated 
during his school days, and until he was nineteen or twenty, had 
remained sexually neutral, experiencing sexual inclination neither 
towards females nor towards members of his own sex. But he 
had from an early age exhibited a very great interest in flowers, 
and, while still a child, used to kiss them. He was unable to re- 
call the existence in this connection of any sexual excitement. 
When about twenty-one years old he was introduced to a young 
lady who at the time was wearing a large rose fastened in the front 
of her jacket. Henceforward, in his sexual sensibility, the rose 
assumed extraordinary importance. Whenever he was able, he 
bought roses, kissed them, and- took them to bed with him. The 
act of kissing the rose induced erections. In his seminal dreams, 
the image of the rose played a leading part. — ^A. Moll. 


The chief cause of superiority of a highly civilized state over 
lower stages of civilization is precisely a greater degree of fore- 
thought and self-control in marriage and childbearing. — Roscher, 
Grundlehren der Nationalokonomie. 


The time is amiing when it will be considered the duty of 
mimicipal authorities if they have found by experience or have 
reason to suspect that children wiU be thrown upon the parish, to 
instruct parents in methods of preventive concepticm. — ^Peof. 
Nysteom, "£a Vie SeanieUe." 


comphju) by 

[Continued from April isaue.] 

Fircks, A. von : Beyolkerungslehre und BevolkerungBpolitik. Hand- 
und Lehrbuch der Staatswissenschaft. Abth. I, Band 6. 
Leipzig, 1898, 492 p. 

Fischer, Alfons: Greburtennickgang und Volksgesundheit. Der 
Diisseldorfer Monistentag, Verlag. Unesma. Leipzig, 1914, 
p. 61-61- 

Fischer-Dueckelman, Anna: Der Greburtenriickgang, Ursadien und 
Bekampfung vom Standpunkt des Weibes. Stuttgart, Siid- 
deutsches Verlagsinstitut, 1914, 88 p. 

Fite, Wajmer: Birth-control and biological ethics. The Inter- 
national Journal of Ethics. Oct. 1916, p. 60-66. 

Fitz-Matthew, Dr. Jos. : Limitation^of offspring. Critic and Guide, 
191S, p. 66. 

Foote, Dr. Edward Bliss: A step backward. New York, 1876, 
Murray Hill Pub, Co., 16 p. 

Foote, Dr. E. B. Jr.: Limit of foolish law-making. Critic and 
Guide, 1910, p. 24. 

Foote, Dr. E. B. Jr. : Prevention of conception. Critic and Guide, 
May 1906, p. 166. 

Foote, Dr. E. B. Jr.: The radical remedy in social science, or 
homing better babies through regulating reproduction by con- 
trolling conception. New York, Murray Hill Pub. Co., 148 p. 

Forberger, J. : Greburtenriickgang und Konfession. Berlin, 1914, 

Ford, A. H. : Malthusianismus oder Eugenik? Vortrag gefaalt^a 
im Neo-Malthusianischen Kongress zu Haag am S9. Juli* 1910. 
Munchen, 1911, 80 p. 

Francis, Dr. H. M.: Seven Years — Ninth Pregnancy! Critic 
and Guide, 1914, p. 87. 

Franklin, Benjamin : Observations concerning the increase of man- 
kind and the peopling of countries. Complete works by B. 
Franklin, toI. H, New York, 1887. 

Franklin, Herman: Those who oppose birth-control. Critic and 
Guide, 1917, p. 108. 



Free, Dr. J. E. : Prevention of ccmception. Med. and Surg. Re- 
porter, IX, p. 726. Philadelphia, 1888. 

Fuld: Der Entwurf eines neuen Patentgesetzes und die antikon- 
zeptionellen Mittel. Sex.-Probleme, IX, p. 667-668. Frank- 
furt am Main, 1918. 


Gardner, Dr. Augustus K. : The conjugal relationships as regards 
personal health and hereditary well-being. 230 p. One chapter 
deals with prevention of conception. Rabidly Anti. 

Gaskell, G. A. : Social control of the birth-rate and endowment of 
mothers. London. Freethought Pub. Co., 1890. 

Geiser, Dr. Mary L. : Limitation of offspring. Critic and Guide, 
1911, p. 877. 

Gerhard, Dr. Paul: Die Mittel zur Vorbeugung der Empfangniss, 
nebst einer Beleuchtung der durch die iiberaus grosse Kinder- 
zahl hervorgerufenen sozialen Missstande. Berlin, 1906, 96 p. 

Giroud, Gabriel : Population et Subsistances. Essai d'arithm^tique 
^conomique. Paris, Schleicher Frires and Co., 1904, 67 p. 

Godwin, William : Of population : An enquiry concerning the power 
of increase in the numbers of mankind being an answer to Mr. 
Malthus's essay on that subject. London, 1820, 626 p. 

Goenner, Dr. A. : Die Berechtigung und die Indikationen der Kon- 
zeptionsverhinderung. Cor. Bl. f. Schweizer Aerzte, 265-270. 
Basel, 1904. 

Groldstein: Antike und Modeme Bevolkerungspolitik. Globus, 

XCVI, p. 188. Braunschweig, 1909. 
4Gh>ldstein! Das gesetzliche Verbot der Schwangerschaftsunter- 

brechung. Denkschrift zu Paragraph 218, Str. Gres. B. Der 

Strafrechtscommission iiberreicht. Berlin. 16 p. 
Groldstein : Die Malthusische Theorie und die Bevolkerung Deutsch- 

lands. Globus, vol. 87, p. 46-60. 
Groldstein, Rabbi Sidney E.: Birth-C(mtrol as a moral issue! Free 

Synagogue Pulpit, 1916. 
Grddwater, Dr. A. L.: The Pioneer of Birth-Control in America. 

Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 76. 
Gottberg, Margarethe von: Beruflidie Einfliisse auf die Frudit- 

barkeit der fortpflanzungsfahigen Bevolkerung. Jahrbuch f . 

National-5konomie und Statistik. Herausgegeb^i vcm J. 

Conrad, 102, 8. Folge, 47, Mar. 1914, p. 827-886. 


Grabcwsky, Dr. N. : Die gescMechtliche Elnthaltsamkeit. Leipzig, 

Graharae, James: An inquiry into the principles of population. 

Edinburgh. A. Constable, 1816, 832 p. 
Grandin, Dr. Egbert H. : Race suicide from the g3mecological 

standpoint. Critic and Guide. Sept. 1904, p. 63. 
Grassl: Der Greburtennickgang in DeutscMand, seine Ursachen u. 

seine Bedeutung. Kempten, 1914, 166 p. 
Grassl: Neomalthusianismus und das Koniglich Bayerische Statis- 

tische Landesamt Ztschr. f. Med. Beamte, XXV, 637-647. 

Berlin, 1912. 
Grotjahn, Dr. A.: Die Eugenik als Hygiene der Fortpflanzung. 

Archiv. f. Frauenkrankh. I, 914, p. 16-18. 
Grotjahn, Dr. A.: Gdburtspravention und Bevolkerungsvermeh- 

rung. Neue Generation, HX, p. 11-20. Berlin, 1912. 
Grotjahn, Dr. A. : Greburten-Riickgang und Greburten-Regelung im 

Lichte der Individuellen und Sozialen Hygiene. Berlin. Louis 

Marcus, 1914, 371 p. 


HaU, Hector Harlan: Race suicide and false social standards. 

Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 388. 
Hamburger, Dr. C. : Uber die Frage der Konzeptionsbeschrankung 

in Arbeiterf amilien. Med. Ref . XVI, 37 ; 50. Berlin, 1908. 
Hanauer, J.: ^^Social Hygiene in the Middle Ages" in Handwor- 

terbuch der Sozialen Hygiene. Leipzig, 1912. 
Hardy, Prof. G.: L' Avortement ; Sa N^cessit^ ses ProcM^s ses 

Dangers, ^ude sur la question de popuIati(m et le probl^e 

sexuel. 66 Figures, 4 Portraits. Paris, Chez L'Auteur, 1914, 

417 p. 
Hardy, Prof. G. : Essay sur la Vasectomie. Sterilisation de PHom- 

me indolore et sans diminution des faculty yiriles. Paris. 

Chez PAuteur, 1913, 18 p. 
Hardy, Prof. G. : How to prevent pregnancy? Transl. fr. the 

French. 89 illustrations. Paris. 94 p. 
Hardy, Prof. G. : La Loi de Malthus. Paris. 64 p. 
Hardy, Prof. G.: Mittd zur Schwangerschafts-Verhiitung. 89 

Figuren. Paris. Selbstverlag. 101 p. 
Hardy, Prof. G. : Moyens d^riter la Grossesse. 39 Figures dans 

le texte. Paris. 108 p. 

[Hardy is the nom de plume of Gabriel Giroux, q. v.] 


Hasse, Dr. (Pseudonym (or Mensinga) : t)ber facoltatiTe 

lit&t. Das Pessarium Occlusiyum und dessen Application. 

Berlin, 1888, 59 p. 
Hazlitt, W. : Reply to the Essay on Populaticm by T. R. Malthus ; 

in a series of letters ; added extracts from the essay ; with notes. 

London, 1807. 
Hegar, A. ; Der Greschlechtatridb. Eine sozial medizinische Studie. 

Stuttgart, 1894. 

Hellmuth, Dr. Theodor: Aus der Praxis des Neo-Malthusianismus. 
Die neuesten und einfachstoi Mittel zur Verhiitung der Em- 
pfangms. Mit Abbildungen. Konstanz, R. Oschmann, 1896, 
62 p. 

Helm, Dr. E. C: The prevention of conception. Med. and Surg. 
Reporter, 1888, IX, p. 648-646. Philadelphia, 1888. 

Hersch, L. : La Thforie de la population de 111. R. Malthus, BibL 
Univ. et Revue Suisse. Lausanne, 1916-1917. Tome 84, p. 558- 
567. Tome 86, p. 141-154. 

Hinz, Dr. Friedridi: Eritik der Antikonceptionellen Mittel fur 
Aerzte und Gebildete aller Stande. Berlin, 1906, 88 p. 

Hinz, Dr. Friedrich: Der Wert der Antikonzeptionellen Mittel. 
Frauenarzt, XIH, p. S49-S68. Leipzig, 1898. 

Hirsch, M. : Fruchtabtreibung und Pr&ventiyyerkehr im Zusammen- 
hang mit dem Greburtenriickgang. Wiirtzburg, 1914, 267 p. 

Hoffmann, L. * Die Bevolkerungsfrage. Berlin, 1904, 91 p. 

Hollingworth, Leta S. : Social devices for impelling women to bear 
and rear children. A. J. Soc., July, 1916. 

Holt, Dr. Wm. L. : Prevention of conception, a social necessity and 
duty. Critic and Guide, Sept. 1907. 

Holt, Dr. Wm. L.: Our responsibility for children. Critic and 
Guide, 1908, p. 218. 

Holt, Dr. Wm. L. : Socialism and preventive medicine. Critic and 
Guide, 1908, p. 284. 

Hopkins, Mary Alden : Fifteen articles on birth control Harper's 
Weekly, April 10 to October 28, 1915. 

Huber, Dr. L.: The prevention of conception. Med. and Surg. 
Reporter, IX, p. 580. Philadelphia, 1888. 

Hunsberger, Dr. J. Newton: Artificial childlessness and race sui- 
cide. Chicago Am. Med. Ass'n., 1907, 6 p. 


Hurley, Dr. T. W. : The prevention of conception ; aborticHi, juBt- 
ifiable and criminal. Tr. Arkansas M. S. (1908), 1904, 
XXVni, 26S-S74. Littie Rock, 1904. 

Icbenhauser, J.: Bin Beitrag zur tibervolkerungsfrage. Neuwied. 

HI, Edward Joseph: The rights of the Unborn. The preyention 

of Conception. Am. J. of Obst., X., 1899. 
IngersoU, Robert 6.: What is religion? The last public address 

of the great agnostic Boston, 1899, 19 p. The essential 

part in Critic and Guide, Feb. 1917. 
IngersoU on Birth-control. Critic and Guide., 1917, p. 79. 
Isaacson, Edward: The malthusian limit, A theory of a possible 

static ccmdition for the himian race. London, 1912, 242 p. 

Isaacson, Edward: The new morality: An interpretation of pre- 
sent social and economic forces and tendencies. [Same as the 
previous ; difference only in title.] 

Iseman, Myre, St. Wald : Race suicide. New York, The Cosmopoli- 
tan Press, 1912, 216 p. 

Jacobi, Dr. Abraham: Address before the Am. Med. Ass'n. Critic 
and Guide, 1912, p. 240. 

Jacobi, Dr. Abraham: Address on Birth-control, Lancet Clinic, 

vol. 68, p. 619. Cincinnati, 1916. 
Jacobi, Dr. Abraham: and 
Goldstein, Rabbi Sidney E. : Birth-Ccmtrol as a moral issue. Free 

Synagogue Pulpit. 1916. 
Jacobi, Dr. Abraham: My position on birth-control. Critic and 

Guide, 1917, p. 76. 
Jacobi, Dr. L. : Aborticm, Infanticide, Prevention of concepticm. 

Critic and Guide, 1912, p. 857. 
Jacobi, Dr. L. : Prevention of concepticm. Critic and Guide, Mar., 

1906, p. 74. 
Jacobi, Dr. L.: Further remarks on the prevention of conception. 

Critic and Guide, May, 1906, p. 168. 
Jacquemin, Dr. Theo. J. : Laws that must be repealed. Critic and 

Guide, 1914, p. 280. 
Janke, Heinrich: Die tibenrdlkerung und ihre Abwehr. Leipcig, 

1898, 160 p. 


Kamp, Dr. : Die Mittd zur Verhiitung der Conception. Ein neues 

Mittel zur Verhiitung der Schwangerscbaft bei Kranken und 

geschwachten Frauen. Miinchen, 1895, 8S p. 
Kautsky, Karl : Der Einfluss der VolkBrermehrung auf den Fort- 

schritt der Gresellschaft. Wien, Bloch and Hasbach, 1880, 195 p. 
Kirchmann, J. H. yon : Ober den Communismus der Natur. Heidel- 
berg, 1882, 86 p. 
Kittridge, Herman E.: Limitation of <^8pring and Ingersoll. 

Critic and Guide, 1912, p. 195. 
Klarus: tlber kiinstliche Unfruchtbarkeit. Bfittweida, 1898, 85 p. 
Klvinwachter, Dr. L. : Die Wissenschaftlich Berechtigte Concep- 

tionsverhinderung. Frauenarzt VII., p. 895-898. Berlin, 1892. 
Klob: Der Kampf gegen den Greburtenriickgang. Ztschr. f. 

Kriniinalpsvchol. und StrafrechtBreform von Aschaffenburg. 

Jg. 10. H.^ 11-12., p. 715-716. 
KIotz-Forest: La Prophylaxie Antiomceptionelle est-elle Legitime? 

Chron. Med. XI. 689-699. Paris, 1904. 
Knopf, Dr. S. A.: Birth-CcMitrol. N. Y. M. J. and The Survey, 

Nov. 18, 1916. 
Knopf, Dr. S. A.: Legalization of Birth-CcMitrol, with special ref- 
erence to the Tuberculosis problem in the U. S. Wom. M. J., 

Sept. 1915. 
Knopf, Dr. S. A.: The Tuberculosis problem and section 1142 of 

the Penal Code of the SUte of New York. N. Y. M. J., 

June 12, 1915. 
Knowlton, Dr. Chas. : Fruits of philosophy. 1838. [A famous 

pioneer work for which the author was sent to prison.] 
Kossmann, Dr.: Die Stellung des Arztes zur Verhinderung der 

Conception. Deutsche Med. Presse, II. p. 158. Berlin, 1898. 
Kraft, Dr.: Die Berechtigung zur Indikation der Konzeptions- 

verhutung. Corr. Bl. f. Schweiz. Aerzte XXXIV. 887-889. 

Basel, 1904. 
Kraft, Dr.: Die Indikationen und Mittel der Schwangerschafts* 

verhiitung. Miinch. Med. Wochenschr. I. p. 1748. Mttnchen, 

Kraft, Dr.: Reflexionen iiber den Malthusianismus. Hygiria, IX. 

p. 112-116. Stuttgart, 1895-6. 
Kranold, H. : Der Greburtenriidcgang und die Arbeiterklasse, Neue 

Generation, 1914, H. 8, p. 126-188. 


Kraus, £.: ExperimoiteUer Bdtrag zur Verhiitung der Konzep* 
tion duTch chemische Bfittd, Ztlbl. f . Gynak. XXXV. p. 747- 
749. Berlin, 1911. 

Kresse, O. : Der Greburtenriickgang in Deutschland. Berlin, 1912. 


Langstein: Geburtenriickgang und Sauglingsschutz. Ztsdir, f. 

Sauglingssdiutz, 1914, p. 14-2S. 
Lanphear, Dr. Emoory: Ghmorrfaea and race suicide. Critic and 

Guide, Feb. 1907, p. 7. 
Layet: La Restriction vcdontaire apport^e dans la Procr&ttion au 

point de vue de ses cons^uences sociales et individuelles. Congr. 

Intern, d^yg. et de D^og. U. 246-26S. La Hague, 1865. 
Lehmann, Dr. F. : t)ber antikonzeptionelle Mittel. BerL Klin. 

Wchnschr. XIVI. 876-880, Beriin, 1909. 
Leroy-Beaulieu, Paul: La Question de Population, Paris, 1918, 

<512 p. Lupine R. Depopulation de France. Lyon Med.> May, 

Lesser, Dr. A. von : Liebe ohne Kinder. Aerztlicher Rathgeber zur 

Veorfaiitung der Empfangnis. Mit Abbildungen. Leipzig, 1898, 

Levy, Dr. H. : Die SteUung des Arztes zur Verhinderung der Con- 
ception. Aerztl. Praxis, XI. p. 858-865, Wiirzburg, 1898. 

Libman, Greburtenriickgang und mannliche sexuelle Impotenz, 

Wurzburg, 1914, 87 p. 
Laek, Dr. : t)ber Fremdkorper im Uterus als Mittel zur Verhiitung 

der Konzeption. Deutsche Med. Wochenschrft., XXXVII., 

p. 880, Leipzig und Berlin, 1911. 
Lifschitz, F.: Robert Thomas Malthus und J(diann Heinrich von 

Thiinen als Bevolkerungstheoretiker. Ztschr. f. ges. Staats- 

wissenschaft, vol. 69, p. 558-672. 
Is limitation of the family immoral? A judgment on Annie 

Besant's **Law of population," delivered in the Supreme Court 

of New South Wales by Bfr. Justice Windeycr. London, Free- 

thoue^t Publishing Ca, 1889, 26 p. 

Lindner, Dr. S.: Studien fiber Malthusianismus. Wien, 1890. 
44 p. 

Lindquist, Clara V. : Birth-Control and Nurses. Critic and Guide, 
1917, p. 110. 


Linke, Job. : Zum GdmrtenrQckgange. AentL Veremsbl. 48, No. 
964, 1914, p. 40-41. 

Lloyd, William Foster: Two kcturet on the checks to population, 
deliTered before the University of Oxford. Oxford, 1888, 75 p. 

Lockhart, Dr. H.: Practical aspects of birth-controL J. Tenn. 
M. A. IX. p. 881. 

Louis. Dr. I. B.: Remedial Legislation Rdatire to Prevention of 

Conception. Critic and Guide, 1918, p. 210-212. 
Low, Dr. Chas. E. : Race Suicide. Critic and Guide, 1908, p. 60. 

LSwenfeld, Dr. L. : tiher den sexueUm PraventivYerkehr und seine 
Bedeutung als Ursache von Nenrenleiden. Sex. Probleme, Vlli. 

Lowenthal, Dr. Julius L. : Der Malthusianismus in der Hauspraxis. 
Der AerztL Praktiker, No. 4, 1892, page 78. 

Luse, J. W. : The married ladies' private guide to health and hap- 
piness. Giving the information that every married lady should 
have. (Oyde, O., 1888), 12 p. 


Mallory, J. Hudson. The menace of birthrcontrol. Physical 
Culture, May, 1917. 

McArdle, Dr. T. E.: The Physical Evils Resulting from the 
Prevention of Conception. Tr. Wash. Obst. and Gynec. Soc 
II. p. 169-166, 1887-9. 

Malthus, Thomas Robert: An essay on the principle of population, 
or a view of its past and present effects on human happiness, 
with an inquiry into our prospects respecting the future 
removal or mitigation of the evils which it occasions. London, 

The Malthusian (A periodical). A Crusade Against Poverty. 
London. Published monthly. Established 1877. Issued by the 
Jdaltbusian League. First editor: Charles R. Drysdale. Present 
editor: C. V. Drysdale. 

The Malthusian Handbook, W. H. Reynolds, London. 

Mantegazza, P. : Igiene deU' Amore. Milano, 1878. 

Bfaiburg, Dr.: Abortion, Prevention and the Bible. Critic and 
Guide, 1912, p. 867. 

Marcus, Jesse : War and Malthusianism. Critic and Guide, 1916, 
p. lOS. 

[To be continued.] 

VoLXm. JUNE. 1917 No. 6. 

The American 

Journal of Urology 
and Sexology 

wMi nkWh hM bMB eouolidMMl 

The American Pnctitioner 


Obstinate Constipation of 

Infants and Young Children 

is usually a dietetic affair, but is s omet im es due to lack of mitscular tone. 

While INTEROL is neither a food nor a tonic, it is undoubtedly of service 
in these oonditi<ms because it supiJies lubrication in the large bowel* facili- 
tating both peristalsis and evacuation. Thus there is less likelihood of intes* 
stasis with its resulting fermentation, putrefaction and autotoxemia. 

INTEROL moves the child's bowels without the enervation, irritation, 
griping, or after'-constipation of castor oil — and is ''easy to take." 

INTEROL is a parUathr kfni <A "nunerd oil," and is not "taken from the sune 
bands as the rest oiF them": (I) there is no discoloration on the HsS04 test — abso- 
hite freedom from "lighter" hydrocarbons— so that there can be no reoial disturbance; 
f 2) no dark discok>ration on the leadroocide-sodium-hydroxide te»t — absolute freedom 
from sulphur compounds--so that there can be no gaatro-intestinal disturbance from 
this source; (3) no action on litmus — absolute neutrality; (4) no odor, e ven when 
heated; (5) no taste, even when warm. Almost any child can "take" INTEROL. 

UfTEROI. booklet oa nqoMt: abo Btonttnra on **Ofaotiii»to Coootipatioo ol USma»B 

and Yooag Qiildion." 

VAN HORN and SAWTELL, 1 5 and 1 7 East 40lh Street, New York City 



Entered N. Y. Port Offica as Second CUue Matter. 

UiOLOGic Publishing Askkhation, I3 Mt. Momg Paek W., Nbw York. 

Fall Hay Fever 

Hay Fever PoUenin Fall Mnlf ord 

ia indicated in the prevention and treatment of Fall Hay Fever. Hay 
FeTer PoUenin Fall Mallord contaiiHi the protein extracts obtained 
from the pollens of ragweed, golden-rod and com, and is indicated in 
hay fever occurring in persons susceptible to the several pollens. 

Hay Fever PoUenin Ragweed Mnlf ord 

(ForBwly Har F«t«v TmoIa* Ra«WM4 M«llor4) 

consists of the protein extract obtained from the pollen of ragweed— 
the cause in a majority of cases of hay fever occurring in the Fall 
— dissolved in physiological saline solution and accurately stand- 

Har F«^mr PoU«nln FaU M «]lor4 and Hay F«T«v P«llMiB B««wm4 M «]iM4 

are foniished in : 

PaekaAaa aontalnlaj 4 atarlla ilaaa ayrlnAaa of gradnatad itrenffUis, |6XK> 

In single sjringet ** D *' strength, fl JO 

Byrlnge A contains 0.0025 mg. extract of tbe pollen proteins 
" B •• 0.006 ^^ " •* " •• 

•• o •* 0.01 " " •• •• " 

In orderiaA aFeeily "Hay Fevar PoUanla FaU** or "Hay Parar Fallanln 
RaAwaad** as may be desired, otherwise the Hay Fever Fall PoUenin will be supplied. 

For Inunimization and Treaimeiit of Hay FeTer* first dose 
(STrin^e A) ahould be ^ven at leaat 30 daya before expected 
attack, followed by syringes B, C and D at five-day intervals ; during 
the entire period of accustomed attack or until immunity is estab- 
lished treatment should be continued, using Syringe D. 

There are no eontraindicationa to the therapeutic or prophy- 
lactic use of Hay Fever PoUenin Mulford as far as known. Should 
a clinical reaction occur, characterized by rise in temperature and 
aggravation of symptoms, the next dose should be decreased. 

Fall literature mailed upon reqneat. 





Copyright, 1917, by Dr. William J. Robinson. 




SubscfipHont cmd all communicatiotu relating to tht busmtu or oditorial 
dfpartment, gxchangts, ond books for revUw, should b$ oddrsusd to THE 
AMERICAN JOURNAL OP UROLOGY, 12 Mt. Morris Park Wsst, Nsw 
York City. 



Our Sexual Misery: Some Informal Remarks. By William J. 

Robinson, M.D 241 

Abortion or Intentional Miscarriage. By Ploss and Battels 256 


A Persistent Hymen. Dr. Thomas 275 

Connection of the Fine Arts with Love. Lester F. Ward 275 

A Case of Foot-Fetichism. A. Moll 276 

A Primipara at 46. Dr. Seeley Andrews 276 

A Case of Masturbatory Perversion 277 

Abnormal Development of Female Genitals. Dr. W. A. Newman 

Dorland 277 

Congenital Absence of Vagina and Uterus. Dr. Cuthbert Powell.. 278 

The Prostitute's Independent Life. Havelock Ellis 278 

Mental Masturbation. Dr. R F. Schrenk-Notzing 279 

Th« Love of Life in the Aged. J. J. Rousseau 279 


A Human Document. J. J. J 279 


Robinson, M.D. 1917 281 


A Journal with a Mission 287 

The Sex Instinct in Woman : What the People Know About It 288 

Published monthly by the Urologic Publishing Association, 
12 Mt Morris Park West, New York, N. Y. 





Treatment of 
Sexual Impotence 



William J. Robinson. M. D. 

Okf of tbe Deoaitnieiit of G«tiito-UrinAT7 Dbetttt tad Dermatolocft Bfosx Hospital ond 
Dbpcnionr; Sditor The Americmn Joarnal of Urology, Vooertal aad Sosoal D iaeMe i; 
l$ditor of The Critic aiui Guide: Author of Sexual Problene of Todar* Nerer 
Told Tales, Practical Bufenics, etc ; President of the Ameilcan Soiiety 
of Medical Sodolopr, President of the Northern Medseat So- 
detjr. Bx*President of the Berlin Anglo-Amerioan Med- 
ical Society, Fellow of the New York Aca- 
doDj of Medidne, etc., etc 


Unqntttioiisbly and Inoomptrably the best; ■iii4>lest and most tfaorooi^ 
book on the subject in the Bnglish language. 


Part I— Masturbation. Its Prevalence, Causes, Varieties, Sy mp to m s, 
Results, Prophylaxis and Treatment Coitus Interruptus and Its Effects. 

Part II— Varieties, Causes and Treatment of Pollutions, Spermatorrhea, 
Prostatorrhea and Urethrorriiea. 

Part III — Sexual Impotence in the Male. Every phase of its widely vary- 
ing causes and treatment, with illuminating case reports. 

Part IV — Sexual Neurasthenia. Causes, Treatment, case reports, and its 
relation to Impotence. 

Part V— Sterility, Male and Female. Its Causes and Treatment 
Part VI — Sexual Disorders in Woman, Including Frigidity, Vaginismus, 
Adherent Clitoris, and Injuries to the Female in Coitus. 

Part VII — Priapism. Etiology, Case Reports and Treatment 

Part VIII — Miscellaneous Topics. Including: Is Masturbation a Vice?— 
Two Kinds of Premature Ejaculation.— The Frequency of Coitus.— 'Use- 
less" Sexual Excitement — ^The Relation Between Mental and Sexual Activity. 
—Big Families and Sexual Vigor. — Sexual Perversions. 

Part IX — Prescriptions and Minor Points. 

Sixth edition revised ;uid enlarged. 
Goth bound, 422 pages. Postpaid, $3.00. 


Dr. Robinson's Never Tola Tales, $1.00. Sexual Problems of To-Day, 12.00. 



Vol. Xm. JUNE, 1917. No. 6. 

For Tmn Amskican Journal op Uioloct amo Sfxolocy. 

By William J. Robinson, M.D., New Yobk. 

THE subject which we are going to touch upon t(Hiight is 
so immense that to discuss it in detail would make a vo- 
luminous book. I can hope to uncover only a small 
comer of it. 
It would not be difficult to have you or anybody else agree to 
the proposition that there is an enormous lot of misery in this 
world. The most callous, the most stupid, the most indifferent can 
be made to admit it. Even the most egotistic, who live oolj for 
themselves, and to whom Fortune has been supremely kind, may be 
made to acknowledge that there is a terrible lot of unhappiness 
in every sphere, in every stratum of society. It is only necessary 
to read the contents of a single daily newspaper, to take a walk 
fai the slums, to get a peep at some of our shops and factories, 
to consider the amount of disease, crime, poverty, to spend a day 
in our day courts or night courts, to pay a visit to some of our 
hospitals, asylums or prisons, to be ready to subscribe to the pro- 
position that the world is full of misery. Yes, everybody, con- 
servative and radical, rich and poor, agree more or less on this 
point, on the point of the existence of wretched misery. 

But as soon as the question of the causes of the misery comes 
up, then we find disagreement and dissension. And the dissension 
becomes still more pronounced, more bitter and more irreconcilable 
when we begin to discuss the remedies for the various evils that 
afflict mankind. 

And the object of my remarks tonight is to give you my idea 

♦ Read before The Williamsburg Medical Society, February 13, 1917. 



of the etiology of a good deal of our misery. I do not suppose 
many of you will agree with me, not at first, at any rate. If all 
of you agreed, there would be no need for my lecture. If there 
is anything I detest, anything that is abhorrent to my whole be* 
ing, it is to repeat platitudes, to announce, with a show of courage 
and sdf -sacrifice, ideas which have beonne common property, which 
nobody contests^ and which nobody cares for anjnpray, whether they 
are right or not. 

I will ask you to transfer yourselves for a few moments some 
forty or fifty thousand years back, and cast a mental glance at 
our ancestors. How did man spend his time, what were his occupa- 
tions, what were his interests? He was busy with but two things — 
to hunt for food so that he might fiU his belly, and to find a mate. 
At the time we speak of, the second was easier than the first. 
While the finding of food in sufficient quantity to satisfy his hunger 
at all seasons presented, particularly in some climates, considerable 
difficulties, sexual satisfaction presented none. There were no 
laws at that time against promiscuous sexual satisfaction, the Ten 
Commandments had not yet been handed down, and monogamy 
was even undreamed of. Any female the male met and wanted, 
he took. There were no restrictions in this respect, and if the fe- 
male ever offered resistance, he simply knocked her on the head and 
dragged her into his cave. But I do not imagine that there were 
many such cases of resistance and that in those primeval times the 
male was frequently under the necessity of using force on the 

Those were the two primal instincts of our dear and respected 
forefathers : hunger and sex. And they still remain the two primal 
instincts of man, as of every other animal, today. Civilized man 
has developed a thousand other needs. I need not enumerate them, 
but if you analyze them, you will find that they are all develop- 
ments of and are predicated on the instincts of hunger and sex. 
They are all merely the embellishments, the embroidery, of our life, 
but essentially we are ruled by the same instincts as were our an- 
cestors one hundred thousand or a million years ago, and as are 
all other animals now. 

But in one respect there is an enormous difference between 
our ancestors of long ago and their descendants of today. At that 
time, as stated, the food question was the principal one, the most 
difficult one — the sex question was the easy one and presetted no 
problems and no difficulties. Now things are just the other way. 

I » 


The food problem or the economic problem is the much simpler 
of the two. We have harnessed the forces of Nature, we do not 
depend upon climate or season, there is plenty of food for every- 
body. But the satisfaction of the sexual necessity has been sur- 
rounded with so many obstacles, has been made so difficult or im- 
possible as to lead to an enormous amount of physical illness, 
nervous disease, and wretchedness and misery in general. These 
difficulties, these obstacles, which are in many cases insuperable, 
have been put in the way of the proper satisfaction of the sexual 
instincts because of the peculiar notion that illicit sexual relations, 
that is sexual relations outside of lawful wedlock, are sinful and 

Of course if you believe this, if you maintain the idea that 
all extra-matrimonial relations are criminal, you are welcome to 
your belief, and I have no quarrel whatever with you. It is a be- 
lief still maintained in theory, though often broken in practice, 
by millions and millions of people. But you will permit me to 
speak from my point of view, the point of view of a freethinker 
and an advanced sexologist. In our opinion the proper satisfaction 
of the sexual instinct is no more sinful, no more criminal, than the 
satisfaction of the instinct of hunger, thirst, or sleep. We mam- 
tain thai the relations between two adult persons are the concern 
of those two adults only and of nobody else. No third person 
and certainly no State has any right whatever to interfere in the 
sex relations of two adult persons. It is only where minors are 
concerned, or where force is used or where children are the result 
that the State has a right to step in. 

• • • 

Both those who are sincerely religious and those who are hypo- 
critically pious — ^the former I respect, the latter I despise — ^main- 
tain that illicit sex relations are sinful and criminal, and in order 
to maintain this thesis, which attempts to imprison, to pervert and 
to degenerate one of the most powerful of our natural instincts, 
an enormous literature has grown up, full of misinformation, ex- 
aggeration and deliberate lies, all calculated to persuade the 
young men of the countiy that there isi no such thing as the sexual 
instinct, or that its non-satisfaction is an easy matter, that it is 
given us for the purpose of procreation (mly, that omiplete and 
absolute chastity is not (mly non-injurious but even beneficial and 
conducive to good health, and that all illicit relations are sure to 
lead to physical, moral and mental disaster. 


In former years all those indulging in illicit relaticms were 
threatened with hell fire. But now as hell fire is going out of 
fashion and is losing its terrors for some of us, theology is calling 
to its aid science, to prop up its tottering sway over the human 
mind. Of course it isn't real science that is coming to the support 
of theology, it is pseudo-science masquerading in the garb of true 
science that is willing to prostitute itself for the sake of a tottering 
theology and a moribund morality. To pay attention to what our 
esteemed reverends say in support of a medieval morality would be 
a waste of time, but let me give you some examples of what some 
physicians, who are supposed to be scientists., but which alas they 
very seldom are, say on the subject. 

We will first take a statement made by Dr. W. S. Hall, who 
is .Professor of Physiology in tne Northwestern University of Il- 
linois, and who is considered one of our great educators and author- 
ities on sex matters. That Professor of Physiology, whom we 
certainly have a right to expect to be capable of honest and logical 
thinking, makes the following statement in one of his books. 
^^Naiure^** he says, **hai devised a retribution for illicit intercourse 
vn the form of venereal disease** These are exactly his words. 
Their significance may not be apparent to you at first ^ance, but 
they will become so if you consider the matter for a moment. So 
solicitous is Nature about man's sexual morality that in order to 
keep him strictly within the confines of monogamic relations, she 
has created the gonococcus, the spirocheta pallida, and the bacillus 
of Ducrey: and she stands ready to punish him with gonorrhea, 
syphilis or chancroid if he dares to commit the crime of indulging 
in extra-matrimonial relations. I asked Professor Hall over a 
year ago to tell me if Nature created the gonococcus, tlie spi- 
rocheta pallida and the bacillus of Ducrey as a punishment for 
illicit relations, what was he^ purpose in creating the bacillus of 
tuberculosis, of diphtheria, of smallpox, of scarlet fever, of teta- 
nus, of anthrax, of dysentery, etc., etc.? If venereal disease was 
a retribution for illicit relations, what was Bright's disease, heart 
disease, liver disease, measles, poliomyelitis, etc., etc. a retribution 
for? But the clear and honest thinker. Professor Hall, has not 
answered my question yet. 

No, venereal disease is not a retribution. It is simply an ac- 
cident, a very imfortunate and very deplorable accident, an 
accident that is responsible for more misery than any other dis- 
ease which the human race is subject to, but an accidait never- 

I « 


thelese. )And to speak of it as retribution is false, stupid and dis- 
honest. The gonococcus and the spirocheta pallida were ^^created'' 
for no greater and no lesser purpose and have no greater and no 
lesser reason for existence than have the streptococcus, the staphy- 
lococcus, the pneumococcus and the thousand and one other 
varieties of microscopic life. 

Here is a statement from another scientist and so-called 
leader of the medical profession, who is supposed to be a specialist 
in venereal diseases and sexual disorders. I refer to Dr. E. L. 
Keyes. In a pamphlet sent out broadcast by the Social Hygiene 
Society, Dr. Keyes combats, of course, the idea that continence is 
in any way injurious. 

He says that our whole trouble results from "the idea that 
sexual exercise is, on the whole, salutary to the male, if not es- 
sential to the best performance of his other general physical func- 
tions, and necessary for the preservation of his sexual potency." 
"From a medical source," he says, "should come some authoritative 
utterance in contraversion of this fallacy," and he proceeds to 
contra vert it. How? In the same wretched way — by comparing 
the testicle, which performs the most important function in the 
human body> to the tear gland which performs a function of no 
importance whatever. He indulges in some theoretical, discon- 
nected rambling, but he has reserved his knockout argument for 
the end. He decides, "to leave theory and opinion, and come 
down to a matter of hard fact capable of physical demonstration." 
What is the hard fact capable of physical demonstration? Here 
it is. "It may be safely and surely affirmed that no amount of 
continence ever caused atrophy of the testicle. Now, if continence, 
too long continued, can produce impotence, that fact should be 
evidenced by a wasting of the testicle.** (Italics mine). 

How a specialist in venereal and sexual disorders can be guilty 
of such ignorance is beyond understanding. No sexologist has 
ever claimed that continence necessarily or even frequently results 
in atro|Ay of the testicle. And it shows the deepest ignorance to 
claim that impotence must be evidenced by a wasting of the testes. 
Every tyro in sexology knows that when we speak of impotence 
we speak of impotence to perform the act. When we say that long 
continued continence frequently results in impotence, we refer to 
impotentia coeundi, and not to impotentia generandi. Impotence 
resulting from long continence does not show itself in a wasting 
of the testicle, in an abolition of the spermatogenetic function, but 



in weak or absent erections and in premature ejaculations. ^ The 
two f uncticMis may be entixely independent of one another. Just 
a9 a man who is completely sterile, like after a double epididymitis, 
may still be sexually very potent, so a man who is not sterile and 
whose spermatogenetic function is perfect, may be completdy 
impotent as far as the performance of the act is concerned. 

And for a specialist who has been specially asked to discuss 
the sexual necessity from the medical point of view, not to dif- 
ferentiate between impotentia coeundi and impotentia generandi 
is an unpardonable blunder. It is a sciafitific crime. 

But such is the puritanical food on which our yo^Ung men are 
fed, and so is Science perverted for ulterior ends. 

• • • 

Every statement concerning the sex instinct, the injurious- 
ness or non-injuriousness of continence, the extent, curability, or 
non-curability of venereal disease, every statement regarding pros- 
titution, is honeycombed with falsehood. Some of the falsehoods 
are due to ignorance, well-meaning ignorance, but ignorance never- 
theless, while some of the falsehoods or misstatements I cannot 
help regarding otherwise than deliberate. One does not know 
whether to weep or to laugh. In one breath the lecturer or writer 
will make the statement that the American youth differs from 
the European young man, that he has higher ideals, that his 
thoughts are not fixed on sex, that he is pure and noble, that 
sex plays but a very subordinate role in his life, and that it isn't 
at all difficult for him to remain strictly chaste until the day of 
his wedding bells, no matter whether they ring on his thirtieth or 
fortieth birthday. And in the very next breath he will say that 
at least 90 per cent, of our men have suffered at one time or another 
from venereal disease* 

In a booklet just out and received by me only this morning, 
which bears the ambitious title *^Sex Problems of Men in Health 
and Disease'' by Dr. Moses Scholtz, the following statement occurs 
(page 66) — ^I give the statement verbatim — ^''A conservative esti- 
mate of the spread of venereal disease, in the writer's opinion, 
would be that from every 100 men at least 90 have had at one 
time or another a venereal infection." Mind you, this Is a con- 

* Tliere are cases in which on account of excessive pollutions and 
spermatorrhea atrophy of the testicles may take place, but such extreme 
cases are rare, and they are not at all necessary to support our thesis 
of the great injuriousness of long continued sexual abstinence. 


servatioe estimate, and the author says ai least 90 out of every 
100! We have a right to assume that at a liberal estimate and 
leaving out the words ^at least," about 200 or say 160 out of 
every 100 (sicl) men have had venereal disease at one time or 
another ! 

To us, unbiased investigators, the thing is so absurd that its 
very absurdity defeats it. But if a layman reads it, and it is for 
laymen that the book is intended, he takes it for pure coin, and 
either becomes panicky, or if he happens to have escaped venerqal 
disease he is apt to pat himself on the back for his great good 
fortune or g^reat virtue which put him in the class of the less than 
10 per cent, that are free from venereal diseases. The idiots who 
make the statements of at least 90 per cent, of all males being 
afflicted with venereal disease, do not take into consideration the 
thought that if this were so there would be absolutely nothing to 
worry about. For if with 90 per cent, of humanity afflicted with 
venereal diseases the human race is nevertheless growing, progres- 
sing, and increasing in numbers, widening its knowledge, making 
new inventions, etc., etc., in short making progress in every line 
of human activity, what is there to worry about? 

No, thede statements about the extent of venereal diseases are 
just as stupid as they are false. They are just as stupid and 
false as are the statements about the incurability of venereal dis- 
ease, which are also made by well-meaning fools who believe that 
fear of venereal dbease, which fear is made more terrifying by the 
knowledge of its incurability, will act as a deterrent to illicit sexual 


• • • 

To expose all the falsehoods that have been made in reference 
to one phase of our sex life, namely prostitution, would alone 
occupy a volume. Besides the subject is so dangerous that even I, 
with my well-attested courage, am afraid to touch it. But if I 
were not afraid, this is what I would say. I would say that every- 
thing that has been told you about the physical, mental and moral 
condition of the prostitute is false. Stupidly, pitifully false. You 
have been told that the average life of the prostitute is between 
three and four years. It used to be three years. Then they gave 
her four, then they gave her five and now, I believe, they are giv- 
ing her an average of six or seven. This is rot. The average 
life of the prostitute is just as long, if not longer, a» the average 
of the community, and many of them are in sjdendid health and 


of good appearance after fifteen, twenty or twenty-five years of 
plying their trade. A few of them, those who become addicted 
to alcohol and drugs, have a short life. But there are many people 
who are not prostitutes and who are addicted to alcohol and drugs. 
The better class take very good care of themselves, live better 
hygienic lives than their sisters in the same strata of society from 
which they come, and therefore are in better health. A recent in- 
vestigation, for instance, in the City of Cleveland, an abstract of 
which appeared in "The Survey," shows that they are remarkably 
free from tuberculosis, and that even some of them entering upon 
the life of prostitution with incipient tuberculosis, have recovered 
from it while leading a life of prostitution. So much for their 
general health. 

We have also been told that every or practically every prosti- 
tute is afflicted with venereal disease. In that same booklet from 
which I quoted before, the following statement occurs: "It is 
well established that every prostitute is affected with gonorrhea or 
syphilis, and mostly with both, and that they practically at all 
times carry this disease in active or latent form." Another lie. 
The prostitute of today knows that her livelihood depends upon 
her being sexually healthy, she knows how to take care of herself 
and she does take care of herself. Before and after each relation 
she uses a strongly antiseptic douche which makes venereal infec- 
tion practically impossible. And many of my male patients tell 
me that they are always subjected to a very painstaking examin- 
ation, and at the very least suspicious discharge or moisture from 
the meatus the women refuse to have anything to do with them 
except with the use of a condom. There are many women who 
have been prostitutes for five or ten or more years without ever 
contracting disease. 

I trust that the evil-minded will not take this statement of 
mine as an excuse for plunging carelessly into orgies with prosti- 
tutes. For if one becomes infected it is little consolation to him 
to know that nine of his friends escaped it. Care and venereal 
prophylaxis are just as important no matter whether ten or fifty 
per cent, of prostitutes are venereally infected. But I do not be- 
lieve in perverting the truth for any cause, especially for such a 
vicious cause as frightening the people away from satisfying their 
natural instincts. 

Then you have been told that all prostitutes, or at least a 
large percentage of them, are mentally defective. This is also 


rot. Those who have made the inyestigaticms investigated only 
those failures that were arrested, that is, those who were not clever 
enough to keep out of the clutches of the detestable agents of a 
detestable law. The fact is that the prostitute is mentally at least 
equal, if not superior, to her sister of the same stratum from which 
she comes. In comparing people we must of course always com- 
pare people of the same stratum, with the same hereditary and 
environmental advantages and disadvantages. 

As to the prostitute's morality, to the conventional it seems 
a funny thing to discuss. But leaving out that one element of 
chastity, whidi may and may not be an element of morality, the 
prostitute is very often a very moral creature. That she is kind- 
hearted, generous, charitable^ often self-sacrificing and will fre- 
quently go to great lengths to help or save a friend, everybody 
wiU confirm who has had opportunity of coming in contact with 
her and knows some of the intimate details of her life. 

And further, if it was not a dangerous thing to do, I would 
tell you that I consider the practice or trade of prostitution a 
perfectly legitimate occupation. I would tell you that in my 
opinion the prostitute should be left alone to practice her trade 
freely and unmolested, and that she should be interfered with only 
when she becomes a public nuisance or when she is venereally dis- 
eased. I would tell you that I consider our treatment of the prosti- 
tute outrageous and criminal, and I believe that future generations 
will agree with my opinion. I would tell you that I consider the 
policeman or plain clothes man who traps the streetwalker and 
arrests her [and occasionally even the judge who sentences her], 
morally inferior to her. I would tell you these and many other 
things if I were not afraid to shock you. But as I am afraid, I 
will not touch upon the subject further and will proceed with my 
lecture. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

What is the result of this attempt at chaining or imprison- 
ing the sex instinct? What is the result of the numerous obstacles 
which have been put in the way of the normal satisfaction of the 
sex urge? What is the result of the terror which we try to im- 
plant in the mind of every young man to keep him away from illicit 
relations? What is the result of the fear of venerefiJ disease, of 
the humiliation, of the social ostracism, which the yoimg man must 
fight and overcome if he wishes to satisfy his imperious, irresistible 
sexual desire? 


The result is that we are becoming a nation of impotenti. 
And this is the particular theme of my discourse this evening. We 
have been told that 90 per cent, of all men have at one time or 
another suffered with gonorrhea and that 26 to 60 per cent, of 
men are infected with syphilis. These are wildly exaggerated state- 
ments. But what I am going to tell you is true. The most wide- 
spread of all disorders of men in any Anglo-Saxon comrrwrnity^ is 
sexual impotence^ or to be more specific^ premature ejaculations. 
This has become the universal disease among the male portion of 
our urban population. And while this disease or disorder is pre- 
valent in every stratum of society, it is particularly prevalent 
among the educated and professional classes. I make this state- 
ment without further qualification — ^that in any audience of pro- 
fessional men, be they lawyers, clergymen, writers, bankers, or 
physicians, at least 75 per cent, will be found to suffer from sexual 
weakness in some form or another, premature ejaculation being the 
most prevalent form. Li giving the figures as 76 per cent. I am 
conservative. For I will tdl you frankly that I do not believe 
that m any audience of 1,000, or 10,000, or 100,000 adult males 
you will find 25 per cent, fully virile, normally potent. If you 
doubt this statement, ask your friends whose confidence you ^njoy, 
but particularly ask their wives. 

I well know the objection that may be raised. The statement 
may justly be made that I have a wrong perspective, that I have 
the narrow view of the specialist, that a man who treates a certain 
form of disease is bound to begin to believe that all the world is 
suffering from that disease. That is a danger which many spe- 
cialists have been unable to escape. But I believe that I can truly 
say that I am free from the specialist's narrow viewpoint. At 
least I have always been fighting against the specialistic bias and 
I believe that I have succeeded. Though a venereal specialist, I 
have never for a moment accepted the ridiculous figures of the ex- 
tent of venereal disease of my professional brethren. I never be- 
lieved in the 90 or 80 per cent, of gonorrhea, and in the 60 or 25 
per cent, of syphilis. My figures have always been about 15 or 
20 per cent, of gonorrhea and about 2 per cent, of syphilis. And 
those are liberal figures. But I am sure that I am rather under- 
stating than overstating the truth when I claim that at least 75 
per cent, of all male adults are more or less sexually impotent. 
Mind you, not sterile, but impotent. Do not confuse impotentia 
coeundi with impotentia g^ierandi. The man who is sexuallt 



our wretchedly false teaching, our wretchedly false code of sexual 
morality. The code that teaches that illicit relations are sinful 
and criminal, and that puts every possible physical, legal, moral, 
mental and social obstacle in the way of satisfying an instinct which 
is the most important of all our instincts. I said the most im- 
portant, and I repeat it. 

While the hunger instinct is the basic fundamental instinct, 
it is the egotistic instinct. It is the instinct which concerns the in- 
dividual alone, while the sex instinct is the social or altruistic in- 
stinct. It is the instinct which not only makes the perpetuati(m 
of the race possible, but which is the foundation of all our family 
and social life. While the hunger instinct is responsible for the 
various scientific and technical inventions, the sex instinct is re- 
sponsible for everything that is beautiful in the world, is pesponsi- 
ble for the arts, for painting, sculpture, literature, beautiful 
clothes and every sort of ornamentation, in short for everything 
that makes life pleasant and pleasurable. There are spme people 
who believe only in the usefulness of the useful, but I believe with 
the Bishop in Hugo's ^^Les Miserables" that the beautiful is as 
useful as the useful if not more so. The Bishop said that in com- 
paring the relative importance of a rose and a piece of bread. The 
piece of bread is more useful and more necessary than the rose, 
but man cannot live by bread alone, and after we have the piece 
of bread the longing for the rose is just as imperious, just as 
urgent as the longing for the piece of bread when we are hungry. 
And the hungry heart can give as severe pangs as a hungry 
stomach — some say more severe. 

A few words about the causative relationship between our 
sexual code and sexual impotence. In many cases the impotence 
is due directly to prolonged abstinence. When a strong, normal 
young man has frequent libidinous desires which for one reason or 
another, either religious bringing-up* moral scruples, fear of ve- 
nereal infection, fear of social ostracism on being found out, lack 
of opportunity or lack of money, he is unable to satisfy, he de- 
velops a congestion in the posterior urethra and in the prostate 
which may lead to prostatitis or prostatic atony, which in their 
turn lead to imperfect erections and to premature ejaculations. 


Another way which leads to impotence is indirectly through 
masturbation. Only very, very few normal males who are imable 
to live a normal sex life can abstain from masturbation. And while 
occasional masturbati(m is harmless, the trouble is that people with 
weak wiU-power, of a neurotic constitution or bom with a psycho- 
pathic taint may become slaves to the habit, and that excessive 
masturbation may in many cases lead to impotence there can be 
no question. But I would like to stop here for a moment and em- 
phasize the point that the evil results of masturbation have been 
shamefully and stupidly exaggerated, and that in the vast major- 
ity of cases masturbation leads to no disastrous results and it is 
better for a man who cannot satisfy his sex instinct naturally to 
indulge in occasional masturbation than to fight day and night 
with his thoughts, and use up his strength and his energy in 
mastering his desires. 

Another way in which our sexual code with its resulting absti- 
nence may lead to impotence is through pollutions. This is a very 
common road. A good many more people become impotent through 
excessive pollutions than through masturbation. I cannot refrain 
from stopping here for a few moments to refer to the hypocrisy 
and Ignorance of our theologic sexologists, as exemplified in their 
treatment of these two phenomena of our sex life, masturbati(m 
and pollutions. Masturbation being something that depends more 
or less upon the individual's will, is pictured in the most lurid 
colors as the source of all possible evils, physical, moral, and 
mental. Pollutions being something for which the individual can- 
not even by the severest theologians be held responsible, is pictured 
as a harmless phenomenon to which no attention need be paid. In 
fact by many of our sex writers it is considered a wonderful pro- 
vision of Nature. "Nature," says one of these sexologists, "has 
certainly provided man with a wonderful self-regulating appliance, 
which fact explodes the popular belief about danger to health in 
overaccumulation of the seminal secretions in the body. Whenever 
such accumulation of the seminal fluid takes place in a healthy 
man, and he begins to feel a certain nervous tension and blood- 
flushes. Nature opens her safety-valve and the over-distended semi- 
nal vesicles by pressure bring in motion the nervous muscular ap- 
paratus of the sexual organs, and this accumulated surplus comes 
out at night in sleep as a **wet dream,'* night emission, medically 
called "jwllution.'' The best proof that this phenomenom is normal, 
natural and purposeful can be seen in the fact that the morning 


after it the man loses all the distuibing soisations of nervous 
tension and at once regains his freshness and vigor. A man may 
have these emissions once or twice a month, even once a wedc, and 
he does not have to worry about it in the least, provided that after 
each night emission he feels fresher and more vigorous than be- 
fore it" 

Yes, provided that after each night emission he feels fresher 
and more vigorous than before it. But how about it if he feels 
less fresh and less vigorous than before? How about it if he feels 
the next morning like a wet rag, with pain in his neck and in the 
small of his back, unable to concentrate his mind on anything, 
with rings around his eyes, and so forth? What thai? This our 
hypocritical sexologist leaves imtouched. 

'Another sexologist in a recently published book tries to make 
us believe that every case of pollutions can be cured by potassium 
bromide and an instillation of nitrate of silver. This again is 
prostituting science to ulterior ends. There are many cases of 
pollutions in which an instillation of silver nitrate, no matter how 
weak, will intensify the pollutions and so will potassium bromide. 
In shoH, there are cases of pollutions which cannot be cured by 
any other means except by nodrmal sexual intercourse. But this 
our sexo-theologians will not admit. 

Another relatively small percentage of sexual impotence is 
caused by sexual excesses, that is, I mean by excessive normal 
sexual intercourse. And this I also consider a direct result of our 
vicious sexufid morality. The man who is in good economic cir- 
cumstances and knows that he is secure with his three meals a day, 
does not overeat. He partakes moderately at each meal of as much 
as his system needs. But the poor man, who is one-lialf or two- 
thirds of the time hungry, is apt to overeat when he gets a chance, 
is apt to gorge himself until he ruins his stomach. Many of the 
poor derelicts become sick after the Christmas dinner which is 
spread for them by our well-meaning, kind-hearted Salvation Army 
lassies. And so it is with our sex relations. The normal satisfac- 
tion of the sex instinct being surrounded by so many obstacles of 
every kind and description, the man who gets a chance of satisfy- 
ing his instinct is very apt to overdo it, because he does not know 
how soon he may get another chance. He is apt to indulge in 
incredible excesses, imtil the result is impotence, which fortunately 
in this case is usually temporary. 


These are the various avenues through which thousands and 
thousands of our men arrive at the sad goal of sexual impotmce. 
But sexual Impotence is not the only result. We have the vast and 
constantly growing amount of sexual neurasthenia, which is quite 
different from sexual impotence, though unfortunately oft^i con- 
fused by our superficial sex writers. Sexual impotence may coexist 
with sexual neurasthenia, but on the other hand a person may be 
sexually impotent without a trace of neurasthenia, and a person 
may be sexually neurasthenic and be very potent sexually. Then we 
have the numerous perversions and the many cases of inversions, 
which are the direct result of our sexual repression. I cannot go 
into greater details on this point, for the subject is large enough 
to take up an evening in itself. And then last but not least we 
have the enormous number of neuroses and a smaller number of 
psychoses, which are directly traceable to sexual repressions. What- 
ever you may think of the Freudians and their philosophy, what- 
ever you may think of some of the undoubted exaggerations and 
extravagances of the psychoanalytic school, nobody who has given 
the subject unbiased study can deny that Freud has proved beyond 
doubt the connection between sexual repression and nervousness 
and neuroses, and for that alone if for nothing else he has made 
himself immortal. 

What shall we as physicians do in the matter? We cannot 
change the moral code or the religious ideas of a people, not at 
once at any rate. But it is our duty to tell the truth as we see it, 
uninfluenced by any outside considerations. It is our duty to teach 
that sexual abstinence beyond a certain period is injurious and 
capable of producing some very disastrous results. It is our duty 
to teach that the sex instinct is not only a natural, normal instinct, 
but that its satisfaction is necessary to the physical and mental 
welfare of the individual. It is our duty to teach that the sex 
instinct has another purpose beside that of propagation of the race, 
that as a matter of fact the propagation of the race is but a small 
part of the sex instinct. And particularly is it our duty to fight 
those who don the garb of science for the purpose of giving 
greater weight to their false and pernicious teachings. 

A society like our Society of Social Hygiene, which is an 
outgrowth of the Society for Moral and Sanitary Prophylaxis, is 
doing more harm than good. It is doing some good, but the harm 
it does considerably outweighs the good. Its hyi)ocrisy begins 
with its very name — ^'^Sodal Hygiene" means nothing. Keeping 


the rivers pure, examining the milk, preventing the spread of ty- 
phoid fever, is also social hygiene. Its name, if anything, ought 
to be "The Sexual Hygiene Society,*' or "Venereal Hygiene 
Society." The German Society, which is older than our Society, 
has the plain title "Society for Combating Venereal Disease." 
And while it preaches that abstinence up to a certain point is a 
good thing, it also very definitely and very decidedly advises the 
use of venereal prophylactics. But this, the most important point 
in limiting the extent of venereal disease, our Society does not 
want to touch. It still has only one r«nedy for escaping venereal 
disease, namely complete abstinence, a remedy which has been 
preached to us for the last 2000 years without any results. 

The preaching of abstinence up to the date of marriage, no 
matter how late in life that may take place, is bound to increase 
the sum total of our sexual misery. It is bound to make us a 
nation impotent, neurasthenic, neurotic and perverted. If we want 
to escape the sexual misery, if we want to diminish its amount, we 
must remove the obstacles from the normal satisfaction of the 
sexual instinct. The shackles which have been put upon the most 
important instinct in our life should be broken. Sex relations 
should be made easier and not harder. Every young man should 
be fully instructed in the use of the most efficient venereal 
prophylactics, as well as in the use of the most harmless and the 
most efficient measures for the prevention of conception. And the 
satisfaction of the sexual instinct should be considered not a 
reprehensible, but a commendable and desirable thing. Only then 
can we hope to avoid a great deal of the sexual misery that is now 
overwhelming manlund, only then can we hope to develop a sane» 
healthy, normal, vigorous and virile race. 

TrtniUted for The AKXtiCAM Joubmai, of Ukologt amo Ssxoloot. 


By Ploss-Ba&tels. 

its significance and extent. 

ABORTION is not the a*estilt of a corrupt degenerate mod- 
em civilization. It is found among semi-civilized and 
even primitive peoples. The custom of interrupting 
pregnancy is older than civilization. The feeling that 
this arbitrary interception is wrong developed slowly and gradu- 
ally. It was not until comparatively late that religious and polit- 
ical legislators opposed it with prohibitions and threats. 

Yet, one must not think that the influence of the penal code 
was powerful enough to abolish abortion ; among civilized nations 
it exists as an endemic evil of greater extent than one would 
like to believe. At the present time we know more of how this 
pernicious custom is practiced by strange nations than by our 
own people. On account of our belief that it cannot be extirpated, 
we remain in ignorance about it, and fail to think of how, by a 
change of our social conditions, this evil might be abolished. 


As stated above, abortion is practiced among semi-civilized 
peoples and even savage tribes. It is evident that they do not 
highly rate the value of an unborn child ; and, on the other hand, 
they are ignorant of the dangers of abortion for the mother. 

The factors which lead to abortion may be in general the 
same as those which produce infanticide. But in the latter the 
affection for a newly bom creature and the aversion towards being 
guilty of the destruction of a living being exercises an inhibitory 
influence upon the mother. This barrier is abs^it in the case 
of abortion. 

The lowest of all savage tribes are the Oceanians and the 
natives of Australia. In Australia native mothers often resort to 
miscarriages ^^on account of the difficulty which the rearing of 
children involves." (In Tami, the woman who has aborted a 
child wears for some time a short mourning net). ^ 

Among the Sinaugolos of British New Guinea pre-marital 
sexual intercourse of girls is frequent, but natural diildren are 
rare: they would decrease considerably the value of the girl. 
Hence abortion is common. If it should not be successful the 

* Abstracted from Ploss-Bartels' Das Weib. 



mother of the girl often kills the iindesired grandchild immediately 
after birth. Amcmg the Doreses of New Guinea, on account of 
the domestic burdens, the woman does not bear more than txffo 
children. The fruit of every new conception is killed in the womb. 
This accounts for the slow increase of the population. 

In New South Wales the population is bec(»ning extinct in 
the same measure as abortion increases. 

In New Zealand abortion is not less frequent than infanticide. 
The Maori w(Mnen of New Zealand resort very frequently to 
abortion ; scHne of them ten or twelve times. In New Mecklenburg 
abortion is frequent, infanticide not rare. 

If one reads of the privations and torments which are in-* 
flicted by their relatives upon the women of Oceania during gesta- 
tion and confinement one is not astonished to see that many of 
them renounce the happiness of motherhood and by forcible means 
try to prevent the fruits of their fecundity. Among the natives 
of New Caledonia, not only unmarried maidens but married womai 
resort to abortion to avoid the hardships of suckling and to 
conserve certain bodily charms. 

The native women of the Loyalty Islands drink the water 
of a hot sulphur well as a means of abortif action. 

The native women of New Caledonia, Samoa, Tahiti and 
Hawaii practice abortion lest their breasts become flaccid and 
withered. In the Society Islands abortion has taken the pkce 
of infanticide which used to be practiced previously. 

In the island of Ugi (Salomon group) abortion is used in 
cases of from three to seven months of pregnancy. The women 
drink the concocUon of a certain herb which grows on the island, 
and wear tight bandages around their waists. The few women 
who understand this method carry on a thriving business. 

In the Sandwich Islands where infanticide used to be very 
much the vogue, only half of the marriages today are fruitfuL 
Of 96 married women 23 were childless. 

There are many midwives in the Viti Islands who combine 
with their legitimate profession that of abortif action ; they told 
a traveller that accidental miscarriage was unknown and every 
abortion that took place was intentional. As the cause of arti- 
ficial abortion several factors seem to be operative. The Viti wo- 
men have a pronounced aversion against the rearing of a large 
family; they are ashamed of being frequently pregnant and be- 
lieve that a woman who has many children becomes the laughing- 



Btock of the community. Therefore by artificial abortion they 
try to reduce the number of births or to avoid that one pregf- 
nancy follows another too soon. They also resort to abortion to 
anger their husbands when they are jealous of them. Li cases 
of illegitimate pregnancy abortion is practiced to avoid public 
disgrace. Li Samoa infanticide is something unheard of, but 
abortion by mechanical means extraordinarily frequent. The mo- 
tives are various: shame, fear of ageing prematurely, desire to 
avoid the hardships of reading childroi. In the Gilbert Island 
the sterility of the soil and resultant poverty waa the cause of 
frequent artificial abortions. , 

Kramer says of Samoa: ^Artificial abortion by massage 
and kneading was and is to-day the vogue.^ 

In Bum, Malayan Archipelago, Emmenagoga are frequently 
used to prevent the birth of children; also artificial abortif action 
is frequently made use of by women, and girls. It seems that the 
nostrums here employed do not cause any lasting injury to the 
body of the w(Mnan. In Keisar the w(Mnen do not want to Jiave 
more than two children; they resort to abortion against the will 
of their husbands. In the same manner the women of the Watu- 
bela Islands carry out the **two^hildren'Syttem.** 

In Babar pregnant women resort to artificial abortion lest 
they be excluded from coitus which is severely prohibited during 

Also the Eetar women practice abortion, though clandestinely. 

The Atjeh women practice abortion, but never without the 
consent of their husbands. 

In the island of Engano abortions are frequent because preg- 
nant girls resort to them in order to avoid molestations ; but fear 
of punishment is not the motive. 

Ribbe says of the Aaru-Islands : '^One married couple has 
seldom more than three children; there, as in the whole of India* 
abortion is allowed and probably is one of the chief causes why 
the population decreases from year to year." 

According to Stevens, the women of the Orang Laut in 
Malakka were unacquainted with means for the prevention of 
birth; such an abomination was thought of as something im- 
possible. But intentional miscarriage is well known to the women 
of the Orang-Djikun of the same peninsula; it is resorted to in 
order to avoid the troubles which the rearing of a child involves, 
but seldom used, for the husband has the right to punish his wife 


severely for it, and if he kills her unintentionally he is not called 
to account. When a miscarriage occurred a judicial inquiry was 
instituted, presided over by midwives and the older women who 
were selected by the husband, and who had to find out whether 
the miscarriage was intentional or not. If she waa found guilty 
the husband had the right to punish her, as described above. If 
he did not want to punish her, she was free. If an unmarried 
girl resorted to abortion, she lost her public standing: the women 
despised her, no man wanted her as his wife. 

Montano believes that women in the Philippine Islands are not 
acquainted with the practice of abortion. 

In Brunei, Borneo, infanticide is of very rare occurrence, 
simply because the natives possess such skill in abortion that they 
know how to perform it without endangering the health and life 
of the patient. As the noblesi are in the habit of discharging their 
concubines after the first or second confinement, the women do not 
shrink back tram anything to keep their position. Further, half 
of the daughters of the nobility remain unmarried ; to avoid preg- 
nancy from illicit intercourse, they make use of preventives in 

In Kroe and Lampong abortion is frequent. Also in Java. 
Jacobs writes of Bali : "Every woman knows a great many aborti- 
facients. They are used frequently. Thetrefore illegitimate child- 
ren are extraordinarily rare although mosjt of the daughters of 
this very voluptuous people are given to fornication.'* But not 
only unmarried women make use of abortifacients. One of the 
bondwomen of the princes of Badong, Bali, told Mr. Jacobs that 
if one of them felt that she was pregnant she had to report to 
the prince who at once administered to her a Chinese Obat, a 
"mixtum quid" of black color and a bitter taste which as soon as 
it was taken causied a feeling of warmth and nearly always pro- 
duced the desired effect. Among the Hindus, midwives as well 
as female barbers occupy themselves with artificial abortions. Allan 
Webb of Calcutta says that infanticide and artificial abortions 
are nowhere as frequent as in India. Although the British gov- 
ernment has i^cceeded in preventing infanticide, it is powerless in 
the suppression of the practice of abortion, for which many a 
mother has paid with her life. Everywhere in India there are 
persons who practice the profession of abortion. 

HiiiUet sees the principal cause of the frequency of abortion 
in the very early marriages of the girls and in the frequent and 


early widowhood; many such young widows follow prostitution 
a» a means of livelihood; when they become pregnant they resort 
to abortion to ward off shame from themselves and their families. 

Among the Munda-Kohlsi, in Cehota Nagpore, poor married 
women go to old females and receive abortifacients when preg- 
nancies are too frequent. 

In Armenia abortion is very frequent; half of 400 women 
who conceived, had from 3 to 4 abortions. 

Shortt writes of the enormous frequency of abortion in In- 
dia. It is resorted to on account of religious prejudices by the 
Hindus who are under the Briti^ government, as well as by the 
savage tribes. ' 

In Eutsch, a peninsula in the North of Bombay, the women 
are very voluptuous, and artificial abortion is of common occur- 
rence. One mother prided herself on five abortions. Among the 
Kaffirs of Middle Asia a woman who resorts to abortion is not 
liable to punishment, neither is the practitioner who performs the 
operation. Yet the killing of a child after birth is punishable as 

In Conchin China abortion is very common and is not regard- 
ed as a crime. ! 

The Chinese women are acquainted with abortifacients and 
make use of them. In Japan abortion is very frequent among un- 
married females. When a foreigner takes a concubine he tells her 
that children are not desired. How she fulfills his wish, is her 
own business. ^ 

That in Persia married women are guilty of intentional mis- 
camage is denied by Polak and affirmed by Chardin. According 
to a Persian custom, during pregnancy men have no intercourse 
with their wives, therefore the latter try abortion if they suspect 
iiiat their husbands have sexual relations with other women. 

In the Orient abortion is easy and not punishable. For this 
reason there are no illegitimate children. In Constantinople, 
among the higher classes it frequently happens that a married 
woman kills the unborn fruit of her womb if she has already two 
living children and among them a boy. There, chiefly midwives 
practice this profession. These women are entirely uneducated, 
but they are consulted in cases of female and infantile diseases, 
give prescriptions against sterility and cause many diseases of 
the womb. But their chief profession is abortif action. The Turks 
do not regard abortion as wicked. It is practiced in the mansion 


as weU as in the hovel, and the government does not interfere. 
This may be the caus9 of the irapid decrease of the Turkish popu- 

Oppenheim says: "In Turkey abortion is frequent and cJ- 
lowed until the fifth month, for the Mohammedans believe that 
until then no life is in the fetus. In public and without being 
ashamed, married people ask for abortifactionsi: the wife — ^with the 
consent of her husband — because she is afraid a pregnancy might 
spoil her beauty ; the husband> because he is unwilling to care for 
too many children, or because he had intercourse with a slave girl." 

In February 1877, a Turkish newspaper reported that 96% 
of the children and more than 2/3 of the mothers were victims of 

In the Canary Islands the fecundity of the women is great 
and even prostitutes bear children if they do not use abortifa- 
cients. The latter can be procured without difficulty as in the 
country the necessary plants and herbs are only too well known; 
and, in the cities there is no scarcity of old women who follow un- 
punished this profession, besides pandering. In Massaua, at the 
Arabic gulf, abortion is very frequent as the fathers axe obliged 
to hang their unmarried daughters who become pregnant. 

Among the Wadshaggas of Eastern Africa abortion is very 
frequent; Gutmann says it is regarded as a great infamy if a 
woman becomes pregnant while she suckles a two year old child. 
The key for an explanaticm of this statement we may find in 
Nigmann who relates that among the Wahehes abortion was ex- 
ceedingly frequent and the killing of infants not punishable. 

The numerous abortions by which a woman was prevented 
from having more than two children were caused by the circum- 
stance that during lactation a woman was not allowed to have 
sexual intercourse; but as the Wahehes, like all colored people, 
suckle for a long period, and females asi well as males do not 
care for a long continued abstinence, the obstacle is simply put 
out of the way. 

Among the Bafiote-Negroes clandestine abortion is resorted 
to by immarried females and chiefly by such ones who for a 
longer time have sown their wild oats too freely and at a more 
mature age are afraid of a confinement ; their abortif actions con- 
sist in kneading and pressing the belly and a superabundant use 
of red pepper. 


From Wulfhorst's report we know that the Ovambo tribes of 
Grerman South West Africa are acquainted with abortif actions : 
^^A girl is not allowed to become a mother before the Efunddla 
(celebration of puberty.) If she shall become pregnant before 
then, the fruit is killed by manipulations or a concoction, whereby 
many a girl dies." 

Liibbert writes of the Hereros, Bergdermaras, Hottentots, 
and Bushmen of South West Africa : "Abortions are quite fre- 
quent and chiefly artificial ones. Love of ease may be the prin- 
cipal motive. The operation is quite simple. From the third or 
fourth month the pregnant woman is kicked in the belly by a 
friend and the belly, above the womb, is tied with a rope as tight 
as possible to impede the growth of the fetus. Saltpeter or im- 
mense quantities of common salt are taken internally. Apparently 
these remedies are harmful only in the rarest cases.'' 

From Las Casas and Petrus Martyr we know that abortion 
was practiced among the natives of America. The heavy work 
which the Spaniards imposed upon them induced the women to 
practice abortion because they did not want to bear children who 
would be exposed to the same misery. 

Among several South American tribes, the Lenguas, Guya- 
curus and others, families raise not more than two children, many 
only one; pregnancy is interrupted by ai-tificial means. But if a 
Guyacuru woman becomes pregnant after her thirtieth year, she 
raises the child. The probable reason for abortion among these 
tribes may be found in the prohibition of sexual intercourse dur- 
ing gestation and the long period of lactation. 

The Mbayas of Paraguay resort to abortion because they are 
afraid that by bearing children they would age prematurely; 
they also are averse to undergoing the handicapsi which accompany 
the raising of children. 

While some Indian tribes of North America, e. g. the Chip- 
pewas, abhor artificial miscarriage, others are near extinction 
because of the practice of abortion. 

The Dacotas use several plants as abortifacients, which often 
kill both mother £md embryo. 

Among the Crows and Assijniboines abortion is frequent and 
performed by wom^i who possess a certain skill. Often a pointed 
stick is thrust into the uterus and the ovum pierced. In other 
cases, a pole is stuck into the ground, the woman leans her womb 


against it — about two feet above the ground — ^and movea the 
womb to and fro until the foetus goes off. 

There is another method: The pregnant w(Mnan lays down 
flat with her back <m the ground; a brocul board is laid across 
her belly; two or three of her friends — one after another — stand 
on- that and jump until blood flows out of the vagina; or the 
womb is kneaded and kicked until the embryo is ejected. Crude 
as this procedure seemsi to be, it is reported that it causes the 
death of the patient in rare instances only. 

From all of which it seems improbable that the Indian wcnnen 
were not acquainted with abortion until they came in contact with 
the white race. 


It is a well-known fact that among the White Race of North 
America abortion is very much the vogue and that in all the 
larger cities of the United States there are institutions where 
women and girls may get a premature delivery. This is regarded 
as something quite natural and self -understood ; ladies may tell 
casual acquaintances that they are about to go to St. Louis or 
New Orleans to have the life killed which is stirring in their womb. 

In the large cities of Europe abortion is also spreading. In 
numerous institutions of Paris abortions are performed in quite 
a professional manner and nobody makes any bones about it. 
Midwives perform such operations for a mere pittance. Apart 
from the midwives, only a few physicians use mechanical con- 
trivances. Old women, quacks and the patients themselves usually 
restrict themselves to abortive concoctions. 

In France abortion has assumed frightful proportions. 

Galliot says: ^^From all sides we hear complaints about the 
decrease of the population and numerous laws are enacted for the 
protection of the child; it is high time that we have laws for the 
protection of the embryo." 

According to Galliot artificial miscarriage occurs chiefly dur- 
ing certain months, namely four or five months after the mcmths 
in which most of the conceptions take place, namely, the time of 
wine harvest and carnival. 

Certain cities of France enjoy the special reputation of aid- 
ing pregnant women. Therefore many pregnant English ladies 
frequently go to Paris. 


The ladies of Lyons go to Givors where a physioian^ a mid- 
wife and a grocer carry on this kind of businessu The grocer who 
operates with a pin confessed quite frankly that he followed the 
profession of causing abortions for more than ten yekrs. 

According to Valenta the women of the Serbian cities fre- 
quently use abortifactions in order to avoid the hardships of 

Among the Southern Slavs many a conscienceless husband 
who does not want children forces his pregnant wife to perform 
hard tasks so that the embryo may be killed. The vox populi 
severely condemns such procedure, which is regarded as shameful 
and infamous. According to Maschka, in Sweden abortion is 
carried on as a profession. 

In Italy artificial miscarriages are frequent. In his Com- 
pendium of Forensic Medicine Ziino writes that in Naples there 
aire certain houses where this business is carried on. One tries to 
attract prospective victims with a glass case containing alcohol 
preparations of embryos. 

In ancient Rome abortion was well known. At an earlier 
period morals were severe and marriage held sacred, but during 
the moral decay of the Empire this crime became so frequent that 
Juvenal sang: 

'^In the richly gilded bed an infant seldom is bom. 

These are the effects of Art, this is Medical Science ! 

Rejoice, oh, unfortunate husband, be proud of thy horns. 

Go, and hand her the cup, for if she should become a mother 

A Darkey thy sonny might be, 

An Ethiopian the heir of thy goods.*' 

The sorceresses and fortune tellers of ancient Rome who made 
a profession of abortion were called Sagae. They are the proto- 
types of the French Sage-femmes (midwives). 


As we saw above, the causes which lead to abortion are of 
great variety. 

Strieker says: "Powerful motives are always necessary to 
change the natural maternal affection for the unborn or bom 
child into a destructive impulse." This sentence cannot be sus- 
tained by facts. Even among highly civilized races the affection 
of the mother for the unborn child is generally not very deep. 


The girls of the Fjanconian Forest use the very characteristic 
expression : "It cannot be murder ; for it has no life.'* 

The most comm<»i cause for abortion must be found in the 
desire to avoid a dishonorable pregnancy which may have been 
brought on either by illegitimacy or by adultery. Here it is 
fear of disgrace or punishment which impels women to resort to 

The next cause is poverty. 

Further, fashion is} an important factor. Among some tribes 
it is either customary to bear no children during the first years 
of marriage, or to have no more than one or two children, there- 
fore all other fecundations are prematurely destroyed. 

The aversion of women to submit to the hardships of suckling 
and the troubles which the rearing of children involves are causes 
of abortion. 

Jealousy and female vanity play an important role. Jealousy 
causes artificial abortion if the woman fears that during her preg- 
nancy the husband mi^t seek intercourse with other women. 

Vanity makes women resort to abortion when they hope by 
the avoidance of pregnancy to preserve their youthful and girlish 
charms and to keep their breasts firm and round. 

The Massais, whose hygienic and medical ideas are quite 
sensible, resort to abortion "as often as a woman is pregnant 
from a sick, old or feeble man" (Merker). As marital unfaithful- 
ness is alien to the ethics of the Mass&is, who under certain cir- 
cumstances regard even prostitution as a duty (for hospitality's 
sake), we cannot speak of "immorality'* in our sense; on the 
contrary, among them abortion has its source in a high valuation 
of public health, which, besides, manifests itself in their killing of 
misformed children. 

Wie want to cite another cause which mi^t pass the censure 
of the most severe moralist, namely, the tender care f o(r the mother 
whose healtli and life might be endangered by a childbed. The 
fact that such tender conjsiderations can be found even among un- 
civilized races is proven by the following statement of Engelmann : 

"Among some of the Indians of the United States, chiefly 
those who from contact with civilization have looser morals, abor- 
tion is frequent. Yet certain tribes have a perfect right to 
resort to abortion on account of the danger which threatens the 
life of a mother by the birth of a half-breed. For in most cases the 


passage of a half-breed through the pelvis of an Lidian woman 
is nearly an impossibility.'' 

Considering the' prevailing superstitious conceptions, another 
cause of abortion may be excusable to a certain degree. Among 
the Hindus in the South Western part of the Pendjab the third 
conception ("Trikhal") ia regarded as very unlucky, and the 
greatest efforts are made to induce a miscarriage. 

Another motive for abortion which can be traced back to 
erroneous and superstitiou3 conceptions : ^Hhe astrologen and mid- 
mves pretend that they can foretell the tex; for this reason the 
killing of the unborn child is attempted if the midwife thinks 
that it would be a girl. This often causes the death of the moth- 

The tribal custom may demand aborticm when a girl becomes 
pregnant before the "puberty celebrations" have taken place. A 
child bom under such circumstances would be regarded as some- 
thing unnatvural and inauspicious for the whole tribe. 



Manifold are the means and various the ways by which the 
different tribes and nations of ancient and modem times have at- 
tempted to' nip the budding life in the mother's womb. 

Abortifacients are of a medicinal or a mechanical nature. 
Many of our house remedies were known as abortive medicines 
to the physicians of the past. But certain chinirgical operations 
which tiie modem practitioner employs were also used by nations 
of the most ancient times. 

Most of the abortive medicines prescribed by the doctors of 
ancient India were gathered in the vegetable KingdooL They 
were given when the belly of a pregnant woman was morbidly in- 
flated ; but even then there were phyiicians who thought that after 
a while such complainti would disappear ipontaneotuly. Special 
abortive medicines were prescribed for the different months of 
pregnancy: For the first month: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Tectcmae 
grandis semen, Ascelpias rosea and Pinus D^anddru. For the 
second month: Oxalis (asmantasa), Sesamum orientale. Piper 
longum, Rubia manjusta and Asparagus racemosus — and so forth 
until the ninth month: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Pamicum dactylum, 
Asclepias rosea and Echitis frutescens. 

Also the ancient Jews were acquainted with abortifacients, 
but their use was most severely prohibited. 



Among the Greeks of Plato's time the midwives were allowed 
to cause a miscarriage whenever it seemed advisable. 

The ancients divided abortif adents into Phth6ria and At6kia ; 
the latter prevent conception, the Phthorion destroys the fecunda- 
tion which has taken place. 

In his book *^De natura ptteri** Hippocrates advised a female 
harpist to use an abortifadent. Although he maintains that no 
Phthdrion should be given to a woman because it was the task of 
medical art to protect and preserve that which was created by 
Nature; in this case he acc(Hnplished that an embryo six days old 
went off after the woman had jumped seven times and he describes 
the embryo minutely. 

The ancient Greeks and Romans used as abortifadents 
Mentha pelugium and Saffron (Crocus Sativus). 

Soranus (andent R<»ne) maintained that it was better to 
prevent conception than to wait until one was obliged to destroy 
the life of the embryo. Soranus taught that the removal of a 
dead child from the uterus should be effected by laying into the 
orificium first thin and then thicker dried sponges or papyrus. 

Soranus as well as Aetius and others recommend the com- 
pression of the belly with bandages, clysters of astringents, 
fel tauri and absinthium; rubbings of the genitals, baths, etc., 
etc. Ovidius mentions a certain instrument, the Embryosphactes'; 
of its construction nothing is known. 

The Arabian doctors recommend manifold abortifadents 
which are all enumerated in the books of Avicenna who used a 
peculiar longnecked '^Instrumentum Triangulatae extremitatis'' to 
open the mother-mouth and then to inject certain ingredients. 

Abulkasem who lived in Spain at the beginning of the 12th 
century, strongly opposes abortion, so much practiced at that time. 
If artificial abortion was deemed necessary, a skilled midwife should 
be consulted. 

Pfaff has compiled all the abortifadents which were employed 
by the physidans of old Arabia: Calendula c^cinalis, Anagyris 
foetida, Daucus Carota, Grentiana lutea, Nux Abyssinica, Lepidium 
sativum, Cucumis Colocynthidis (kills the embryo if carried in 
the vagina), Oleiun Abrotani, and many others. 

Some of these remedies were taken internally, others were 
used as irritating pesstaria and as such introduced into the vagina. 
Artifidal miscarriage was caused also by the introduction of small 


powdered pads into the womb after the mother-mouth had been 
opened by emolli^t pessaria. 

The German physicians of the 16th century prescribed wine 
with Asafoetida, rue, myrrh; also a concoction of figs, foenu 
graecum. Into the vagina they inserted a pad of cotton impreg- 
nated with gum ammoniac, opoponax, hellebore, staphysagria, etc., 
etc. The pregnant woman had to drink the milk of another 

Not until a later period did more efficacious remedies become 
known to the physicians. According to Richard Ergot was in- 
cluded in the materia medica only in 1747. 


Among the Mbaya women of Paraguay, the pregnant woman 
takes off all her clothes and lays down on the ground; two old 
women with their fists beat her belly violently until blood flows 
out of the vagina. This is a sign that the embryo is going off. 

Rengger writes of the Payaguas of Paraguay : ^^If a woman 
has several children already, at the next pregnancy she has her 
abdomen beaten with fists to induce a preniature confinement. 
White girls of Paraguay imitate this procedure. 

Among the Quequa Indians of the high North West of Ameri- 
ca it is customary that the medicine men kneel on the abdomen 
of pregnant women and girls and so suffocate the budding life. 

The Indian women of Alaska sometimes induce a miscarriage 
in the fourth month of pregnancy by kneading and pressing the 
uterus with the hand. 

The Esquimaux women of Gireenland use a piece of wood, those 
of the Smith-Sund a whip-stick with which they beat and press 
the abdomen ; this^ is repeated several times during the day. 

'Another kind of abortif action consists in the perforation of 
the embryo-membranes by means of a thin walrus rib whidi at the 
end is sharpened and pointed like a knife. This operation is al- 
ways performed by the pregnant woman herself. 

The inhabitants of the northern part of Hudson Bay, force 
their women to use an indigenous plant which is known there to all. 

The same is reported of the Iroquois Indians. 

Among the Omaha Indians abortion is unknown. 

The Shasta Indians of Northern California use great quanti- 
ties of root of a parasitic fern which grows on pine trees. 

The natives of Kamtshatka contract marriage more for the 
sake of sexual enjoyment than that of rearing children; therefore 


they try to prev«it birth by the use of herbs as well as by 
violent manipulations. 

In Armenia artificial abortion is very frequent. They use 
decoctions of Saffron, Juniperus and Oleander, or manipulate with 
a stick of wood. 

In Siberia the girls use the root of Adcmis Vemalis and Adonis 

Among the Calmucks an undeofired pregnancy is interrupted 
in the following manner: old women rub the abdomen and place 
glowing charcoals wrapped in old shoe soles upon the region of 
the womb; the girls endure these painful manipulations with the 
greatest stoicism. 

In Japan artificial abortion is not allowed, and among the 
higher classes is regarded as an infamy; neverthelesfi it occurs 
among unmarried women, and mairied women of the lower classes, 
and is performed by very ignorant midwives. A piece of the 
root of Archyanthes aspera Thiunberg which is flexible, about as 
thick as a goose quill and one foot long, is shoved between the 
wall of the uterus and the membranes and allowed to lie from one 
to two days. Before the introduction the root is irubbed with 
musk. Musk is also given internally. It is said that this remedy 
always produces the despired result. Also pointed bamboo-sticks 
are introduced into the cervix ; this operation being often followed 
by the death of the patient. 

The women of Babar (Malayan Archipelago) drink a con- 
coction of Spanish pepper in arrack, and the man who impreg- 
nated the woman daily treads carefully on her abdomen. 

In Kroe (Sumatra) the midwives make the women drink yolk 
of egg in arrack or brandy and put warm ashes on the abdomen 
and rub the latter. 

On the Samoa Islands they use mechanical means. 

On the Caroline Islands among young women artificial abortion 
is frequent because they want to preserve their bodily charms. 
As soon as the menses cease the women drink boiled sea-water. 
Oberlander writes of the natives of the Australian colony Victoria: 
"Abortion by pressure on the womb is frequent and occurs chiefly 
after a quarrel between man and wife.** 

In the Murray Islands artificial abortion is very frequent. 
They use concoctions of certain herbs or mechanical means^ The 
abdomen is beaten with big stones, or the woman is placed with 


her back against a tree and two men seize one end of a long pole 
and press the other end against the abdomen until the foetus is 

Among the Sinangolos of British New Guinea the pregnant 
woman (three or four months after jnregnancy) lays down on her 
belly and another woman stands on her back, or the abdomen is 
punched, or hot stones are placed on it. Yet, this is done only 
before the bones of the baby are formed. 

In Grerman New-Guinea the women jump from a height or 
have the abdomen rubbed. 

The girls and women of the Papuas in the Doreh Bay have 
the abdomen kneaded. They call this "to make the belly dead." 

The women of Hawaii use an idol to cause artificial miscar- 
riages. This idol is called Kapo. It is frcnn 20 to 25 cm. long 
and about as thick as a finger; one end has a fantastic ornament, 
resembling a cock's comb while the other end is rounded. The 
head of the Kapo is introduced into the uteres to pierce the 
membranes of the embryo. 

The fitame idol is also used for curing sterility and inducing 

The Turkish women use saffron and sabina as abortifacients. 
In Alexandria (Egypt) the women irritate the womb with pieces 
of wood and besides use pepper, laurel and other means. 

The midwives of the Arabs of Algeria puncture the m«n- 
branes of pregnant women. 

In Fezzan abortion is allowed. The women use small balls of 
tobacco or cotton impregnated with the juice of Oshar (Colotropis 
procara) ; internally the soot of earthen cooking-pots and a Henna 
maceration are used. 

The Massai girls chew four pieces of the root of Cordia 
quarensis (os segi) which causes a speedy dying and ejection of 
the embryo. The third month after conception is always chosen 
as the right time for abortion. 

Pepper is the abortifacient of the Hereros. 


Artificial abortion in all the nations of Europe is regarded 
and punished as a crime, but is neverthdess widely practiced. 

The English women use juniperus sabina, the needles of the 
yew tree, sulphate of iron, chloride of iron, and cantharides. 

In Russia sublimate and sabina is taken internally. 


In Eathland: Mercurius vivus mixed with grease. 
The women of the Tatars use Menyantes trif oliata and amber 

In Sweden a quack caused a woman to introduce a pipe into 
her Tagina as deep as possible; then he blew acidum arsenicum 
into the uterus: the wcmian died. 

Greek womm introduce opium or belladonna into the vagina; 
ruta odoransy saina, or amber is taken internally. 

The French women use numerous abortifacients: Squill, sar- 
saparilla, Guaiac, Aloes, Melissa, Chamimule, Artemisia, saffron. 
Absinthe, VaniUa, jimiper, secale comutiun, preparations of 
iodine and Aloes, the etherical oil of juniperus sabma. Extern- 
ally : Baths, bleedings, intentional falling, punches against the ab- 
domen electricity, introduction of pointed objects into the uterus, 
chiefly knitting needles. 

The mortality known to the authorities, was 60 per cent. 

The Bohemian girls use Asarum Europaeum, concoctions of 
Ruta graveolens and solutions of Glauber's Salt. 

The girls of the Franconian Forest try carrying heavy bur- 
dens, dancing, jumping, driving on uneven roads, voluntary fall- 
ing, etc. Besides, many remedies are uaed intentionally, even gun- 
powder. ^^Gunpowder opens: it (the child) must come out of the 
hole," they say. According to a popular conception, the abortion 
of boys is effected more easily than that of girls. This belief is 
based on the fact that really more males than females are aborted 


Abortifacients used internally: 

Warm concoctions, aromatics, emetics, laxatives. 

Abortifacients used externally: 

First must be mentioned those which ^cause no suspicion," as 
great bodily efforts, long walks, lifting of heavy objects, wringing 
of wet cloths, intentional falling, jumping, etc. 

Then the local methods proper, the direct manipulations on 
the genitals and uterus: The abdomen is rubbed, kneaded, pinched, 
pushed, pressed or tied with bandages. Leeches are laid on the 
outer genitals. 

Irritating drugs are placed into the vagina. The uterus is 
irritated with a small stick. Clysters and injections. The fetal 


membranes are perforated. Sharp and pointed instruments are 
introduced to destroy the embryo. 

It is a notable fact that in such an important and frequently 
pressing matter the people generally have little confidence in sym- 
pathetic cures and small faith in their gods ; even the lowest classes 
and most uncivilized tribea must be credited with a relatively con- 
siderable understanding of the nature and the anatomic conditions 
of pregnancy. 


Since the dawn of history legislation has directed its atten- 
tion towards artificial abortion. 

We read in the ancient law book of the Persians, the "Vendi- 
dad" which contains the regulations of Zarathustra, as follows : 

"When a man has impregnated a girl and says to her: 
get acquainted with an old woman who may bring to thee one or 
the other dissolving matter taken from trees, the girl, the man, 
and the old woman are alike punishable. Every girl who from 
shame has. injured the fruit of her womb shall atone for it." 

Also among the Medes and according to the Brahmanic 
law-book of Manu, which regulates the life of the Hindus, abor- 
tion was prohibited and punishable. 

Among the Jews abortions were severely prohibited. The 
application of abortifacients was regarded as infanticide and 
prohibited under pain of death. 

Among the Greeks artificial abortion was not regarded asi a 
crime; Aristotle declares that in cases where a child was not de- 
sired, the embryo should be ejected. The decision as to whether 
the act was right or wrong was left to the respective individuals. 
Plato expresses similar views. He allows the midwives to produce 
abortion, and says: "The midwives may take the burden off a 
pregnant woman, or produce a miscarriage if such is desired." 

The same customs prevailed in Rome, even among the women 
of the nobility. Seneca speaks of abortion as of an affair of 
daily occurrence and says to hia mother H^via: "Thou wert 
never ashamed of thy fecundity as if it was an opprobrium of 
thy age, never hast thou hidden thy blessed womb as if it was an 
indecent burden, never hast thou killed the hopeful fruit in thy 

The fact that the civilized nations of classic antiquity looked 
with such indifference upon artificial abortion must be explained 


by the fact that according to their view the embryo was not yet 
a human being, but only a part of the maternal viscera. Among 
the Greeks €Lnd Rcnnans the contempt for an infantile life went so 
far that a newborn baby was not regarded as a human being 
who had the right to live, as long as he was not yet recognized by 
the father through the ceremony of the Sublaiio and incorporated 
into the family. 

According to these generally prevailing views abortion was 
not punishable in the eyes of the law. 

Of the ancient Grermans Tacitus T^tes that they held the 
restriction of the number of children a crime, but Grimm shows 
that it was generally customary to expose children. 

The Bajuvarian and Salic laws indicate that the Germanic 
tribes were not unacquainted with artificial abortion, which was 
generally expiated by the payment of fines. 

The Bajuvarian law of the Seventh century punished a moth- 
er guilty of artificial abortion, by selling her into slavery, while 
her acccHnplice was scourged With the whip. 


In consequence of a faulty translation and an erroneous in- 
terpretation of certain passages in the ^osaic law, St. Augustine 
declared that until the 40th day of pregnancy the embryo was 
not "animated"; its destruction was only fined, but that of an 
"animated*' fxuit was punished by death. 

In the Carolinay published in 1633, by Charles V, the dis- 
tinction between "animated*' and "inanimated*' fruits is repeated. 

In France the Frankish laws were gradually replaced by the 
Canon law. Those guilty of abortion were hanged by the neck. 

The revolution altered this Draconic legislation by condemn- 
ing the accomplice for 20 years to the galleys, while nothing was 
said of the woman on whom the operation was performed. 

In England abortion was punishable with capital punishment. 
A legislative enactment of 1803 maintains the distinction between 
animated and inanimated fetusies. 

In Austria the Josephinian code of 1787 declared that arti- 
ficial abortion was a crime and punishable with penal servitude of 
from one month to five years. 

In Prussia the statutory law of 1794 decided that attempted 
as well as successful abortion was punishable with longer or short- 
er terms of imprisonment. 


The legal enactments of the ancient Bactrians and Jews show 
that the moral conscience in this regard waa not first awakened 
by Christianity. In the old empire of the Incas a person guilty 
of artificial abortion was punished with death. 

Even among some uncivilized tribes of our time abortion is 

Kropf writes about the Xosa-Kaffirs: 

"For the intented abortion of a married woman four or five 
pieces of cattle must be paid to the chieftain, because he was 
robbed of a human life. The punishment of the woman can be 
demanded by the husband if he knew of it, or by the parents, or 
by the man whose fruit it was (if it was not the husband). Never- 
theless, this crime is general among all classes.'' 

The penal code of China prohibits abortion and threatens the 
transgressor with 100 strokes with the bamboo and 3 years' exile. 
Nevertheless in all cities, chiefly in P^in, the walls are covered 
with advertisements offering remedies for mfenstniation, which, 
of course, means abortive medicines. 

The penal code of Turkey ia so indefinite that the judges art 
never able to decide as to who is the real culprit. 

The following report is very significant of conditions in Tur- 
key. "In 1875 the mother of Sultan Abdul Asis ordered that all 
the inmates of the Imperial palace be reminded of a law which 
had apparently fallen into desuetude, namely, that an abortion 
had to be instituted as often as a female inmate of the palace 
became pregnant ; and if that operation was not successful, at the 
birth of a child the umbilical cord must not be ligated (tied). 
For the execution of this outrageous demand there exists a certain 
class of old hags known under the name "the bloody midwives." 

As this essay does not serve forensic aims we refrain from a 
discussion of the laws which to-day are valid in civilized countries. 
It must be left to the legislator to recognize the weak sides of the 
existing enactments and to effect a change. 

We must be satisfied to have shown the enormous prevalence 
of this evil, and to have pointed out the dangers which accrue 
therefrom not only for the single individual but for whole nations'. 

For many primitive tribes owe their diminution in numbers 
and final disappearance from the face of the earth, to a con- 
siderable extent, to the crime of abortion. 


Dr. B. F. R. A case similar to yours is reported by Dr. 
Thomas {N.YMJ^ voL SS, p. 626). The patient though married 
eight years, had never become pregnant. She consulted Dr. Thomas 
with regard to the cause of her sterility. Her menses were per- 
fectly normal; the only symptom of which she complained was a 
good deal of backache. On vaginal examination Dr. ThcMnas 
found it impossible to introduce his finger on account of the 
presence of an unruptured hymen. The lady affirmed that she had 
been married eight years and said that her husband had had inter- 
course with her regularly at least once or twice a week and that 
there had been nothing abnormal about it whatever. When the 
doctor explained to her the condition she laughed and said it was 
impossible, she could not still be a virgin. Her husband came to 
the doctor's office the next morning ahd also laughed when 'in- 
formed that his wife was a virgin. He was 88 years old, of good 
figure and said that his sexual vigor was perfect. Before his mar- 
riage he had been something of a man of the world and knew very 
well what it was to have relations with women. The following 
morning he brought his wife to the doctor's office. Dr. Thomas 
placed the woman in position, separated the labia and showed to her 
husband the exact state of things. He now recognized that he had 
never had intercourse with his wife in the proper way. The 
woman was etherized, the hymen was removed and a glass plug 
was introduced. Her husband afterward declared that now every- 
thing was changed greatly for the better. 


While it is obvious that inventive art rests primarily upon 
the preservative forces of society and is directed almost exclusively 
to the satisfaction of the ordinary wants of mankind — -food, cloth- 
ing, and shelter — , it is less obvious, but by no means fanciful, or 
maintained for the love of theory and system, that imaginative art 
rests primarily upon the other principcil coordinate branch of the 
social forces, viz., the reproductive forces. When we consider to 
how large a degree all ideas of beauty are associated with the 
sentiment of love, and this in turn with the sexual instinct, this at 
first perhaps somewhat startling proposition may meet with a 
qualified acceptance 



The universal preference for the nude in art is undoubtedly 
in great part due to the vague but still influential charm whidi 
notions of sex add to the product 

Sculpture, the oldest of the arts, illustrates this truth most 
forcibly, and is closely followed by painting, which was originally 

confined principally to the delineation of the human form 

Music bears a close (relation to the rcMnantic in himian nature .... 
The fundamental attachment of poetry to the sentiments derived 
from the development of the reproductive system is plainly shown 
in the almost universal connection of poetry with romance. — ^Lester 

F. Ward. 


The subject, a man of thirty-one, believed that his preference 
for feet dated back from the age of six years when he began to 
regard with extraordinary interest the feet of a servant girl in 
his father's house when she was engaged in washing the floor. 
From the age of six to the age of eleven this f oot-f etichist's mem- 
ories were somewhat confused. Thenceforward, however, in the 
matter of his fondness for feet, his memories were distinct. When 
he was twelve years old he saw in his parent's house a young girl 
standing barefooted before the kitchen fire; he seized the op- 
portunity of crouching down on the ground quite close to the 
girl's, giving as his excuse that he wanted to bask in the heat of 
the fire. While doing this he yearned to touch or to kiss the girl's 
feet. Between the ages of thirteen and sixteen he was crazy about 
the naked feet of girls and women. He took every opportunity 
of seeing the servants' feet when they were scrubbing the floors, 
and this sight sufficed to induce in him erections. This foot- 
fetichism has persisted, directed sometimes towards the feet of 
men. Since he grew up, he has from time to time had normal 
heterosexual intercourse. — ^A. Moll. 


The subject, small-boned, weight 115 pounds, born June 17, 
1870, married two years ago, had her last menses Feb 1, 1916. 
Pregnancy was uninterrupted except for threatened miscarriages 
in June and September, 1916, when she had several pains and a 
good deal of hemorrhage. Since the fourth month she had con- 
siderable albuminuria and blood pressure had constantly been 
above 150. Examination two days before confinement showed her 
in normal condition except for a funnel-shaped pelvis, with a dia- 
meter of 8 cm. The coccyx was movable and could be pushed well 


bock. Pains began at 1* p. m., November 16; labor terminated at 
9 p. m., November 17. Labor was normal, the head engaged, and 
the delivery was accomplished after the medium forceps operation. 

Db. Seeuey Andeew«, J. A. M. A.y Jan. 27, 1917. 


A neatly dressed man, well-educated, married and having 
children, presented himself with the following history. Eight days 
before, he had, for some unaccountable reason, pushed the handle 
of a small tooth brush into his urethra. On withdrawal there was 
a free hemorrhage and some pain. On the following day there 
was tenderness <m pressure over the perineum, frequent and painful 
urination with some bleeding. Discharge of pus and blood con- 
tinued up to his visit to the doctor, eight days after the injury. 
The patient never had gonorrhea. His wife was away from home 
when he made a substitute of the tooth-brush. The day after the 
first visit he most positively asserted that he had never at any 
time used the handle of the tooth brush or any other instrument. 
Questions were futile to elicit any other answer than "I don't know 
why I did it.** The doctor was sure that he was dealing with a 
sexual pervert. This conclusion was strengthened after an exam- 
ination of his penis. The organ was decidedly under size for a 
man of his proportions. YHien separating the lips the doctor was 
astonished at the dilatability of the meatus as well as of the urethra 
at this point. Under proper treatment the injury was finally 
cured. On his third visit when asked whether he had any emission 
at the time of the accident the patient cmswered in the affirmative. 
After some questioning he admitted that he had used the brush 
twice before meeting with the accident. Admitting this, aft^r 
such positive assurance at fir»t that he had never used it before, 
convinced the doctor that this patient was a sexual pervert and 
addicted to some similar practice before marriage, and during the 
absence of has wife went back to the old habit. — Texas Medical 
Practitioner. Vol. X, p. 96. 


Dr. W. A. Newman Dorland (Surg.^ Gynec,^ Obst.^ vol. XX, 
p. 492) narrates the case of an Italian girl, 21 years of age, who 
was brought to his clinic by her husbcmd who wanted to find out 
why he could not have proper relations with her. She was well 
developed in every respect save that she had no uterus. The vagina 
was infantile, just large enough to admit the tip of the index 


finger. She underwent a laparotomy, and then it was found out 
that she had on both sides rudimentary ovaries, but no uterus. 
There were fragments of ovajian tissue. She had feminine traits. 

The author saw another case of absence of organs, with a 
vagina so small as barely to admit his thumb. This woman had 
a remarkable growth of liair upon the lips, and while she had a 
feminine voice when she spoke, when she laughed it became de- 
cidedly masculine. When an operation was done on her, there was 
found no uterus and no ovarian tissue. 


The patient was a girl, aged 17, of good general appeaaranoe. 
She had never menstruated, but regularly every twenty-eight days 
she experienced some pains in the thighs and back, accompanied 
by a dull heavy sensation lasting five or six days. Her physician 
stated that some weeks ago, be examined her external genitals and 
finding no vaginal opening, he dissected well up in the direction 
of the vagina until he reached the uterine cervix. She menstruated 
slightly since this operation, but the vagina had closed. Examina- 
tion disclosed normal labia and urethra ; there was a normal amount 
of pubic hair. No vaginal opening or canal could be detected. 
Rectal examination failed to disclose any evidence of cervix or 
uterus, although the ovaries were easily palpated. A careful dissec- 
tion through the scar tissue between urethra and rectum failed to 
show any evidence of cervix, nor could uterus or cervix be palpated 
with a finger well in the opening which had been made. This opening 
was carefully dilated to admit a plug two inches in diameter, was 
tightly packed and the abdomen opened in the median line. Two 
large and apparently normal ovaries were foimd in the pelvis, like- 
wise two normal and fully developed Fallopian tubes. Careful 
search failed to reveal the presence of a uterus, the Fallopian 
tubes being joined at their uterine ends without the intervention 
of a uterine fundus. At the ends of two months the opening was 
lined with scar tissue. It admitted two fingers. — ^De. Cuthbeet 
Powell. Denver Med. Times. 1914, p. 471. 


The prostitute, under ordinary circumstances and unharassed 
by persecution, is in many respects anything but a slave. She is 
much less a slave than the ordinary married woman. She is not 
fettered in humble dependence on the will of a husband from whom 


it is the most difficult thing to escape ; she is bound to no man and 
free to make her own terms in life; while should she have a child, 
that child is absolutely^her own and she is not liable to have it torn 
from her arms by the hand of the law. Apart from arbitrary and 
accidental circumstances, due to the condition of social feding^ 
the prostitute enjoys a position of indep^idence which the married 
woman is still struggling to obtain. — ^Hayelock Eujs: ** Essays ^ 
m W'^ Time:' 

Dr, R. F. Schrenck-Notzing (Therap. Suggest, in Psych- 
opath. Seop.) saw in his practice two female masturbators who 
induced sexual orgasm without any friction and only by sensory 
impressions which had no sexual relation whatever. One practised 
onanism while hearing music or while regarding landscape paint- 
ings, and that without anything like a lascivious idea. The other 
was sensually excited at the sight of the grandeurs of nature, 
such as the sea. Both patients indulged in masturbation in the 
street, in caf^s, in the theater and in the street-cars without in any 
way attracting the notice of those about them. While with the 
first there was no knowledge of sexual intercourse, with the second 
occurred ideas of a sexual nature. When she became attracted 
by the sight of an especially strong and handsome male form, 
orgasm would occur in one minute at most. Another patient was 
able to have ideal cohabitation at a distance. For example, he 
seated himself in the theater vis-^-vis a lady attractive to him; 
then he allowed his fancy free rein and thus enjoyed the pleasures 
of love by picturing so intensely to himself all the positions of 
coitus that ejaculation resulted. 


Life becomes dearer to us as its joys pass away. The old 
ding to it more closely than the young.— -^. J. Roubsbau. 

Dr. WiUiam J. Robinson, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Sir: — ^My history may interest you: I am S4 years of 
age. Feel indifferent to all women, have no desire for inter- 
course. However, have strong erections almost each night and 


often am awakened early in the morning by same. These are at- 
tended with pleasurable feelings though they never result in emis- 
sions except »ome urethrorrhea. I no longer have any pollutions. 
I suffer with a slight pains in ^^small" of back, loss of memory, 
lack of concentration, loss of interest in people, and in life. I feel 
indifferent to everything. In other words I merely exist. 

My sex life is as follows. So far as I can remember I wa3 
bom masturbating, and I cannot recollect the time when I did not 
practice the act twice or more times daily. At 12 or 13 I learned 
of its evil effects and with a severe exertion of will-power broke 
away from the habit for a month. However, I "fell'* and thence- 
forward I practiced three and four times a week and always to the 
point of ejaculation. 

At 14 I had gone to the extent that the habit was telling on 
me and my teacher thought it was overwork. At least this was bis 
interpretation — but I knew better. So again I called into play 
my will-power and decided to break the habit. Pollution occurred 
and from what I had read I felt that I was going insane. Yet I 
broke the act of handling my genitals. And often I would awake 
just before an emission and by sheer force of will prevent it oc- 
curring. Thereafter, I learned of the comparative harmlessness 
of these and so eased my mind to find that they took care of them- 
selves and in the course of the last ten years they have been more 
or less infrequent — once in two or three months. But since then 
I have been awakened by the erections and can hardly keep my 
mind away from the sex idea. This is probably psychic masturba- 
tion. I do not have intercourse with women though when alone 
feel an almost ever constant libido — a pleasing, vague sensation, 
that I know can be only satisfied by intercourse. Yet when I am 
in the presence of women I feel shy, timid and indifferent. 

I might further add that I am homosexual and that up to the 
last four months my sex desire was directed to young boys from 
10 to 15. I have even in diildhood always had a passionate fond- 
ness for such boys, though now the inclination is gone and I am 
indifferent to them aa I am to girls, women or men. This has been 
so now only about four months. 

I often feel despondent and have felt like throwing myself in 
front of a moving car too many times. — I might add I had a 
cousin, 22, who this Spring committed suicide — cause unknown! 

I hold a good position as travelling organizer for a publish- 
ing firm — and am hampered in my work. What can be done for 
me? — J, J. J. 



[Continued from May issue.] 

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Marcuse, Dr. J. : Unterdriickung der Schutzmittel durch Gksetsge- 

bung und Rechtsprechung, Ztschr. fiir Bekampf ung der 6e- 

schlechtskrankheiten, XIII. p. I6O-I9I9 Leipzig, 1911. 
Married Life: Comfort or misery. Lcmdon, W. H. Reynolds. 
Masters, W. £. : Prevention of Conception among Natives of Kasai 

Basin, Central Africa. J. Trop. Med., April 15, 1916. 
Maternity. Letters from worthing women. Bdl, 1916. 
Matterson, Dr. D. E. : Prevention of Conception. Med. and Surg. 

Reporter, IX. p. 759, Philadelphia, 1888. 
Matthiesen, Johannes Christian: T. R. Malthus' Hauptlehren der 

politischen Okonomie. Kiel, 1908. 161 p. 
Mayet, Dr. F. : Konzeptionsbeschrankung und Staat. Med. Ref. 

XVI. 209-212. Berlin, 1908. 
Meeting on Birth Control at the New York Academy of Medicine 

on May 26. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 245. 
Meisel-Hess, Grete: The Sexual Crisis, A Critique of Our Sex 

Life. Authorized Translati(m by Eden and Cedar Paul. With 

an Introduction by Dr. William J. Robinson, New York. Critic 

and Guide Co., 1917, 850 p. 
Mendes de Leone, M. A.: Greneeskundige Beschouwingen en 

Waamemingen Betreffende de Meest Grebruekelijke Anti-con- 

ceptionelle Middelen. Nederl. Tijdschr. v. Greneesk, XXXIV. 

d. i. 5S2-547. Amsterdam, 1898. 
Mensinga, Dr.: Ein Beitrag zum Mechanismus der Konzeption. 

BerUn und Neuwied. 1891. 
Mensinga, Dr. : Das Schwangerschaftsverbot. Centralbl. f . GynSk. 

XXII. p. 140-148. Leipzig, 1898. 
Mensinga, Dr.: Meine Leblen^aufgabe. Neuwied und Leipcig, 

1907, 25 p. 
Mensinga, Dr. : Vom Sichinachtnehmen. (Congressus Interruptut, 

Zwangsverkehr). Studien aus 45 jahriger Praxis fiir Aerzte, 

besonders Frauenarzte. Neuwied und Leipzig, 1905, 68 p. 



Mill, John Stuart: The principles of political economy, with some 
of their applicaticniA to social philosophy (vol L, Chapt. XII.,) 
London, 1843. 

Mislig, Dr. M. : Am I Guilty? Critic and Guide, 1914, p. lOS. 

Molinaris, G. de: Malthus, Essai sur le principle de population. 
Paris, 1889. 

Moore, Madame: The wife's secret power. New York, Madame 
Moore, 1871, 10 p. 

More, Adelyne : Uncontrolled Breeding, or Fecundity versus Civili* 
^tion. A contribution to the study of over - population as 
the cause of war and the chief obstacle to the emancipation 
of women. Introd. by Arnold Bennett; Pref. and notes by 
Dr. William J. Robinson. New York, Critic and Guide Co., 

1917, 108 p. 

Morel- Vind^: Sur la Thtorie de la population, ou observations 

sur le syst^me profess^ par M. Malthus et ses disciples. 

Paris, 1829. 
Morgan, J. : An important secret revealed, or, how to regulate the 

number of a family. High Holbom, 7 p. 
Morton, James F., Jr.: Prevention of conception as a duty. 

Critic and Guide, 1918, p. 2S8. 
Morton, James R, Jr.: The birth-control organizations. Critic 

and Guide, 1917, p. 107. 
Mother Earth. Birth control number, April, 1916. 


Nascher, Dr. I. L. : Prevention of conception. Critic and Guide, 

1918, p. 197. 

Newsholme, Dr. Arthur: The declining birth rate, its national 

and international significance. Cassel, London. 
Niebohr, H. J. : Malthusianismus der Naturvolker. Ztschr. f . soc 

Wissensch, VI. p. 716-718. Berlin, 1908. 
Nitti, F. : Population and the social system. [Anti-Malthusian] 

Sonnenshein, London. 
Norwood, Dr. Paul: Birth - Control a new crime. Critic and 

Guide, 1917, p. 78. 
Noyes, John Humphrey, Male continence. Pubh'shed by the 

Oneida Community. Oneida, N. Y. 1872, 24 p. 
Ny Strom, Dr. A. : KonzeptionsverhQtung. Sex-Probleme, IV., 786, 

Nystrom, Dr. A.: tJber Praventivmittel. Neue Generation. VII. 

489-444. Berlin, 191L 


Oefele, Felix von: Anticonoeptionelle Arzneistoffe £in Beitrag 

zur Frage des Malthusianismus in Alter und Neuerzeit. Wien, 

48 p. 
Olshausen von: Antikonzeptionelle Mittel und Gresetzgebung. M. 

Kl. 1914, No. 10., p. 489-440. 
Opinions of the Press about Birth. Control meeting. Critic and 

Guide, 1915 p. 263. 
Opp^iheimer, Dr. F. : Das Bevolkerungsgesetz des T. R. M althus 

und der Neueren Nationalokonomie. Darstellung und Kritik. 

Berlin, 1901, 168 p. 
Orhand, A. : Malthus et la repopulation nouvelle. Rev. S. S. XV. 

621-5S1. Paris, 1910. 
Otto, Dr.: Kiinstliche Unfruchtbarkeit des Weibes. .Beriin und 

Leipzig, 1890. 
Owen, Robert Dale : Moral Ph3rsiology ; or, A brief plain treatise 

on the population question. N'ew York, 183 1, 64 p. 
^^Oxoniensis" : Early marriage and late parentage. The only 

solution of the social problem. London, 1906, 9S p. 

Pa86>y, Fr^d^c : La G^n^ration Consciente. Jour. d. l^oon. Ser. 6, 

V. «3, . 268-266. Paris, 1909. 
Passy, Fr6d^ric: La Question de la Population. Instit. d. France. 

Acad. d. sci. mor. et polit. Stances et Travaux, N. S. v. 71, 

p. 698-609. Paris, 1909. 
Paul, Dr. H. : Die Neue Familie: Ein Beitrag zum Bevolkerungs- 

problem. Stuttgart, 1916, 29 p. 
Petersen, Dr.: Okklusivpessar "Graziella.** Med. Klin. VIII. p. 

641. Berlin, 1912. 
Peterson, Dr.: Ein Neues Okklusivpessar. Deutsche Med. Wo- 

chenschr. XXXVII., p. 1946. Berlin, 1911. 
Peyer, Dr. Alexander: Der unvollstandige Beischlaf (Congressus 

Interruptus^ Onanismus Conjugalis) und seine Folgen beim 

mannlichen Geschlecht. Stuttgart, 1890, 64 p. 
Pierce, Dr. I.: The Prevention of Conception. Med. and Surg. 

Reporter, IX. p. 614-616, Philadelphia, 1888. 
Pigg, Dr. W. B. : The Effects of Incomplete Coition. Tri-SUte 

M. J. and Pract., V. 418-421, St. Louis, 1898. 
Pirkner, Dr. E. H. F. : Was Frauen Wissen Sollen. Etwas iiber 

die Unzuverlassigkeit der gebrauchlichen antikonzepticmellen 


Mittel. Ztschr. fiur Sexualwissenschaft, I. p. 441-450. Bonn, 

Place, Francis : Illustrations and Proofs of the principles of popu- 
lation, including an examination of the proposed remedies of 
Mr. Malthus, and a reply to the objections of Mr. Godwin and 
others. a8o p. London. Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, 
Orme and Brown. x8aa. 

Ploetz A. : Neomalthusianismus und Rassa^ihygiene. Ardi. f . Rassen 
und Gesellsch. Biol. Leipdg und Berlin, 1918-14, X. 166-17S. 

Pom e r oy , H. S.: Is man too prolific? The so-called Malthusian 
idea. With letter from W. E. Gladstone. New York, 1891, 

64 p. 
Pope, Dr. Thomas A. : Prevention of Conception. Critic and 

Guide, Sept. 1906, p. 88. 
Pothoff, H.: Geburtsregelung und Grescfalechtsmoial. Sex.-Prob- 

kme, 1914, X., 888-898, 1914. 
The Prevention of Conception (Discussion). Cincinnati Med. 

News, XIV., p. 786-789. Cine, 1890. 
PuTcell-Guild, June: Another Side of Race Suidde. Critic and 

Guide, 1914, p. 187. 
Purcdl-Guild, June: Is Motherhood Sacred? Critic and Guide, 

1914, p. 188. 
Purcell-Guild, Jime: Motherhood and the Ballot. Critic and 

Guide, 1914, p. S67. 


Race Suicide in the country. Critic and Guide, 1911, p. 10. 
Read Samuel: Greneral statement of an argument on the subject of 

population, in answer to Mr. Malthus's theory. Edinburgh, 

Referendum de la Chronique Medical sur la Prophylaxie Anti- 

Conceptionelle. Chr. Med. XI. 97-138. Paris, 1905. 
Reinwald, Etta: Das Recht der Enterbten. Ein Wort fiir den 

Neomalthusianismus. Leipzig, 1897. 
Reynolds, Dr. J. P. : The President's Annual Address (The Limit- 
ing of Childbearing among the Married). Tr. Am. Gynec 

Soc. XV. p. «-«4. Philadelphia, 1890. 
Ribbing, Seved: Die sexuelle Hygiene und ihre ethischen Konse- 

quenzen. Leipzig, 1890. 
Richter, Dr. R. : Ein Mittel zur Verhutung der Konzeption. 

Deutche Med. Wochenschrift, XXXV. 1686-1627, 1909. 


Robertson, John M. : Orer-Population. A Lecture delivered for 
the Sunday Lecture Society, London, Oct. S7th, 1889, under 
the title: ^^The Law of Population: Its Meaning and Menace." 
London, 1900, 19 p. 

Robinscm, Victoir: Pioneers of Birth Control, with eight illustra- 
tions. Med. Review of Reviews. Sept. 1916. New York, 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Birth-Control, or The limitatioa of 
offspring by the prevention of conception. Tlie enormous 
benefits of the practice to the individual, society and the race 
pointed out and all objections answered. Critic and Guide 
Co., New York, 248 p. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : Eugenics, Marriage and Birth Control 
[Practical Eugenics]. Critic and Guide Co. New York, 
1917, 208 p. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : The limitation of offspring. The most 
important immediate step for the betterment of the human 
race, from an economic and eugenic standpoint. Chicago, 

1911, 50 p. 

Robinson, Dr. WiUiam J.: Never-told tales. New York. The 
Critic and Guide Co., 191 p. [One chapter deals with birth- 
control.] First edition, 1908. 

Robinson^ Dr. William J.: Practical eugenics. Four means of 
improving the human race. New York, Critic and Guide Co., 

1912, 9S p. [One chapter deals with birth-control] 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Sexual problems of today. Critic and 

Guide Co. New York, 1911, 340 p. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Abortion vs. contraception. Critic and 

Guide, 1915, p. 407. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: The abortion evil and its tragedies. 

Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 70. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Abortion where there is no cause for it. 

Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 88. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Another interesting fact about un- 
checked fecundity. Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 66. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Another He about the birth control 

clinic. Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 84. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Babies choked and drowned. Critic 

and Guide, 1916, p. 442. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Birth-Control f rcwa the Bench. Critic 

and Guide, 1916, p. 401. 


Robinscm, Dr. William J. : Birth Coiktrol and The County Me<fical 
Society. Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 10. 

RobinM>n, Dr. William J.: The Birth Control Farce at the 
County Medical Society's meeting: The Intelligence Display- 
ed. Morality and Smuttinesa. Lincoln and Has Log Cabin. 
Birth-Control Noi a Medical Problem. Birth-Control Untime- 
ly. Physicians Ever Performing Alxniions? Oh, no, no, 
Never. No Straw Issues Even in the Cause of Birth ControL 
The absence of Dr. Jacobi. The Blunder of the So-called 
Committee of 1,000. The Nobel Prize for Asininity. Making 
Converts to Birth-ControL Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 41-50. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Birth Control and the Medical Pro- 
fession. Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 11. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : Birth-Control and Murder. Critic and 
Guide, 1917, p. 51. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Birth Control or the Regulation of 
Offspring by the Prevention of Conception. Reprinted from 
Western Medical Times, 8 p. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : Birth control league. Critic and Guide, 

1915, p. 167. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Birth control meeting. Critic and 
Guide, 1915, p. 201. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Birth-control and Ministers of the 
Gospel. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 168. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Birth-control mov^nent almost victor- 
ious. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 167. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : Birth-control movement — another sign. 
Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 400. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : Birth-control Review. Critic and Guide, 

1916, p. 444. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Birth-control: Signs of the times. 

Critic and Guide, 1916, p. SI 9. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: BirthrccHxtrol and the social hygiene 

association. Critic and Gruide, 1917, p. 54. 
Robinscm, Dr. William J.: Brutality of the law in pregnancy 

from rape. Critic and Guide. Sept. 1904, p. 60. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Comstockian outrage. Critic and 

Guide, 1915, p. 242. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Contraception and abortion. Critic and 

Guide, 1909, p. 4S0. 

[To be concluded in the July issue.] 



The Akbbican Journai^ of Ukologt and Sexology is not 
published for prc^t. It barely pays its expenses. And the editor's 
work on it is of course a labor of lore. It is a journal with a 
mission. Its mission i» to disseminate scientific knowledge on all 
phases of human sexuality and to promulgate sane and humane 
Tiews on sexual ethics, on the relations between men and women, 
and between the individual and society. 

It is, as is wdl known, the only journal of its kind in the 
English language. Nb other publication has even attempted to 
do the work covered by this journal. The cultivation of scientific 
sexology has been extremely meager in this country and we are 
still obliged to go for our most valuable material to our mother 
continent — ^Europe. Unfortunately the war has made the contribu- 
tions from most European countries inaccessible to us, and we are 
obliged to translate and abstract trom books and publications pub- 
lished before or during the firsit years of the war. We are trying to " 
cull the most valuable gems from European sexologic literature, and 
we shall continue to do so as long as the war lasts. But besides 
translating and abstracting frmn comparatively recent literature, 
we shall also give abstracts or complete reprints from the literature 
of more ancient date. For some of the material f oimd in the older 
books is remarkable for the richness and originality of ideas and 
the boldness of expression. 

We believe this feature will still further increase the value of 
the journal in the eyes of our readers, who have been extremely 
generous in their praise and appreciation of our efi^orts. At any 
rate we shall do our utmost to make The American Journal of 
Uroix)gy and Sexoix)gy not only scientifically valuable, but hu- 
manly interesting. Knowledge that has a direct human application 
need never, must never, be dull. The editor considers dullness a 
crime, and as far as lies in his power, the charge of the crime of 
dullness shall never be made against The American Journai« of 
Uroix>gy and Sexology. 





He was a very nice old gentleman. His hair was white as 
snow. That he hailed from the country, one coold see at a glance. 
He was seveniy-six years old, but very well preserved, indeed. He 
took good care of himself, never dmnk, and hasn't smoked for 
almost half a century. He lived a quiet life, and went to bed at 
nine or ten o'clock, almost every night. ^*0f course, you know 
what I came to see you about." No, I did not know exactly, though 
I could make s<Hne guess. Well, for the last three or four years 
he has not been what he should be. Of course he is pretty old, 
some might say, he feels so strong, has taken such good care of 
himself, that he thinks it an injustice his sexual power should be 
failing him. He does get an erection every morning, almost every 
morning, but at any attempt, ^^it goes right down." To tell the 
truth, as far as he himself is omcemed, he wouldn't mind it. But 
his wife. As fine a woman as ever lived. Of course, she tries to be 
nice about it; she never reproaches him, she makes believe she 
doesn't mind, but he knows, she does mind, and suffers quite a bit 
on account of it. She suggested, if he would not see a doctor 
about it. She said she meant it only as a joke, but old as he is he 
knows that many a joke is meant in earnest. He is sure that for 
the last year or two she has been missing it a good deal. And he 
thinks her health is not as good as it might be, on account of it. 
^How old is your wife?", I asked quite innocently, thinking that 
she might be between forty-five and fifty-five, a critical period in 
many a woman's life. "She is just about my age — four or five 
months younger. Let me see, yes, she will be 76 August the 

And our foolish people believe that when a woman has 
reached the age of 46, or when she has passed the menopause, she 
is sexually passie. Oh, foolish people. 

In a very large proportion of men and women the libido 
sexualis persists to the last days of their lives. The longer I 
practise, the more examples I see of the remarkable persistence of 
the libido — ^this most mysterious of all our instincts. 

VoL XHL JULY. 1917 No. 7 


The American 

Journal of Urology 
and Sexology 

with which has been consolidated 

The American Pracbtioner 


Most Women Are 

Chronically Constipated 

for all of the obvious reasons, plus those due to anatomic neurologic, dietetic 
conditions — and "the procrastination habit." 

In connection with other measures, (for INTEROL is what one writer 
would ceJl a "dietetic accessory") INTEROL so facilitates passage of the 
intestinal contents that their journey is made easy, and the patient is trained 
to go to stool regularly. 

Oftentimes, INTEROL proves a valuable adjunct in the treatment of 
female neurasthenia, which so often results (or is aggravated by) intestinal 
autotoxemia. Because (1) it reduces the length of time in which the fecal 
mass (with its toxins) remains in contact with the water-absorbing mucous 
membrane of the colon; (2) it holds these toxins in suspension; (3) it changes 
the bacterial surroundings — ^the "intestinal flora." 

INTEROL is a pariieukar kind ci "mineral oil/' and is not "taken from the same 
barrels as the rest <rf them": (I) there is no discc^oration on the H9SO4 test — abso- 
lute freedom from "lit[hter ' hydrocarbons — so that there can befno renal disturbance; 
(2) no dark discoloration on the lead-oxide-sodium-hydroxide test — absolute freedom 
from sulphur compounds — so that there can be no gastro-intestinal disturbance from 
this source; (3) no action on litmus — ^absolute neutrality; (4) no odor, even when 
heated; (5) n o tas te, even when warm. The most squeamish or sensitive woman 
can "take*^ INTEROL. 

Pint bottles, draggists. INTEROL booklet on loqueet; abo litoratura on "Chronic Coostipntion of Wc 

VAN HORN and SAWTELL. 1 5 and 1 7 East 40ih Street, New York City 



Entered N. Y. Pott Office as Second Class Matter. 

r jsJi-roiSv. "^ 


er Pollenin Fall 

*rlr Hmr F«n> TbhIm Mi 

mention and treatment of 
Hnllord contains the pr 
gweed, golden-rod and c( 
1 peraona susceptible to tt 

Pollenin Ragwc 

1 extract obtained from tti 
ty of casea of hay fever 
ilogical saline solution i 

ilnsle ■rrlnsBi " D ■* itmiBUi, I 
italiu 0.0098 n^ eztcaot of Uia ] 

•r Pallula FUl" 

m and TreAtment of B 
be 0na mi Ummt SO d 

fringes B, G and D at Hvc 
accnstoroed attack or nn 
Id be continued, using Sy 
it>aiiidieali«Mie to the t 
er P<^enin Mulford as f 
mr, characterized by ris 
ams, the next dose shou) 

BD CO.. FldlaA 

tuOni aad BIola«iaal ( 

Copyrlgrht, 1917, by Dr. William J. Robinson. 


Subscriptions and all communications relating to the business or editorial 
department, exchanges, and books for review, should be addressed to THE 
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, 12 Mt. Morris Park West, New 
York City. 



The Social Evil — Who is to Blame? By a Sexual Psychologist. 

( A. E. W.) 289 

Psycho-Analysis. By Samuel A. Tannenbaum, M.D 315 

Syphilophobia. By Victor G. Vccld, M.D 321 

Two Questions of Justice Relating to Sexual Offenders. By W. 

Ray Jones, A.B., M.D 325 


Deafness and Parenthood. Dr. E. A. Fay 326 

A Case of Satyriasis. Lentz 327 

A Case of Female Masturbation. Dr. R. T. Morris 327 

R'csults of Weaker Sexuality in Women. Dr. Arnold Lorand 327 

Normal Sexual Gratification. Prof. G. M. Beard 328 

Consequences of Sexual Continence 328 


Robinson, M.D. 1917 329 

Published monthly by the Urologic Publishing Association^ 
12 Mt. Morris Park West, New York, N. Y. 



Treatment of 
Sexual Impotence 


William J. Robinson, M. D. 

Cliltf of tie Deptrtmefit of Gtnho-Urinary Dbeatet and Dematologr. Bronx HotpiUl and 
DUpcnury; Editor The Americmn Journal of Urology, Venereal and Sexual Diseases; 
Sditor of The Critic and Guide: Author of Sexnal Problems of Today, Nerer 
Told Tales, Practical Eugenics, etc; President of the American Soclatj 
of Medical Sociology, President of the Northern Me<Beal So- 
ciety, Ex-President of the Berlin Anglo-Ameriean Med- 
ical Society, Fellow of the New York Aca* 
dtmj of Medidne, ctc^ etc 

Unquettioiublj and incomparably tfie best, aimplett and moat borough 
book on the subject in the English language, 


Part I— Masturbation. Its Prevalence, Causes, Varieties, Ssm^toms* 
Results, Prophylasds and Treatment Coitus Interruptus and Its Effects. 

Part II— Varieties, Causes and Treatment of Pollutions, Spermatorrhea, 
Prostatorrhea and Urethrorrhea, 

Part Ill-^exual Impotence in the Male. Every phase of its widely vary, 
ing causes and treatment, with illuminating case reports. 

Part IV— Sexual Neurasthenia. Causes, Treatment, case reports, and its 
relation to Impotence* 

Part V— Sterility, Male and Female. Its Causes and Treatment 
Part VI— Sexual Disorders in Woman, Indudinf^ Frigidity, Va^^smus, 
Adherent Clitoris, and Injuries to the Female in Coitus. 

Part VII— Priapism. Etiology, Case Reports and Treatment 

Part Vin— Miscellaneous Topics. Including: Is Masturbation a ^ce?— 
Two Kinds of Premature Ejaculation.— The Frequency of Coitus.— ^'Use- 
lessf Sexual Excitement — ^The Relation Between Mental and Sexual Activity. 
—Big Families and Sexual VigcM:. — Sexual Perversions. 

Part IX— Prescriptions and Minor Points. 

Sixth edition revised Mid enlargod. 
Cloth bound, 422 pages. Pos^aidt $3.00. 



Dr. Robinson's Never Told Tales, $l.oa Sexual Problems of To-Day, $2.00. 


Vol. XIII. JULY, 1917. No. 7. 

Contributed to Thk American Joubnal of Ubology and SRxoLoaY. 


By A Sexual Psychologist. 
(A. E. W.) 

**It is high time to awake out of sleep.** (Rom. 18. 11.). 

The object of the following thesis is twofold, (1) to awaken 
woman to a consciousness of a fact of which she never yet appears 
to have been conscious; and, (S) to have her immediately take 
steps to remedy what she alone is capable of remedying. Let me 

What the Apostle Paul merely hinted at, that the sin of lust, 
from which death first entered into the world of humanity, was 
introduced by woman (1 Tim. 2. 4; cf. S Cor 11.8), the writer of 
Ecclesiasticus states plainly, "of the woman came the beginning 
of sin, and through her we all die" (S4.24). As to what the sin was 
to which this writer refers there is no room for doubt in face of 
the very clear explanation given us in Gen. Ill, a story which while 
told with wonderful Oriental euphemism is very plainly the narra- 
• tive of what purports to be the first sexual transgression between 
a man and a woman committed by the supposed first parents of 
the human race. Of the many crimes resulting in disastrous con- 
sequences to humanity, that of irregular or unlawful sexual inter- 
course between men and women has even been viewed as the worst. 
So much so has this been the case that Scripture, as well as pro- 
fane writings, has attributed to it the entrance of death into 
the world. But who was the one chiefly responsible for this intro- 
duction? Here again, Scripture and profane writings charge 
woman with this calamity, and what we have to settle is, whether 
this representation is a fable invented by men, invented absolute- 
ly without warrant ; or whether, as a fable, it yet pictorially dis- 
plays an undoubted fact, that woman is the chief cause for the 
origin and continuance of sexual lust. 



All anthropologists and sociologists are agreed that in the 
display of her sexual attractiveness woman is absolutely without 
modesty. It matters not how refined, how apparently otherwise 
virtuous, woman from the beginning of history has always thrown 
modesty to the winds in displaying her tiude sexual attractiveness 
to man, and to this day she continues the same practice with just 
as little consciousness of any impropriety. Now why is woman 
so signally remiss in this matter, for that she is, and always has 
been, the fashion of her dress, or undress, as it has been humorously 
and yet pathetically termed, is ample proof. It seems to me that 
there is but one answer, and that isi, that woman has not yet be- 
come cognizant of, or, as I prefer to express it, awakened to the 
fact of the actual physiological eiFect upon man of the exposure 
of her nude charms, or even of what has a greater physiological 
effect, charms dressed and ornamented to emphasize their nudity. 
That women know perfectly well that men are attracted to them 
by such exposure and em{^asis is true enough, but I do not believe 
that it is true that women are equally conscious of the physical or 
sexual effect upon men of the said exposure and emphasis as they 
are conscious that men are mentally pleased by them. I believe that 
no woman of virtuous character, a character which is that of the 
vast majority of women, would thus dressed come into the presence 
of men if for a moment she thought that by doing so she would 
sexually excite these men. Now they do sexually excite them when 
coming into their presence dressed asi I have described, espedally 
when so dressed, they allow themselves to be embraced by men, for 
that is what it practically is, when dancing. Nor is there any 
sense, or use, in women saying that men should have more control 
over themselves imdor such circumstances, since the appearance 
and action complained of was definitely meant by the Creator 
to have just such effect upon men as I have stated. It is the ex- 
treme of folly for any one to think that Nature's laws will or can 
be set aside merely to satisfy a social usage and amusement. In- 
deed, if it were possible thus to set them aside, the omtinuance of 
the race would become a graver problem than it is at preseit. 
Wiomen have a great mission to fill in the development of civiliza- 
tion, a greater mission even than that of men, for what can be as 
great for the welfare of humanity as the cure of the ^Social Evil,' 
and the cure of this evil rests more with women than with men. 
Hitherto women have chiefly confined themselves to the bettering of 
conditions which are chiefly man's affairs, while with regard to 


the cure of the evil mentioned they have done, from the woman's 
side, nothing. Nay, through their unawakened state to what they 
were, and are still, doing, they have from the time of Eve to the 
present day been offering men inducements to eat with them *the 
forbidden fruit,* with the consequence that ever was and ever 
will be under like conditions, that men have been only too willing 
to eat the fruit thus so temptingly held out by women before men 
for their inspection. This statement is fully explained in the fol- 
lowing thesis*, which is a medical and philosophic treatment of the 
great problem of the social evil. The author devoutly hopes that 
it will have the effect of awakening women to see that of which up 
to the present time they seem to have been entirely unconscious; 
and then to immediately set about securing a remedy. 

In the body of the thesis we have alluded to the fact which 
is well known to all thoughtful women, a fact, however, to which, 
unfortunately, they give little consideration, that a woman dressed 
or undressed is at all times the natural sexual attraction to a man. 
But if this is so, does it not logicaUy follow that the more a woman 
adorns herself to emphasise this attraction the more she will sex- 
ually attract men to her. We have discussed this point fully in our 
note on "Woman and Dress,** so that we need not here say more 
on this matter. 

In the body of the thesis we have further discussed the reason 
why a woman longs for the company of a man more than for the 
company of a woman, for that she does is the testimony of Scrip- 
ture as well as common experience (Gen. S.16). We have not, 
however, by any means given all the reasons for this longing on 
the part of the normal woman, for it is only absent in women who 
are not normal, and they are few. To give, however, all these 
reasons would require a separate treatise, which some day we may 
attempt, but cannot here say much more on this point. We 
may, however, say that a woman wants a man's company for the 
physical protection it gives her. As anatomically constructed, and 
with her usual muscular inferiority, an inferiority which will ever 
so remain, she is at all times the possible prey of evilly disposed 
men. This is why women chiefly admire strength in a man, for it 
puts him on the level with other men in a way a woman can never 
be, and affords her a protection she can secure only when in com- 
pany with her father, brother, lover, or husband. 

Again, women greatly desire men because to be wooed by a 
man is a confession on his part that to him at least the woman of 


his choice has greater attraction than any other woman, which is 
an appeal to a woman*s vanity far greater than it could possibly 
be in the case of a man. To a man a young and well developed 
woman is the most beautiful, that is, sexually beautiful, creature 
that Grod has made, and to be this to a man is a matter of great 
consideration to a woman, a consideration fulfilled when she can 
cause a man to woo her. 

We cannot stop to say more here on this matter, but enough 
has now been said here and in the thesis with its notes to amply 
prove our main contention, that a woman is chiefly influenced in 
her love for a man by secondary and not primary reasons. It is 
this fact, as we have maintained, that puts the solving of the 
*Social Evil' problem in her hands. 


WITH an inconsistency less strange than it appears, so- 
ciety begins by viewing a man as more to blame than 
woman in a sexual seduction, while it ends by visit- 
ing upon her the greater punishment for the trans- 
gression. It is the object of this thesis to give the true explanation 
of this apparently strange conduct. 

Of all the many forms of sin man has committed, and still 
continues to commit, the Bible holds sexual inconstancy, or the 
wrong use of the sexual appetite, to be the greatest, and so much so, 
that it views this human transgression as the original cause of 
all the evil that is in the World. Thus it is that in the third 
chapter of the Book of Genesis the happy and innocent state in 
which the Bible conceives man to have been originally created is 
brought to an end by a sexual transgression, for it is such an 
act that this chapter was written to emphasise (Whatham — The 
Outward Form of the Original Sin — ^Ajrpe, August 1905 ; Trum- 
bull— The Threshold Covenant, p. 238f; Crawley— The Mystic 
Rose, p. S82; Havelock Ellis — Man and Woman, p. 15). This 
has uniformly been denied by the general Commentator (Skinner — 
L. c. ICC), the last of whom is Chayne (Traditions and Beliefs 
of Ancient Israel, p. 80f), but they are wrong, and the chief 
cause of their error here is their neglect of the study of Phallicism 


or sex-worship. Be this as it may, we maintain here, as we have 
elsewhere done in company with the sociologists named, that Gren. 
Ill, is the record of what is assumed to have been the first sexual 
transgression. That the man and the woman were put together in 
the garden of Eden for the object of being the first parents of 
the human race, does not alter this conclusion, the significance of 
the story being that they would have been told in God's time when 
this should be, since in all things they are represented as under 
tutelage. But here they took matters into their own hands, pre- 
ferring to follow their own sense perception rather than the 
higher law of God's guidance. From this standpoint, therefore, 
let us examine this story. 

According to the writer of Genesis III, Adam and Eve were 
included in all that was *very good' which the Creator had made, 
consequently, he looks to an agent apart from themselves as the 
first cause of their lapse. This he finds in the serpent, who is 
represented as first seducing Eve, who in turn seduces Adam. 
There is nothing very surprising here, for down to the time of 
Christ, and later, it was commonly believed that a serpent could have 
relations with a woman, as instance the birth of the Emperor Aug- 
ustus, whose mother was reputed to have conceived by the god 
Apollo, in the form of a serpent (Frazer- Adonis, p. 69). In 
allegorising this story the Rabbis thought that the serpent "here 
represented sexual passion" (Barton-Semitic Origins, p. 93). They 
were undoubtedly correct when this story is viewed as an allegory 
merely, but while it can be allegorized it was not originally writ- 
ten as an allegory, but as a combination of myth, allegory, legend, 
and folklore, the writer drawing from all four sources in attemp- 
ting to portray in a pictorial form the great lesson he desires to 
teach. But there was no such beast as a talking-serpent, or a ser- 
pent which could have intercourse with a woman, consequently we 
must leave this creature out and deal solely with the man and the 
woman themselves. Here Adam is represented as throwing the 
blame for his fall upon the woman. — "The woman whom thou 
gavest to be with me she gave me of the tree, and I did eat" 
(ver. 12). When the woman is asked why she had seduced the man, 
she says that the serpent had beguiled her to eat with it tlie for- 
bidden fruit, intimating that it was only after this that she in 
turn had induced the man to eat of this fruit with her (ver. 13). 
Now mark her panishment. Notwithstanding the pain she suffers 
as the result of the eating of this fruit with the man, she is yet to 


be made specially desirous, that is, much more than the man, to 
eat of this fruit with him. Thy desire, says the Scripture, shall 
be to the man, that is, to attract him to her with the prospect of 
the eating of this fruit which she oiFers to him in her own person, 
and the history of ethnology and sociology shows that what Scrip- 
ture here asserts is a fact based upon human experience, since 
woman's greater desire to attract the man than the man has to 
attract the woman has had to be curtailed by drastic laws made by 
man, laws which alone are the origin of feminine modesty, in the 
power to attract the opposite sex by a display of sexual charms 
(Letoumeau — ^The Evolution of Marriage, p. 67). Feminine mod- 
esty is only a relative term, not an inherent principle. Women 
ai*e only what we call *virtuous' for want of an opportunity to 
be, not immoral, as this is the wrong term, but ^unmoral,* that is, 
without morality in their association with the opposite sex. A 
woman will stand unblushingly the gaze of men attracted to her 
by the ravishing beauty of her partly exposed nude figure made 
additionally attractive by the style of dress and ornament, while 
she would almost faint with shame if suddenly by an accident 
made to appear in her more modest nightrobe befoore the same 
men. History shows that woman has ever made both dress and 
ornament means of enhancing the natural sexual attractiveness of 
her nude form. The prophet, Hosea, admonished the daughters of 
Israel for wearing the love amulet between their exposed breasts 
(11.2 ; cf. ver. 13 ; Davies — ^Magic, Divination, and Demon ology, p. 
99), and Ezekiel intimates that this particular ornament which 
we know from other sources was frequently made to represent the 
sun-disc (Whatham — ^The Sign of the Mother Goddess. Ajrpe, 
Vol. IV, No. 8), was often made to represent minature nude men 
(XVI. 17). So late as the reign of Charles 5th. of France, 1367, 
society ladies wore indecent male figures on the tips of their shoes. 
(Sanger — History of Prostitution, p. 117). The Roman poets, 
Juvenal and jNIartial, show that women can and do outstrip men 
in sexual indecency. 

Now how are we to account for these strange and little under- 
stood facts ? The names of many famous sexual-psychologists can 
be quoted in support of the assertion that woman is more governed 
by erotic ideas than man, and that for her health and happiness 
she requires, married or unmarried, the full exercise of all her prim- 
ary sexual impulses much more so than man. On the other hand, 
the names of many equally great sexual psychologists can be 


quoted in support of the assertion that, "it is altogether a fake 
idea that a young woman has just as strong an impulse to the 
opposite sex as a young man" (Havelock Ellis — ^The Psychology of 
Sex, Vol. Ill, p. 158f). That woman exhibits a stronger desire 
for the company of the opposite sex than a man there is no 
possible question, so that with Gen. Ill, we may definitely accept 
this assertion as an axiom. We may take it, therefore, that in 
a sense Pope's words are true, and that "every woman is at heart 
a rake," that is, that she ever seeks the company of men despite 
the scandal it evokes. But how is it that she is a rake? Pope 
himself gives one answer which in this connection is seldom 
quoted, — 

Men, some to quiet, some to public strife ; 

But every lady would be queen for life. 

(Moral Essays, Epi. II, 215). 

The foregoing truly is one reason, which we shall soon exam- 
ine, but the truest is in a statement in "The Confessions of a Wife" 
appearing in a daily paper (The Louisville Herald, Friday, June 
16, 1916, p. 9), and contained in the following sentence, — ^'*Jim 
told me the other day that the reason for so many unhappy mar- 
riages was that a woman knew she loved a man when she accepted 
him and a man never knew whether he loved a woman or not until 
after the honeymoon, and usually it was not." 

Now this statement, singular as it may appear to those who 
have given this deep subject little scientific and philosophic thought, 
is true, a man when marrying a woman seldom does so because he 
loves her, but rather because he desires to mate with her, whereas 
a woman rarely marries a man for any other reason than that 
she loves him. Never were truer words written than, — 

Man's love is of man's life a thing apart, 
'Tis woman's whole existence. 

(Byron. — ^Don Juan, C I, 194). 

Are we then to view women as the actual "Angel in the 
House," which man's sentiment has described her, and, by con- 
trast, man as something lower than an angel, more of an animal? 
No! since of the two man has other qualities which have enabled 
him to approach to an even high standard of morals than woman 
has yet reached, notwithstanding that in the particular incident 
before us she is far superior to man. With these other matters, 


however, we are not here concerned, but only with the particular 
point at issue, viz, woman's greater desire for a man than man 
has for woman. 

Say Greddes and Thomson in their standard work on "The 
Evolution of Sex," — "no one can be foolish enough deliberately to 
ignore the sexual or physical basis of love in the higher and highest 
organisms** (p. 260). But this is exactly what is done by the 
ordinary member of a Vice or Social Service CommissicHi, for not 
only are the entire biological factors here usually overlooked, but 
so also are the psychological and sociological factors, all three 
sets of factors being generally altogether unknown to such member. 
Unfortunately even when known they are seldom given the atten- 
tion they call for, as in the case of the recently issued (1916) 
Report of the Louisville Vice Commission, which makes the astound- 
ing statements, (1) that "Every Woman Would Be Decent, (2) 
the fallen woman is "the creature of the lust of man and rarely 
the cause of it," and, (8) "The final and most effective correction 
of the evil of prostitution must be found in the change of man's 
relation to woman" (pp. 19,47). Eminent in his profession, well 
read and widely travelled as the physician undoubtedly is who 
penned these statements for the said Report, they all equally erron- 
eous, a fact in which we have reason to believe the said physician 
concurs upon a further consideration of the whole subject. 

All scientific men who have given careful study to this mat- 
ter concur in the view that woman docs seek man with a stronger 
impulse than man seeks woman, but there is amongst these same 
men a difference of opinion as to the cause of this impulse, a differ- 
ence which has caused both sets of these same men to erroneously 
characterise the sexual impulse in woman as distinguished from 
that in man. This impulse in woman cannot be accurately de- 
scribed as a "sexual impulse," unless in her case it is permitted 
to add the word 'psycho,' and then in the case of the man the word 
'physico,* which would thus give us in the case of the woman the 
term, 'physcho-sexual impulse,' and in the case of the man, the 
term, 'physico-sexual impulse.' The fact is that as it has been 
accurately expressed by a woman writer, a woman's senses when 
reached are reached through her soul, but a man's by a more direct 
method, which seldom reaches his soul. Which means that usually 
in her relation with the opposite sex a woman is chiefly actuated, 
first and last, through the mind, but a man in his relation with the 
opposite sex is usually actuated, first and last, through his purely 


bodily functions without the mind, otherwise the soul, playing any 
but a minor part. But these differing results have a purely biolog- 
ical cause, and, therefore, there is here no credit to the woman, or 
discredit to the man for their respective differences in the matter we 
are discussing. 

Woman is anatomically, and, therefore, functionally different 
from a man in her immediate sexual organs. When it is said 
that a woman has to exercise as much control over her sexual im- 
pulse as a man, it is a mistake, since a woman knows no such 
compelling cause to a given end as actuates a man in his desire 
for sexual contact. A woman has no such secretion which demands 
expulsion as a man possesses. She has a rudimentary organ which 
at times by prolonged excitement can experience as intense phy- 
sical pleasure as a man experiences by the discharge of his secretion, 
but this pleasure is not essentially necessary either for her health 
or happiness as it is in the case of the man. A woman can be 
both a happy and strong wife and mother without experiencing 
any particular pleasure in the marital act beyond what she ex- 
periences in her keen enjoyment here in affording the man she 
loves pleasure with her. The katabolic (explosive) act of the male, 
is viewed by women generally as peculiariy a man's function, the 
woman's being an anabolic (receiving) act, and while most women 
can be aroused to be as katabolic (explosive) in the sexual act 
as men, the fact remains that they are not, and are only so when 
practically what may be correctly termed unnatural or at least, ex- 
tra natural methods are adopted. Many sexual psychologists and 
medical men advise the adoption of these methods, but to the pres- 
ent writer any such course being, as we have said, at least, extra 
natural, which practically amounts to the same thing as unnatural, 
would seriously injure the psychic side of the woman's nature 
which has developed in this particular far beyond the nature 
possessed by the ordinary man. Not by her own exertions how- 
ever, but solely by her anabolic, or non explosive function in sex- 
ual contact. The female organ (Clitoris) where this explosion 
(orgasm) takes place is so situated that the male organ <loes not 
naturally come in contact with it, that is, when the ordinary pos- 
ture in which the act is now usually performed is adopted. The 
consequence is that the action of the male has usually to be pro- 
longed much beyond its natural limit for the female to feel any 
special degree of mere physical excitement equalling that experien- 
ced by the male. This has resulted in the woman viewing the in- 


tense physical pleasure derived frmn the act as mainly a gift of 
love which she gives to the man, the mere physical exdtonent 
within her case, its only occasionally complete ending being now 
usually a secondary sexual impulse with her. It is, however, a prime 
sexual impulse with the man, and must ever remain so, since 
this character is with him essential in order that the possibility 
of the whole act may be perpetuated. Yet the less of the animal 
that enters into the act the better for the psychic character of both 
parties engaging into it. Now in the evolution of homo sapient 
the purely animal character of coitus is usually with the male 
speedily over, while the intensity of the woman's satisfaction finds 
the keenest enjoyment in the gratification it has afforded her in 
giving to the man through her own body the most ecstatic physi- 
cal pleasure known to him. She gives him this on the understanding 
that it is only with her that he shall enjoy this pleasure, for while 
she gives it she yet demands that the man she yields herself to shall 
like her even better than it, and chiefly it because of her. She 
must first be the man's queen not only during the act she permits 
the man to take with her, but through her whole life. Her nat- 
ural vanity, her life, her very soul is at stake when she jields 
herself up to the man of her choice, and of these matters she is think- 
ing much more than of the mere act of sexual contact with her 
mate. Not so, however, the man. He is thinking first and chiefly 
of the act itself and only secondarily of the mate from whom he 
seeks it. It does not take long for the woman to learn this, but 
the shock which otherwise might occur with its knowledge is ^i- 
tirely prevented when she finds that in lieu of the intensity of 
love which she gives him he gives her an affection, a fidelity and a 
respect which he gives to no other woman. It is quite true that in 
a man's life his love is a thing apart, and so never as intense as the 
love of a woman, whereas with woman it is her whole existence. But 
in place of a love like her own it is quite possible that be may 
give her something greater than her love, a fidelity based upon a 
respect which is possible to be more enduring than her affection, for 
the respect of a good man for a woman often surpasses the love 
of a woman for a man. Be this as it may, what a woman chiefly 
seeks is not so much a man's love as a man's appreciation of her 
love. Here it is that she has more concern than in any mere physi- 
cal contact with the man of her choice, who thmks much less of lov- 
ing the woman of his choice than in being loved by her, whereby he 
may receive from her the greatest token of her love, the delight in 


the exercise of physical lore which primarily he desires more than 
the possession of her mental love. (Song of Solomon 2.17; 4.5, 

But as well as the desire to be the idol of the man she loves, 
enshrined in his heart where no other female has any place what- 
ever, a woman has for the man of her choice another feeling en- 
tirely different — ^the feeling of a mother for her babe, for of all 
her children a woman views her husband as the child of her greatest 
care. It is quite true that love is a woman's whole existence; 
while it is further just as true that this woman's love in its com- 
plete form shows itself in two equal parta — ^that of both wife and 
mother. To obtain this a woman will practically do anything. 
To accomplish this end she will surrender h<mor, respect, modesty, 
in fact, every principle known to civilization. She wants the 
man, more, much more than the man even wants her, and to get 
the man she will use every charm and art she possesses cost it what- 
ever sacrifice it may. And she wants the man not for what he can 
give to her Imt for what she can give to him, the keenest of phy- 
sical joys, the most devoted of motherly and wifely care. And all 
this is his if he will only accept her as his sole queen, mistress, 
and wife, being always kind to and gentle with her. Now she 
knows that she is beautiful, beautiful usually in body, as a man 
calls beautiful, even if not always beautiful in face. Determined 
to possess a man, a man of her own, and knowing instinctively, 
and as here confirmed by the experience of civilization, what is 
mo«t calculated to attract a man to her, she like the harlot, Ukhat, 
in the ancient Babylonian legend, **exposes her breast, reveals her 
nakedness, takes off her clothing, unabashed she entices him'' ( Jas- 
trow-Baby Ionian-Assyrian Religion p. 477). In fact, she does 
exactly what her great mother. Eve, is also represented as doing, 
for the story of Eve is only a purified form of the story of Ukhat, 
she shows him by divers ways known unto woman what beautiful 
fruit she has h\ her garden for him to eat. And thus she practi- 
cally says to him like the damsel to her lover in the *^Song of Solo- 
mon," "Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon 
my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out. Let my be- 
loved come into his garden and eat his precious fruit" (IV. 16). 
This, as the study of ethnology and sociology shows, is what woman 
from the first dawn of civilization has been doing by every trick 
known to her of form, action, and speech by which she could get 


a man to seduce her. When Havelock Ellis says, '*It is too often 
forgotten by those who write on these subjects that the man who 
seduces a woman has usually himself in the first place been ^seduced' 
by a woman'* (HI, p. 174), he says, unfortunately, what is only 
too true. There are more ways of killing a dog than hanging it, 
and a man is not seduced merely when he commits the final act in a 
sexual lapse. He i$ seduced by degrees, just as a drunkard becomes 
an inebriate by the first glasses of alcohol drunk. So a man be- 
comes gradually a sexual inebriate by the immodest display of fe- 
male sexual charms. His natural appetite for cohabitation with 
a woman becomes stimulated by the perpetual over display of these 
allurements, a display by which his respect for women genorally 
in this particular matter is lowered to the vanishing point, and he 
views her as only waiting the opportunity with the indulgence of 
society for dispensing with every shred of a modesty which be 
sees is all too thinly worn. ALready thus seduced by women is it 
astonishing that men in turn should be careless about seducing 
women. The wonder is not that there are so many women seduced 
but that there are not more. History shows that for the preven- 
tion of wholesale female seduction voluntarily sought by wom«i 
themselves men have frequently enacted the most drastic laws. It 
would be sufficient to point to the Old Testament alone as an exam- 
ple of this, yet we may add to these ancient writings a Saxon 
Chronical (Wallingford), which describes how the English daugh- 
ters and even wives were voluntarily debauched by the conquering 

Despite, however, the facts just mentioned, we repeat what we 
have said touching the cause which prompts women to so freely 
give their virtue to men. It is not as the great Commentator. 
Dillmann, says writing on Gren. III. 16, that the woman has the 
stronger passionate desire for intercourse with the man (Vol. I, p. 
162). That she has the stronger desire for his companionship, 
a desire based on ownership is true enough, but practically she 
cares nothing for his intercourse with her beyond the pleasure 
that this gives to him, and the husband and the children that it 
gives to her. But if this is so, and if all the other points as we 
have represented them are also to be accepted, then does it not fol- 
low that the answer of Adam when accused by God of a sexual 
transgression is equally applicable in the case of the vast majori- 
ty of sexual lapses by men and women to-day, — ^**The woman whom 


thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree and I did ea V ? 
There never was a case of ordinary seduction where the girl did 
not tempt the boy to, and assist him in, the accomplishing of the 
act which we call her ruin. Already seduced by her, or some other 
woman, the boy's natural katabolic function is under the circum- 
stances of the present intimacy aroused to a state where all thought 
of control is swept away into oblivion. But how is it with the 
girl? Few female seductions take place under sixteen years of 
age and most of them when the girl is much older. From six- 
teen it is a matter of more calculation with the girl than with the 
boy. She not only knows what she is doing, but she is further 
more able than the boy to refuse the accomplishment of the act he 
desires to complete. She does not wish to refuse it any more than 
he would wish were she making a direct overture to him. As for 
his doing of the immediate persuasion, as it is so commonly said, 
one might never have heard of the Venus of Persuasicm (Pausanias 
B. I. cap. S2). The eye can speak louder than the tongue in 
such matters, and it is here well to recall the words of the lover 
to his mistress in the great Song of Songs, — ^'^Thou hast ravished 
my heart. . .with one look from thine eyes" (IV. 9). When the 
soft eyes looked love there was never a lack of **eyes which spake 
again*' (Byron — Child Harold, C. III. S. 21). The man no more 
persuades than he proposes. Both acts are done by tlie woman 
herself, done with a language which needs no words, and done 
with and to the boy the girl desires to possess before he knows what 
has taken place. Of course every woman would be decent if she 
could get a man as easily by decent as by indecent behavior, but 
she can not, and, consequently, as she is determined to have a man, 
she casts modesty to the winds and offers him her sexual attrac- 
tions as unblushingly as Eve or Ukhat. With whom then must 
we lay the chief blame when disaster follows her action? Does not 
the Old Testament lay it oa Eve, and does not St. Paul endorse 
this view of the matter (I Tim. H. 18)? Here criticism has noth- 
ing to say, since this biblical conclusion is merely in this instance 
that of ethnology and sociology. True however as this conclusion 
is, we would not neglect to emphasise as strongly as language 
permits that Adam was not exempted from Eve's punishment. 
He had taken part in her transgression, and while she was the more 
to blame, he was by no means free from the guilt which she had 
been the prime mover to inaugurate. The at present *Double Stan- 
dard' by which the girl gets practically all of the punishment for 


a lapse in which the boy has just as willingly taken part, even if 
induced by the girl to do so, is a disgrace to our civilization and a 
scandal to Christianity. Much however as we desire to see a change 
in this respect, it will never come so long as the women who set the 
World's fashion in our social concerns continue to destroy with the 
one hand what they attempt to build with the other. It can not be 
too emphatically asserted that the evil of prostitution will never be 
corrected by "a change of man's relation to woman,*' but rather by 
a change of woman's relation to man. In the scheme of human civi- 
lization God has been graciously pleased to put woman on a plane 
where she can be less of an animal than man. With her the act 
and sense of physical pleasure in the universal hymn of love count 
less than they do with man. This at once puts her on a plane to 
which in our present stage of existence man can never reach. He 
must ever in mind as well as in heart in this one particular remain 
more of an animal than is the lot of woman to remain. In the 
matter of the perpetuity of the race a man is bound to be moved 
more physically than mentally otherwise there would be no possi- 
bility of such perpetuity. With a woman it is totally different^ 
since in the initial act of procreation there is no necessity for her 
to experience any physical activity whatever. What an opportuni- 
ty, consequently, is afforded for the more careful guarding of all 
that goes to the welfare of the race. Yet how up to the present 
has she used this opportunity? Chiefly for the World's deteriora- 
tion, not for its uplift. Is there an obscene book, it will be read 
more by women than by men. Is there an obscene play, it will 
be attended more by women than by men. Is there an obscene 
style of dress, it will be adopted more by women than by men. 
Would not such an indictment however tend to refute what we 
have said about the difi^erence in the sexual impulse of men and 
women and to prove that women are more amorous than men? 
No, because what they do here is chiefly done because they wish to 
arm themselves with all the knowledge possible in order that each 
woman may possess a man. But it is not by such means that men 
are won to or by women. Prostitution is kept up by such means, 
means which the very women who deplore prostitution are them- 
selves propagating. Only recently a young married business man 
said to the writer, — ^**I do not want my girl baby to grow up and 
dress as the girls are dressing to-day or to do what they are doing." 
The non-intentionally immodest woman of so-called good society 
scarcely realises that the origin of the disease contracted by so 
many of the men they marry lies largely with herself. She it is 


who by her immodest display of sexual charms sends the young men 
to the brothel and house of assignation. She it is by her willing- 
ness to place herself half-nude in the arms of men when dancing 
that sends those same men to conmiit sin with her fallen sisters or 
to attempt even to seduce herself in turn for their seduction by 
her. When will women of culture and refinem^it open their eyes 
to these facts? When they do there will be no longer any *Double 
Standard' for there will be no kmger any cause to say, 
**The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave 
me of the tree and I did eat." God grant that this time may 
come speedily. Before closing this thesis it may be well for a clear- 
er grasp of the points sought to be maintained that we shall briefly 
repeat them while adding a further comment when necessary. 

To begin with, the main contention running throughout our 
entire thesis is that just as the Old Testament, supported by the 
New, represents that Adam was sexually seduced by Eve, so the 
history of morals shows that women generally are the actual 
seducers of men. It must be thoroughly borne in mind and admit- 
ted, that the same rule holds good in both the lower and the higher 
animals, including man, since notwithstanding the prevailing kata- 
bolism of the male as distinguished from the prevailing anabolism 
of the female, it is, nevertheless, owing to the subtle coquetry of 
the female that the natural katabolism of the male becomes a 
more active and compelling force. And yet, despite this compelling 
force, owing to which the male sets forth all its powers of persua- 
sion, it is after all with both the lower and higher animals, includ- 
ing man, left to the female to make the final choice. This fact, 
for fact it is, shows indisputably that the chief responsibility in 
the case of an ordinary seduction rests with the woman and not 
with the man and thus is shown the warrant for Gen. Ill, putting 
the greater punishment upon Eve than upon Adam for their sexual 

The next principal contention of our thesis was that the 
desire for the man which the punishm^it of Eve included was not 
intended to be chiefly an amorous er erotic desire, even if such a 
character entered into the desire at all, which we doubt. It was in- 
tended to be a desire for a man which should include the perma- 
nent and exclusive possession of his companionship, in the securing 
of which the woman should always readily consent to his inter- 
course with her regardless of its pain to herself in the act of child- 
bearing. Indeed, as the original and all subsequent acts show, 
the woman holds out to the man the prospect of sexual intercourse 


with her, not primarily for any jdiysical pleasure whidi she may 
enjoy therd)y9 but that the man may cleave to her as the only 
woman of whom he desires to be possessed. 

We finaUy showed that the so-called completion of the sexual 
act by the woman was not essential either for her health, hapjn- 
nessy or childbearing, psychological and biological facts which in 
the matter of the reproductive function have had the result of pla- 
cing the woman upon a much higher psychic level than it is possi- 
ble for the man to reach. The man must always be actuated more 
physically than is necessary in the case of the woman for the 
simple reason that unless this is so in his case the act of coitus 
could not be performed. He is the one who must be physically, 
or in other words, animally actuated, but with the woman this is 
unnecessary. We are well aware that there are many psycholo- 
gists and medical men who say that the suppressed direct sexual 
impulse, or in other words, the non complete gratification of this 
impulse, with both married and unmarried women, is the direct 
cause of much ill-health and consequent unhappiness on their part. 
Now whatever here may be the case with some women we believe 
that the statement made by an eminent woman and quoted by 
Dr. T. L. Nichols in his, work on **Marriage,'* is true, and which 
is as follows : ^^Vast numbers of women of civilization have neither 
the sexual nor maternal passion. All women want love and sup- 
port. They do not want to bear children, or to be harlots for 
this love or support'* (p. 167). 

Now never were truer words written than the above and they 
bear out completely our statement that a woman finds the keen- 
est pleasure in sexual intercourse not for any physical gratifica- 
tion it has afforded her, but rather afforded the man through her. 
It is love, psychic and not physical, that the woman chiefly desires 
and not sexual intercourse, since this is to make of her a harlot 
and not the lawful queen in the male heart where she ardently 
desires to reign. There is seldom even a thought of a possible baby 
in a woman's mind when her love goes out to a man, since he is 
always her dearest and most treasured baby. This is the reason why 
a woman always loves a man before the honeymoon, a man seldom 
till after. This further is the reason why a woman often will 
gladly marry a man even on his death bed. A woman in love with 
a man is thus moved more, probably entirely, from the psychic 
side of her nature ; the man more, probably entirely, from the phy- 
sical side. Rarely do we hear of a man marrying a girl on her 
death bed; while we can scarcely imagine a man going through 
with his engagement to a woman if told that he must never have 


any physical relation with her, although we can imagine a woman 
doing this if the case was reversed. We do not, therefore, believe 
that women, married and single, aie ever made seriously ill by the 
non experience of full gratification of the physico-sexual impulse, 
but we do believe that there are many women made ill, married 
and unmarried, by the non-experience of full gratification of their 
psycho-sexual impulse. There is no greater truth than the say- 
ing, ^^It is more blessed to give than to receive,** and in the sex 
relationship woman has made this truth more her own than man 
has or can do. As we have said, woman has more concern in seek- 
ing a man to appreciate her love, her psychic love, than in seek- 
ing him for any mere physical contact. Says Prebendary Quarry, 
^^he sexual impulses of the wcHnan have in them more of the mond 
and less of the physical than in the case of a man, and the foun- 
dation of aU purity in woman seems to be that her desire is rather 
to gratify the man than herself, and herself only in that way.** 
He adds, ^^when in any instance the case is otherwise, the individual 
is of a lower and degraded type** (Genesis and Its Authorship, p. 

Now these words are true and they confirm the third main 
contention of our thesis, that a woman is little concerned in or 
with a complete physical gratification in sexual intercourse. To 
assume that it is otherwise, that she is as much concerned in a com- 
plete physical satisfaction in a sexual intercourse as a man, is to 
degrade her whole character as it has here developed, and to rob 
her of rights and privileges which are the peculiar property of 
the refined and modest woman. Such a woman considers that she 
is conferring upon the man she permits to come to her bed an 
honor and pleasure for which he is unable to find adequate expres- 
sion. It is her bed that he comes to, and her gift which he receives. 
All this, however, is changed when it is sought to make coitus 
as much a physical pleasure for the woman as for the man. It 
is no longer her bed solely, or her peculiar gift, for the term mutual 
must now be used in both cases. No mere statute can give a 
man a right either to share a woman's bed or to share conjugal 
relations with her. This is a matter of the soul as much as the 
body, and with the woman even more so than the man. The chief 
right, therefore, which a man may have in these matters is his 
solely by a due regard for and appreciation of the love the woman 
gives him when she surrenders herself to him for his physical en- 
joyment. She is his wife for the begetting of his children, a be- 
getting in which nature has made a man's physical pleasure an 


essential part. But nature has not given to the woman any audi 
essential pleasure. Indeed, it would seem that nature is gradually 
denying this pleasure to her entirely in that with the modem woman 
whenever she does experience this pleasure which is infrequent, 
she does so much more frlowly than the man. To more than com- 
pensate woman for this loss of physical pleasure, nature has given 
her psychic satisfactions of which a man knows little or nothing. 
To borrow expressions from St. Paul, woman has already even in 
this present life ceased to be a psydiical body (soma psychUcon)^ 
and has been raised a pneumatical body (soma pneumaiikon — 1 
Cor. XV. 41), for the soul, or, as St, Paul puts it, the spirit dom- 
inates a woman's body much more than a man's body is dominated 
by his spirit. There are some men who possess a greater refine- 
ment of spirit than the average woman, but the average woman 
possesses a greater rdinement of spirit than the average man. 
Where is the average man that will sacrifice himself as we see the 
average woman sacrifice herself every day? Man is a far finer 
animal than a woman, but the woman while inferior as an animal 
is, nevertheless, leading the man into a higher recdm, of thought 
than could ever be entered by a mere animal however high. We 
referred to the seduction of the man (Eabani) by the Babylonian 
harlot, Ukhat, but we did not add that he was then mating 
with the beasts of the field, so that after all his seduction was a rise. 
So with Adam, it was not until he had been seduced by Eve that it 
is said that he had become ^^as one of us," that is, one of the gods, 
"to know good and evil" (Gren. III. 22). There was then a con- 
siderable sense in which the fall was also an advance (Marcus 
Dods-Genesis, p. 21). It is this fact which harmonises the high 
character we have just given the average woman with what we 
previously said touching her greater blame or responsibility in 
an ordinary sexual seduction. Notwithstanding this fact, woman 
is, nevertheless, leading man to a higher plane than he himseli 
seeks to occupy. But if this be so, if woman thus possesses the 
qualities necessary for the raising of both herself and the man 
to an ever ascending scale of civilization, what folly for her to in- 
sist upon doing it in a manner which strews the road they both 
are travelling with the dead and diseased bodies of hundreds of 
thousands of men and women. Ascending as the road is which she 
is travelling in company with the man who would not so readily 
ascend it without her help, the bodies referred to are there chiefly 
through her action. That men are terribly to blame for so read- 


ily eating with women the fruit they oflFer by the undue emphasis 
of their sexual attractions is true enough, and that they are not 
punished to the proportion of their guilt here is also true ^ough. 
But the fact remains that women ever since the days of their mother 
Eve while helping men to an advance to higher things have equally 
to lower things caused them to fall. As we said in closing our 
thesis proper, — ^When will women of ciilture and refinement open 
their eyes to these facts? To this end this thesis has been writ- 
ten, together with its summary. Throughout our examination we 
have never ceased to hold women in the highest admiration for 
all the wonderful things that they have done for, .and the bless- 
ings they bring to men, and it is chiefly for this reason we would 
ask them to remedy the matters mentioned. 



Because women can be made to complete the act of coitus with 
an orgasm exactly as men complete it ; and because there is more 
masturbation amongst women than men, a statement actually true 
although the fact it refers to is little known to any one but the 
expert sexual-psychologist, medical or non medical, it has been 
claimed that the woman ought to complete coitus in the same way 
as the man. Such a claim, however, is to overlook the fact of 
the great diffusion of the feminine sexual impulse whereby a 
woman ^^can find sexual satisfaction in a great number of ways 
that do not include the sexual act proper, and in a great number 
of ways that apparently are not physical at all*' (HE — ^III, p. 
197). Here as we have said, a woman is totally different from a 
man, who, however, in this respect could be made exactly the 
same as a woman, but only so by eliminating entirely or very 
considerably his physical pleasure in coitus. But this could not 
be done without eliminating both the power and desire for coitus 

Again, with most women who do experience an orgasm it is 
not until this is several times repeated in the one act, or by the 
act itself being several times repeated in close succession, that the 
full intensity is reached. The securing of this intensity, however, 
would very soon seriously debilitate the man engaging in this 
repetition although seldom the woman. 

Now the two points named, (1) that most women find sexual 
gratification in ways that do not include the sexual act ; and (2) 


that it is by an impossible frequency, so far as the man is concern- 
ed, that most women experience the greatest pleasure in an orgasm, 
show unmistakably that in normal coitus women are losing the 
orgasm. When, consequently, we add the further point, made in 
the body of the thesis, that with a woman an orgasm otherwise 
the completion of the physical pleasure in the act of coitus, 
is not essential to fertilization, we are warranted in concluding 
that nature itself is not merely indifferent as to whether a wcMnan 
has an orgasm in coitus, but that she has planned otherwise, 
compensating the woman for this lack by giving to her pleasures of 
a higher character. In view, therefore, of this conclusion, we 
have no hesitation in asserting that masturbation with women 
shows a perversion and not the lack of something they ought to 
be made to experience in a natural manner. The true attitude of 
the woman in this matter should be that of the Virgin Mary who 
did not know that she had conceived by the Holy Ghost until the 
fact was announced to her. 



Despite what we have said in Note A, there are many men 
who contend that in marriage a woman cannot be supremely happy 
unless she equally with the man participates at least frequently in 
an orgasm in coitus. It is useless here to bring experimental evi- 
dence for the one contention or the other, since such proof is 
practically equally balanced. Havelock Ellis recognises this fact 
in his summary of conclusions (IH, p. SOS), but he neglects to 
offer any practical solution of the problem. This we have attemp- 
ted to do in the present thesis, but perhaps not clearly enough 
for all readers; consequently, we shall here endeavor to make the 
point so plain that it cannot be misunderstood by anyone. 

We called attention to the remark made by Profs. Greddess and 
Thomson about the foolishness of persons who forget to bear in 
mind the physical basis of love in man as well as the lower animals. 
But so far as we are aware, the Bible is the only book which has 
clearly hinted at the psychical basis of love as being the sole kind 
of love for the final evolution of tl^ human being. 

At ibis point we may remark that while we do not take the 
Bible as nn infallible revelation oa the basis that its teaching is, 
as it were, the actual Word of God, we nevertheless take it as con- 
taining m no small degree practically the same thing, since on 


man}^ points it gives us the highest of human wisdom as guided 
by that which is divine. With this understanding, therefore, let us 
turn to «ome of its teaching on the point we are discussing as 
this is compared with what science has here to say. 

Science, in discussing the evolution of marriage, starts with 
the statement that with man as with the lower animals ^^human 
love is essential rut," and it ends with the alarming prophecy that 
in the future human marriage will be consummated and dissolved 
without any legal restraint whatever, but solely on the basis of 
the continuity of affection (Letoumeau — ib, pp. 9. 857). 

Now the present evolution of society shows that this pro- 
phecy is as likely to be correct as the sci^itific fact with which it 
opens, for human love is equally with that of the lower animals 
nothing in its origin but rut. To the psychic idealism of man this 
is not a very delightful thought, but it is infinitely less delightful 
to contemplate what science tells us is to be the end of human 
marriage. Let us, therefore, turn to the Bible and see what it has 
to say on this matter. 

The Bible, as we have seen, opens with a reproof given to 
human marriage when undertaken as a matter merely of sense 
perception, or, in other words, in response merely to physical de- 
mands normal or unnaturally excited. And it ends by doing away 
with human marriage, in other words, sex relationship, consumma- 
ted on the basis of coitus. Here the words of Jesus are clear in 
his statement that those worthy of the life to come, "neither 
marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels which 
are in heaven*' (Mk. 18.26). 

Now without considering the question of the deity of Christ, 
the World's highest civilization, Jew and Gentile, recognizes that 
the moral teaching of Jesus is the most elevated man has ever 
received, and no less on the question at issue than on others. Let 
us see, therefore, what his teaching signified in the present instance, 
which has nothing whatever to do with his views on eschatology 
(the last things), which were of course merely that of his day. 

The Bible regards Angels as possessing bodily forms similar 
in all points to the ordinary hiunan body. Angels are represent- 
ed as walking, talking, eating, sleeping and marrying (Angels — 
HDB ; Genesis VI. I. 4— WC ; ICC ; CB). When, therefore, Jesus 
said that the inhabitants of the next world will not marry, he did 
not mean to say that they could not, for believing that they would 
have bodies similar to those possessed by Angels, all he meant was 
that carnal matters which had brought such havoc to humanity. 


in fact, its destruction beyond its present redemption, would have 
no place in the future life. He did not mean to say that there 
would not be either men or women in the next life, in other words, 
a difference of sex, but that the opposite sexes would henceforth 
live on a higher plane than that which they live on at present. 
It is, of course, only with this higher plane that we are here con- 
cerned, since, as we said, the eschatology of Jesus was that of his 
day, and, therefore, included the faulty view as to the continuity 
of our present bodily forms in the life to come, for here we shall 
not have the present form of body which is suitable only for this 
present life. Sexual union hereafter will, consequently, be a psydiic 
union only^ and here we have already a foretaste of the hereafter 
in the psychic unions of men and women which are more frequent in 
the marriage state than most people suppose, and much more in 
the case of women than in the case of men, as we have ahready 
intimated in the main contention of this thesis, which upon pure- 
ly biological grounds places woman upon a higher psychic level 
than man. 

From what we have now said, the truth of our statement may 
be more clearly seen, that to arrange by any method whatever 
to counteract woman's normally slower function in achieving an 
orgasm than in the case of a man so that she may usually exper- 
ience an orgasm in coitus, is to lower her from the higher posi- 
tion on the psychic plane to which she has reached over that gained 
by the man. 

We would here recall the remark by Prebendary Quarry that 
woman's greater purity than man has been founded on her effort to 
gratify the man in sexual contact more than herself, and his con- 
clusion is but too true, that when this is not so the woman is usual- 
ly of a degraded character. Never were truer words written, for 
it is well known that, as we have said in Note A, in language we 
here quote fully from Havelock Ellis, with the normal woman, 
^^a single coitus is often but a pleasant stimulus, the climax of 
satisfaction not being reached until a second or subsequent act of 
coitus" (III, p. 195). A woman once sexually aroused to seek 
the climax of coitus as a man reaches it is generally the opening up 
of a slumbering volcano which will so<m destroy the beauty of the 
surrounding landscape. The normal woman can repeat the act 
of coitus many more times than the man without any injurious 
result. A great writer on these matters says, — ^'^I have seen many 
young married couples where the husband has been reduced to a 
pitiable condition of nervous prostration and nervous discomfort 


by the zeal with which he had exercised his marital duties, while the 
wife has been benefited and was in the uninterrupted enjoyment 
of the best health.'' Most wcnnen with advantage can do with grea- 
ter frequency of the act of coitus than most men. Is this any 
reason why they are here to be gratified in this matter? If a woman 
normaUy slower than a man in achieving an orgasm is yet to be 
accommodated here on the sole ground that she can have this 
satisfaction by extra natural methods, then too the argument 
would hold good that a woman should be supplied with more than 
one husband, since she can with benefit to herself enter into more 
acts of coitus than the normal husband could healthily perform. 
But this is to suggest the system of polyandry which is not only 
still practiced (Letoumeau — ^ib, p. 78), but which, as we have 
seen, the same writer fnnn whom we quote looks to a universal 
adoption, for what is a marriage binding only when affection 
prompts the union but a practical polyandry not to call it by 
an uglier name, prostitution, which, indeed, it would be and noth- 
ing else. 

Now in view of all that we have said, we have no hesitation in 
affirming that the foundation of human morals in sexual matters 
is the fact that the normal woman is perfectly satisfied with coitus 
for the pleasure it gives her husband. It must here be definitely 
borne in mind that man is normally much quicker in reaching the 
sexual climax, and becomes physically exhausted when it is reached. 
This contact with the woman who does not reach the climax is 
usually for her more pleasant than otherwise imtil she becomes ac- 
customed to expect the climax, then it gradually becomes disappoint- 
ing, annoying, and finally injurious. When we add to the general 
pleasantness which the normal woman feels from coitus with her 
husband, her strong delight in here giving him pleasure, there is no 
greater concern necessary on the part of the husband than the gen- 
tleness and affection due from him on such an occasion. We are 
acquainted with a young wife of good family, excellent education, 
and refined manners, who consulted a physician at the request of her 
husband to learn how she too might experience the same pleasure as 
contact with her gave her husband. It was not a willing consulta- 
tion on her part, as she told the doctor, saying that she was fully 
satisfied with things as they were, but her husband appeared to 
be upset that she did not experience the same physical pleasure 
derived by him. The physician not being a sexual psychologist 
consulted the present writer who advised a method calculated to 


give the wife the pleasure the husband wished the wife to experi^ce. 
This is many years ago when the said writer agreed with Have- 
lock Ellis, and others, that a woman should be made to experience 
the same physical pleasure in ccntus as a man experiences. Time 
has brought him to see that the woman in question was normally 
in possession of the beautiful psychic character intimated by Jesus 
when he said that in the life hereafter there will be no giving 
in marriage, the people being like the Angels. He now believes 
that this is the character possessed by the normal woman in the 
matter we are discussing, and, therefore, he has made it his main 
argument running throughout the present thesis. He believes 
that the further evidence offered in this note is sufficient to sus- 
tain this argument in face of the opposition given to it from the 
perusal merely of the thesis itself. Of course he is fully aware 
that there are many women who are physically as voluptuous as 
is the normal man. Such women are much more dangerous to 
society than even the extra voluptuous man. They constitute the 
chief part of the women spoken of in Proverbs; we may, there- 
fore, thank Grod that they do not represent the normal woman 
who cares for coitus only as it pleases the man. 



We said that men were attracted to women by their ravishing 
beauty made more attractive by the style of dress and ornament, 
an increase of feminine sexual attractiveness purposely designed 
by women from the beginning of civilization to the present time. 
We have heard the remark foolishly made that men should not 
permit themselves to be sexually moved by the adornment of 
women. We say foolishly made because such adornment has been 
and still is adopted by women with the conscious understanding 
of its sexual attractiveness. It is perfectly true that practically 
few women thus advertising their sexual charms are here fully con- 
scious that they are directly stimulating the sexual passion of men 
by so doing, but they fully understand that such adornment does 
attract men, and if a little consideration was given by these women 
as to the true cause why men are so attracted by this adornment 
they would not be long at arriving at the biological explanation 
which alone answers the question. The Creator meant woman with- 
out any adornment of any kind to be a sexual attraction to man. 
The Hebrew word for female, nekebah^ signifies *the perforated. 



and has practically the same significance here (Gen. I. ST.), as the 
word rendered *meet,' in the expression, *help meet' (Gren, II. 18.), 
which means, specially in rabbinical language, answering to, coiv 
responding to, as the mouth of a bottle corresponds to its cork. It 
was so also in Babylonian and Assyrian, where the ideogram signi- 
fying VcHnan,' is the female pudendum. From all of which we 
see that, as we said, in her natural unadorned state woman is the 
complement of man, both being drawn together by practically 
irresistible sex magnetism to consiunmate this complement. We 
lay here the emphasis upcm woman as the complement of man, 
because, as we said, she seeks the man with a greater desire for 
his company than he seeks her for her company. 

From what we have now said we can see how wickedly thought- 
less are women when they purposely resort to styles of dress and 
ornament for stimulating their attractiveness in the eyes of the 
opposite sex when such dress and ornament emphasise the sexual 
complement of the woman to the man. The excess of this emphasis, 
always practised by women fnnn the dawn of civilization to the 
present time, is, as we said, the main cause of the social evil, a 
fact of which the ordinary^woman is of course altogether oblivious. 
But unfortunately they are oblivious only because of their willful 
ignorance in this matter. Take for instance what is actually meant 
by the term ^decollete' as applied to a woman's ^full dress.' This 
does not mean merely as the etymology of the word signifies, to 
leave the neck exposed, a custom extremely pretty while absolutely 
modest, and which affords a sufficient space of nude flesh for the 
perfectly allowable display of neckchain and pendant upon such a 
background. It means bare shoulders and so much of the bare 
bust that its nude formatiim is even more alluringly exposed than 
if entirely unclothed. But as unclothed it has always had a pecu- 
liar sexual attraction for men. The Greek poet, Aeschylus, b. c 
626, refers in one of his plays to the ^^beautiful deep hollow 
bosoms" of two of his female characters (Seven Against Thebes). 
Gallus, b. c. 66, says, ^^ a stiff and firm bosom sets the eyes on 
fire" (El. 6). But the Bible as well as classical literature is full 
of references to the fascination of the exposed female bust for 
men (Prov. V- 19. «0; Cant. L 18; VIL 8, 8; Eze. XVI. 7); 
while it further bitterly admonishes the daughters of Israel for 
allowing the Assyrian warriors to handle their young bosoms, a 
handling which w(»nen to-day permit men's eyes to do as effec- 
tively as the hands of the ancient Assyrians (Eze. XXIII. 3). In 
1866, Dr. W. W. Sanger, resident physician of Blackwell's Island, 


New York, published his great "History of Prostitution.*' Here 
he says that "the low necked dress and the lascivious waltz are so 
decidedly positive degenerations from our normal state that none 
but the most superficial will ever copy*' (p. 671 )• Unfortunately 
this high idea of the purity of American women then entertained 
by American men, of whom Dr. Sanger was a splendid type, was 
a false prophecy, for to-day American women are as immodest in 
these matters as their European sisters. Indeed, men, true men, 
and we only speak of such, who, we are glad to say, are far more 
numerous than is commonly supposed, are astounded at the length 
to which indecency in woman's dress has gone to-day. To the 
nudity of their body they are now adding the nudity of their 
legs, a nudity enhanced in its sexual attractiveness by the silk 
hose of woven wind and the dainty shoe. In such a dress women 
to-day place themselves in the arms of men and in dose embrace 
engaging in a style of dancing so lascivious that the Pope has at 
length issued an order that dancing of all character shall not be 
indulged in at Church entertainments given by members of the 
great body of Christians over which he rules. 

It is needless for us to say more. « Women to-day have gone 
further in the indecency of dress and amusements than ever, and 
seem inclined to go even worse. As they will not call a halt in this 
matter men must. To inaugurate such a halt and to briefly sug- 
gest its first steps is the object of this thesis. 

In the first place there is to-day a marked abandonment of 
propriety in both the language and deportment of women in the 
presence of men. Women use a freedom of speech and of terms 
which many of our mothers and most of our grandmothers would 
scarcely have indulged in, while the indifference with which they 
•cross their legs when sitting, a posture which with their short skirts 
exposes their lower limbs almost to the knee, is extremdy indelicate 
to say the least. As for the decollete gown for so-called ^full 
-dress' affairs,' which might much more appropriately be called 
^undress' affairs, and the modem bathing dress as this exposes either 
the whole outline of the nude figure, or more than the mere half of 
the lower limbs, these ought to be done away with entirely. In the 
matter of dancing here all forms of this amusement should be 
prohibited that entail the placing of the arm of a man round the 
waist of a woman. This was the unhesitating opinion given to 
the writer by the celebrated actress who took part with her husband 
in the notorious play — ^Damaged Groods. All sexual-psychologists 
l^now that dancing is a well understood sexual stimulant, and if 


this is so, while the present writer would not do away with this 
amusement entirely, be would limit it as suggested. Mr. Robins, 
the Reformer, made the public statement that ^^dancing is a ques- 
tionable amusanent for young people.*' This truth, consequently, 
calls for the safeguarding indicated. 

Women cannot afford to play fast and loose with the physical 
nature of men, a nature which the God who made both man and 
woman intended the very presence of woman to stimulate in man. 
In their association with women it is at all times necessary thai 
men, especially yoimg men, should exercise a due control over 
their physical nature which is ever ready to gratify ita natural 
appetite* It is woman's place to know this, and on her part to 
depart herself in the presence of men that she shall not unduly 
arouse an appetite always more or less present. Those who would 
foolishly say, as we have actually heard it said — ^'^Men have no 
right to be sexually aroused by the decollete dress, the round 
dance, the modem bathing dress, the short skirt," etc., seem to 
forget that man was primarily created to increase and multiply 
(Gen. I. 28), and that to this end woman unadorned and with 
all her natural beauty hidden is still the natural attraction. How 
much more so will she be this when adorned and made attractive. 
Surely there should be here no room for argument. 

Contributed to Thb Amkbican Joubnai. of Ubology and Sbxoloqy. 

Bt Samuel A. Tannekbaum, M.D., New York. 

Abditiokal Hints as to the TECHNiauE. — ^The hints as to 
the technique of psycho-analysis given in the preceding pages do 
not pretend to be final or to be sufficient guidance for the future 
analyst. A mode of procedure that works well in one case may 
prove more than worthless in another. The earnest, conscientious, 
and sympathetic analyst will never forget that he is dealing 
with that most delicate of all existing things — a diseased human 
soul, and that he must unselHshly devote his own soul to the task 
he has undertaken. Without an inexhaustible stock of patience 
and the highest sense of responsibility no analyst can ever succeed. 

It is advisable to devote the first few sessions to getting 
from the patient the story of his life. He must supply the material 
with which we are to build the edifice. He has beccMne what he is as 
a result of all that has gone before. If he wishes us to (help) 
cure him, to undo the mischief wrought by his past, to "straighten 



out the kinks in his mind," he must put us in possession of aU the 
facts, even those he may consider irrelevant. As often as the 
patient says ^Hhat's aU/' I say ^^go on ; I want more details ; you 
can not possibly have given me in an hour or two a complete 
account of all you have done, thought, felt, suffered, loved, hated, 
in all the years you have lived. Your feelings for your parents, 
your sisters, your friends, your employers, your associates, are all 
of importance. I must know all about your views on religion, on 
politics, on social problems. The books you have read, the plays 
you have seen, and what you thought of them, are all of great 
importance." Every time the patient stops speaking I say ^go on ; 
the mind never stops thinking ; all you have to do is to give utteiv 
ance to your thoughts." If the patient says, ^^I am trying to 
think, but nothing comes," I say, ^Hhat^s impossible; you must 
not try to think ; you must relax and let the thoughts come to you ; 
when you try to think you are concentrating your attention on 
one subject and we do not want that. You must let your thoughts 
come to you in the same lawless and irregular fashion in which 
they come to you at night when you are trying to fall asleep and 
can't." In this way we are certain to get a fairly complete 
account of the patient's life, to get his confidence, to convince him 
of our interest and sincerity, and to get a glimpse into his uncon- 
scious desires and motives. 

Almost invariably patients ask for literature on the subject. 
They do this so as to learn something of the technique, to find 
out what is required of them, to understand what it's all about. 
On the whole it is not advisable to grant this request. When a 
physician prescribes a cough mixture for his patient he does not 
give him a book on materia medica or therapeutics; nor should 
the psycho-analyst proceed differently. An untrained neurotic 
reading an accoimt of an analyzed case will have all his resist- 
ances stirred up and will run away from the treatment ; or he may 
discuss the subject with ignorant relatives who will deride what 
they do not understand and thus shake his ccmfidence. The pa- 
tient must learn from his own experience, not fnnn books. Mere 
reading has never convinced anyone of the truths of psycho-anal- 
ysis; it has usually stirred up criticism and antagonism. (No 
hostile critic of psycho-analysis has ever made honest practical 
application of Freud's tedmique, and no one who has honestly 
applied the technique has ever proved a hostile critic). 

The patient must be convinced 6{ the analyst's absolute hon- 
esty and trustworthiness. He must fed that his secrets are secure 


in his confeBSor's bosom. He must also be made to realize that 
the analyst is a friend to whom he may turn for guidance and 
suggestions in temporary and occasional difficulties. The skilful 
analyst will lead the patient to solve these minor problems for 
himself and will put off the solution of important problems until 
the patioit is cured. 

Relatives must be made to understand that the analyst's 
loyalty is due solely to the patient, that they must not pry into 
the patient's secrets, that the patient is not a malingerer and that 
he is entitled to all the courtesy, sympathy and kindnesses that 
are customarily bestowed on other invalids, that if they expect 
love and consideration fnnn the patient they must make- them- 
selves deserving of these* things. So, too, the patient must learn 
that the world of human beings is like a mirror that reflects only 
what is presented to it. 

Some patients, if unchecked, will consume the first fifteen or 
twenty minutes unprofitably before they get started in free as- 
sociations. It is a good rule not to extend the session beyond 
the hour. Many patients like to speak informally after the hour 
is up ; this should be discouraged for obvious reasons. 

In making his prognosis the analyst must be as cautious as 
the general practitioner or the surgeon. My advice to analysts 
is: be absolutely truthful with your patient; make no promises 
you cannot guarantee; do not be afraid of losing a patient as a 
result of having told him the truth ; if you expect the patient to 
be frank and honest with you, you must be so with him. Confid- 
ence begets confidence; but for all that the analyst must not per- 
mit himself to be analyzed by the patient. 

Although the patient is required to express his thoughts as 
they come to him, i. e. without choosing his words, the analyst 
must not shock him by being vulgar. Obscene words play a very 
important role in the neuroses; but it must be the patient who 
produces them for discussion. The analyst must hear and discuss 
these things in the same scientific manner in which he discusses 
everything else that interests the patient. The physician must not 
be shocked at the patient's obscenities, nor must he shock him. 
Either will drive his patient to flight. 

Hypnosis is of no value to a psycho-analyst. It does not 
overcome the patient's resistances ; does not elicit painful or signi- 
ficant matters ; does not do more than give temporary relief from 
some symptoms; does not enable the patient to resist or prevent 
the recurrence of symptoms or the evolution of new symptoms, 
and cannot be practiced on all patients or by all analysts. 


The physician must be financially independent of the patient 
and not be afraid of losing him. If the analyst needs the patient's 
money he will not be able to cure him ; he will unconsciously prolong 
the treatment and bind the patient to him. As soon as the 
patient hints at quitting the treatment or threatens to do so he 
must be told to quit. I have no hesitation in telling my patients, 
*^if you are not satisfied, quit; you may leave at any time; you 
may consult any physician you choose.*' The patient must beg to 
be permitted to continue the treatment. 

No sensible analyst ever plunges into the discussion of his 
patient's sexual life at the beginning of the treatment. Only 
amateurs, neurologists, and general practiticmers, do anything so 
stupid. There is no secret more cautiously guarded by neurotics 
than their sexual life ; nothing they lie about more. To ask a girl 
whether she masturbates or a woman whether she has adulterous 
desires, is as absurd as it is useless and cruel. The analyst must 
not be an inquisitor, nor a prosecuting attorney. He must only 
be patient and wait. When he has gained the patient's confidence 
he will become the repository of secrets. The analyst must never 
be shocked at what he hears. He must only try to understand. 
The patient must be brought to realize that he is not a monster, 
that he sees the world in a false light, that he underrates himself, 
that he has too high a regard for the "virtue" and abilities of 
those about him, that others are not more free from sin, that he is 
the victim of circumstances, that he has chosen the wrong method 
of attaining his ideals and solving his problems. 

In connection with sexual matters the analyst will never give 
his patient advice of an immoral nature. Our one object is to 
teach the patient to know himself, his desires and his motives, and 
when he knows these things he must determine his conduct for 
himself. Only a very ignorant physician will advise a frigid 
married woman to commit adultery, or a hysterical girl to mas- 
turbate or to marry or to take a lover, or a hypochondriac young 
man to visit a brothel. I always answer the patient's questions 
about sexual matters truthfully, but I never hint at or teach any- 
thing that does not concern him. I limit myself to finding out what 
he knows, how he acquired his knowledge, and to correcting his 

Psycho-analysis is so different from the usual methods of 
treatment that the patients find it very difiicult to comprehend 
what is required of them. It may take weeks before they learn 
to relax and associate freely. The more habituated the patient is 
to mental preoccupation the more difficult he is to handle. Cul- 


tured persons are so accustomed to concentrate upon definite topics 
that they cannot think at random. This is one reason why 
"psychologists" and neurologists never test Freud's conclusions 
practically. Many neurotics refuse to surrender themselves to 
rudderless thinking because they regard such conduct a sign of 
imbecility. They have always been taught to think before they 
speak and they find it difficult to do otherwise. But the majority 
of psychoneurotic patients are induced to silence by a strongly 
farmed resolve not to divulge everything. They begin their treat- 
ment with the thought of deceiving the analyst and getting cured 
without betraying their secrets. They are doomed to failure. 

Some analysts still resort to the Jurhg association-test to get 
over a "dead" period in the treatment, i. e., when the treatment has 
come to a halt owing to an absence of ideas. The occurrence of 
such a period is a manifestation of resistance, owing to negative 
or positive transference, and unless this is overcome further pro- 
gress is impossible. A competent analyst never takes refuge 
in the association-test. This applies also to StekeVs modified 
associaiiofirtest which consists in having the patient utter rapidly 
and without time for thought the first twenty or thirty words that 
occur to him and then letting him associate freely to these words. 
The names of objects in the room are excluded from this run- 
ning association-test. Trivialities of all sorts, e. g., the patient's 
meals, a detailed account of his daily doings, the occurrences in his 
shop, etc., are usually to be frowned upon as tricks of evasion, as 
attempts to get away from free associations. 

Even a little experience with neurotics will teach the analyst 
not to believe all they say at first, especially about their sexual 
life, their honesty and altruism, the cruelty of their relatives, and 
incompetence and worse of other physicians. In all such matters 
the tactful analyst will maintain a "benevolent neutrality" in 
favor of the patient. The analyst is sure to incur hostility if 
he even remotely seems to defend or excuse the heartlessness or 
selfishness or greed of the persons with whom the patient has been 
associated. It is a certain sign of progress towards recovery when 
the neurotic begins to take the blame for some of his troubles upon 

A successful analyst does not reveal his own political or re- 
ligious convictions or seek to make converts. Violation of this 
principle is sure to engender powerful resistances. The analyst's 
domestic affairs should not be discussed with the patient or ob- 
truded on him. As Shakespeare says, "Be thou familiar, but 
by no means vulgar." 


Dr. Freud very wisely suggests that the analyst should 
not treat the hysteric's intercurrent organic ailments. If this 
rule is not strictly adhered to the pati^it is sure to develop or 
imagine very frequent attacks of all sorts of ailments, e. g., head- 
ache, intestinal colic, muscular pains,. etc., which require other 
treatment than psycho-analysis, and this may become a great ob- 
stacle to further progress. 

Not infrequently it happens that an applicant for psycho- 
analysis asks that he be cured of some one particular symptom 
and that no attention be paid to his other symptoms. This Ib 
absolutely impossible. Every symptcMn, as we know, is overdeter- 
mined, and it may require the disentanglement of all of the pati^if s 
conflicts and complexes before he can be relieved of even a sin^e 
symptom. There is abscdutely no way of foretelling to what \he 
patient's free associations will lead. As Freud says, it is no mote 
possible to devote oneself to the cure of a single one of a group 
of symptoms than it is possible to procreate only part of a baby. 

If a patient shows no desire to get well, wastes his time in 
trivialities, does not take his treatment seriously, the analyst must 
put an end to the treatment. If the analyst finds any particular 
case too difficult for him or if he has resistances against the patient 
which he cannot overcome, he must refer such patient to another 

Such a re-education as psycho-analysis is requires a great deal 
of time. Practically nothing can be accomplished in a short time. 
Neither the analyst nor the subject must become impatient if 
the analysis proceeds slowly. A successful analysis depends upon 
the patient's willingness and ability to overcome his amnesia as 
to many traumatic incidents and fantasies in his past, to over- 
come his negative transferences, to control his positive transfer- 
ences, to be ready to take up his duties and to adapt himself to 
the realities of life, to give up his psychic infantilism — ^and these 
require time. Here as elsewhere the rule is to make haste slowly. 
Treatment that is stopped too soon will not result in permanent 

When the patient is cured he must be discharged. There 
is no question that many, perhaps all, patients with strong positive 
transferences would be willing to continue the treatment indefi- 
nitely. It is as difficult to get some patients to quit as it was at 
first to get them to begin. When is a patient cured? When his 
symptoms are gone, when he has no inversion or perversion fant- 
asies, when his transferences are normal, when he is rid of his 


conflicts, when lie takes a normal attitude to his duties and can 
take his place in the world. The patient's dreams too ¥rill show 
when he is cured. 

A successful analysis in a difficult case pays as much atten- 


new, and important scientific discoveries forced the whole medical 
profession to take notice, just the opposite began to be the fashion, 
and syphilis is now being made responsible in many cases without 
proper reason and foundation. Thus we have a syphilophobia 
amongst the practitioners themselves. 

The modem medical colleges are beginning to see that a cure 
for this scourge is necessary, and therefore syj^hilis, its symp- 
tomatology and therapy are being given greater attention. 

Amongst the patients, on the other hand, we must distinguish 
various forms of syphilophobia: 

First we have the pure and simple syphilophobia, developing 
in persons who never had syphilis and whose fears are absolutely 
groundless. In this class we see not only the ignorant but also 
the quasi-intelligent layman who hears a great deal, reads some, 
misunderstands most; we see the man who fell into the hands of 
a quack who either created the phobia or nursed it for personal 
gain; and we see the victim of an honestly made but mistaken 
diagnosis. Any kind of a pimple or blotch, the most innocent 
eruption of the skin will bring new fears, and will drive the poor 
victim from physician to physician, until he finds some one whose 
views coincide with his own ideas, and new, to say the least, use- 
less treatment is inaugurated. 

Frequently the syphilophobia changes into a phobophobia, into 
a neurasthenia; a real compulsory neurosis or regular psychosis 
may develop; some of the victims may land in the insane asylum. 

Then we have the large number of perscms who either recently 
or a long time ago really were infected with syphilis and whose 
syphilophobia is somewhat justified, but more or less exaggerated. 
Amongst them we see the person who takes the first appearance 
of the disease rather lightly and then, through improperly acquired 
information, beccHnes excessively frightened; we see further the 
person who is at once terrified by the diagnosis of syphilis. 

It would lead too far to describe the sufferings of these victims 
of the phobia; most physicians have heard more than one of such 
tales of woe with the sleepless nights, full of terror, and the 
agonizing watching of imaginary first symptoms of paralysis, 
locomotor ataxia, etc. Surely we must acknowledge that syphilo- 
phobia is not to be considered a trifle. 

Until a few years ago whenever the diagnosis of syphilis was 
made the general practitioner and the majority of so-called syphil- 
ologists invariably took a prescription blank, wrote an order for 
a ready made preparation or the formula for a certain pill, told 


the patient not to eat anything sour, and to come back at such 
and such a time. Most physicians had their favorite pill, and 
only changed the prescription when, and if the patient's digestive 
organs rebelled against the special make. After a certain time, 
sometimes at the same time, potassium iodide was given. The 
patients kept on taking their medicines until the symptoms were 
gone, and, when later on so-called parasyphilitic diseases appeared, 
the connection not being known, no one was the wiser. A few 
syphilologists advocated inunctions, the patients in the United 
States protested against them as a filthy proceeding, and until 
twenty years ago the injection method was used only very rarely. 
With the advent of the new remedies, and the new methods of the 
employment of the new and the old (mes, the treatment of syphilis 
became more fascinating and now ^everybody is doing it.' Victims 
of reckless therapeutic procedures become more and more numerous, 
some are buried and others only crippled. Though one hospital in 
our beautiful South killed them wholesale, the crippled ones and 
those laid up with frightful abscesses howled louder than the buried 
ones, and so we must not wonder that a new phobia was created: 
the syphilotherapiaphobia. To tell the plain truth this kind of 
phobia is really justified. 

One of my friends when discussing a paper I read before this 
section warned that it would surely create syphilophobia in our 
patients were we to tell them the plain truth in regard to the 
absolute necessity of a prolonged and energetic treatment, the 
truth in regard to the prospects of a permanent cure, and mainly 
in regard to proper watchfulness ever after. I cannot repeat 
often enou^ that the syphilitic patient like any other patient is 
entitled to the full truth, and that he can be fully instructed in 
every respect without frightening him into syphilophobia. Two 
typical histories will illustrate how in most cases knowledge and 
a wholesome fear of the possible consequences could prevent disaster: 

A strikingly pretty and exceedingly healthy looking widow 
presented herself for examination as she feared that her husband 
left her pregnant. A well developed abdominal adipose tissue being 
an obstacle to the positive exclusion of a short time pregnancy, and 
the Abdeorhalden test for this condition being at that time in the 
foreground of discussion, the blood was sent to a reliable serologist. 
The report was a triple positive Wassermann. The subject was 
ignorant of any syphilitic infection, related, however, conditions 
dating four years back which made it clear that at that time mild 
secondary symptoms must have been present. For the time being 


there were no symptoms of any kind detectable, with the excepticm 
of various unobtrusive and slight swellings of glands. 

I shall never forget the scene which foDowed when the patient 
was told about her ailment. The dead husband surely was lucky to 
be out of reach, and it took hours of diplomatic reasoning to make 
her abandon the firm conviction that she must join him at once by 
committing suicide. 

Subsequently she was given four intrav^ious injections, two 
of Salvarsan and two of Neosalvarsan inside of three weeks, and 
twelve weekly intramuscular injections of a 40% suspension of grey 
oil. She left then for a trip to Europe, and up<m her return five 
months later a blood test was made showing a weakly positive re- 
action. Then two intravenous injections were given one week 
apart, followed by twelve intramuscular injections of grey oiL 
Two subsequent blood tests made six months and one year after* 
wards proved negative. 

Considering the late institution of proper treatment, at least 
four years after infection, I had certain appreh^isions as to the 
real future of the case ; on the other hand I thought to be compelled 
by circumstances to be optimistic in my repeated talks to the 
patient, and while I constantly harped on the necessity of observa- 
tion and the probability that further treatment would be advisable, 
I may have given too much confidence in a cure possibly having 
been effected. 

The result was that the widow, who in the meantime fell in 
love with a fine fellow, married again 14 months after the last 
treatment, and six weeks later was informed by a New York neurol- 
ogist that she showed first symptoms of locomotor ataxia. 

Was it right to try to cure her syphilophobia? 

A business man of 41, a fine specimen of a kind and noble 
character, beloved by all who knew him, was being treated for 
syphilis, I do not know how long, by a physician of profound 
theoretic learning and pretensions, but of little practical experience. 
By accident a copy of our State Medical Journal fell into this 
patient's hands in which he read an article advocating prolonged 
and energetic treatment, also careful watching and frequent blood 
examinations. Suddenly it dawned upon him that the proper thing 
was not being done in his case; becoming alarmed he went to his 
physician and suggested a consultation with the writer of this 
article. The information this man received was that the author 
was dispensing bluff in the article in question, and that nothing 
further was necessary to do for the disease. This patient is now 


at the Agnew's Asylum in an advanced condition of progressive 
paralysis and the scientist knows perhaps now who was bluffing. 
Thus we learn that, though it would seem superfluous, it is absolute- 
ly necessary to emphasize again and again that a syphilitic must 
know all about the possibilities in his case, because only by knowing 
the risks he can avoid the dangers, and that the only safety lies in 
proper treatment. All this instruction must and can be imparted 
without causing more than a wholesome syphilophobia. 

Contributed to Thb Ambbican Journai. of Ubology and Sbxoix)Oy. 



By W. Ray Jones, A.B., M.D., Seattle, Wash. 

TWO cases were gathered in by the Seattle police and taken 
to the City Hospital for examination some time after the 
segregated district was abolished and the anti-vice 
crusade resulted in the recall of the mayor. 

Case 1. A Turk, said to have paid a fifteen-year old boy 
25c for submitting to passive sodomy. Because of the pain caused 
him the boy cried for help and the officers who respcmded to the call 
witnessed the act through a crack in the door before arresting the 
man. The boy was brought to the hospital for examination as 
to injury and confirmatory evidence of buggery. He complained 
of hemorrhoids ; but examination failed to confirm anything further 
than a red and irritated anus and rectum, with some mucoid dis- 
charge. Slides taken of the rectum and stained for spermatozoa, 
yielded no spermatozoa but much pus and many typical gonococd. 

Next day the prisoner admitted all, but did not consider it an 
offence, as intercourse with a male was perfectly legitimate in 
Mohammedan countries. He was sent to the penitentiary. The 
boy was allowed to go free. He was not even sent to the dispensary 
for treatment. 

Question: Where is the justice? A boy who manifestly had 
practiced passive sodomy before, judging from the gononiieal 
proctitis, who willingly submitted to passive pederasty for money, 
is set free to teach other boys the practice and distribute gonorrhea. 
The man who had always been taught that he could have intercourse 
with no woman other than a wife or legal concubine, goes to prison 
for a term of years for a crime which according to the custom of 
his native country was not considered a crime. 

Case 2. Girl; aged sixteen; accidentally caught in a com- 
promising position with a man. Both were sent to the station. 


There she told a weird tale of having been given something to 
drink and then in a half-dazed condition taken to a room by the man 
who had assaulted her. She declared that she had resisted him with 
all her strength, and that in his forcible attempts he had injured 
her "downstairs** terribly. A kindhearted policewoman brought 
her to the hospital, where vulval examination revealed a few con- 
dylomata, both Bartholinian glands enlarged, but no signs of recent 
injury. To strengthen the evidence of rape against the man, 
slides were taken of the various parts. That taken of the vagina, 
stained for spermatozoa, showed these in abundance, and in addi- 
tion gonococci. The Bartholinian gland, cervical and urethral 
slides, all showed gonococci. Blood taken for Wassermann returned 
triple positive. 

This time the prosecuting attorney was promptly acquainted 
with the facts, with the result that the man was given a sentence 
for contributing to delinquency, and the girl put under the care of 
the court and sent to the hospital for treatment. Then, in spite 
of all. the findings, and the fact that subsequent investigation 
revealed that her father was actually encouraging her to be a delin- 
quent, when her mother appealed to some "kindhearted'' clubwomen 
to help her to get her child forcibly held in the hospital, she suc- 
ceeded in enlisting sympathy. The result was that the girl was sent 
home, to go back to her old habits — still carrying a virulent infec- 
tion of both gonorrhea and syphilis and under no obUgation to 
take treatment — ^while the man, whose only offence was falling 
victim to her wiles, languished in jail. 

Question : How can prostitution and venereal disease be eradi- 
cated when the very people that should assist justice obstruct it by 
misplaced sympathy? 



Dr. E. A. Fay (Marriages of the Deaf in America, 1898) has 
made a study of the records gathered by the Volta Bureau. The 
total number of marriages of the deaf in the United States and 
Canada, one or both of the parents being deaf, were 4471. 14.1% 
of these matings were sterile. There were 6782 children from 
parents both of whom were totally deaf. 24.7% of the children 
of these totally deaf parents were themselves deaf. The reports 
show that deafness is hereditary. A child bom of normal parents 


is very rarely deaf, unless there is deafness in one or both families 
of the parents. Persons deaf by accident do not produce deaf 
children. Only parents who are syphilitic or have the tendency to 
deafness in their ancestry, can transmit deafness. When one parent 
is normal and one is hereditarily deaf, the children have an even 
chance of escaping deafness. 

Alexander Graham Bell writes: If marriages between the 
deaf continued for several generations, there would result a new 
variety of human beings, permanently devoid of the sense of 


A farmer, though married, suffered for three years from such 
severe sexual excitement that he was at times compelled to perform 
the sexual act from ten to fifteen times in twenty-four hours, and 
that without deriving therefrom any adequate satisfaction. His 
attacks of satyriasis became finally so violent that he lost conscious- 
ness, and raged about the house in a blind sexual paroxysm, 
demanding that his wife submit to other men in his presence, give 
herself to animals, and perform the act before others, with the idea 
of heightening his own enjoyment. She was compelled to remain 
constantly with him during these attacks to prevent his seizing upon 
some other female. These attacks were greatly accentuated by the 
use of alcohol. — Lentz, Bull. d. L Soc. d. Med. Leg. d. Belg. — 


A lady, a devout church-member, never allowing herself to 
entertain sexual thoughts concerning men, masturbated every 
morning, standing before a mirror, by rubbing her privates against 
a key in the bureau drawer. Men never excited her passions, but 
the sight of a key in a bureau drawer always aroused erotic desires 
in her. — Da. R. T. Morris. Tr. Am. Ass^n. of Obstet., 1892. 


That the sexual sense in general is less vivid in women than 
in men is practically a very suitable arrangement. If it was just 
as vivid they would be less able to resist the continual wooing of 
men. The result w<Juld be an exhaustion and a serious injury to the 
sexual glands due to overactivity, and this would probably tend 
to render conception more difficult, and the human race would be 
threatened with extermination. From this point of view syphilis 
and other venereal diseases could be considered as a horrifying 
measure used by severe Mother Nature, and may be looked upon in 


general as serving a higher purpose, sometimes even as a beneficial 
phenomenon. [ !] Virtue is therefore actually forced upon women. 
It is an extreme necessity! If there were no ill omsequencesy 
virtue would frequently waver. Notwithstanding the efforts of a 
rigid education to deaden the sexual impulse, the voice of love would 
triumph if the maiden's virtue were not strengthened and suppor- 
ted by the fear of possible consequences. She is actually driven to 
concealment and disguise of her feelings. This is the reason why 
the art of disguise is developed in women to its highest degree, 
and we see, in fact, that women representing it are natural4x)m 
actresses. — ^De. Abkold Lorakd. 


Normal sexual conditions, i. e., where the desire is gratified 
with proper moderation, exert a quieting and strengthening 
influ^ice. They induce sleep, quietude, strengthen the nervous 
system and aid digestion as well as all other functions. — ^Peof. G. 
M. Beard: ** Sexual Neurasthenia.** 

Sensuality. — ^All normal people are sensual, because they have 
senses for bodily perception without which they could not live. 
— ^De a. Nysteom. 

Dr. Arnold Lorand (**Building Human Intelligence'*) one day 
was consulted by a young man who notwithstanding a very vivid 
sexual impulse had never as yet had any intercourse with members 
of the other sex. He had a moral aversion towards all such ^^animal 
instincts." Being a very handsome young man, he frequently 
was led into temptaticm by the girls, but at the last moment, when 
the danger was the greatest, he repented and the partner met with 
disappointment. He masturbated excessively to make himself inert 
against such temptations. The writer diagnosed in this patient 
dyspepsia with pains in the stomach and hyperacidity, also symp- 
toms of neurasthenia which were producing an unfavorable influence 
upon his studies. 

Dr. Leonard found neurasthenia, obstinate insonmia and other 
nervous symptoms in a druggist who, since the death of his wife, 
eight years before, with whom he had lived happily, anxiously 
avoided any intercourse from fear of infection. Reflecting, or 
calculating, or any mental strain, caused him great inconvenience, 
and, not to be tortured any more by it, he sold his drug store. 





Robinson^ Dr. William J.: Contraception vs. abortion again. 

Critic and Guide, 1918, p. 76. 
Robinscm, Dr. William J.: If contraceptive information were 

legally permissible.- Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 441. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : A country in which prevention of con- 
ception is officially sanctioned. Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 173. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Criminal abortion. Critic and Guide, 

1908, p. 881. 
Robins<Mi, Dr. William J.: Criminal knowledge which everybody 

wants for himself. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 208. 
Robinscm, Dr. William J.: Darwin's statement and proof of it. 

Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 66. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : A debate on birth control. Critic and 

Guide, 1917, p. 10. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : The decrease in the birth-rate. Critic 

and Guide. May 1906, p. 168. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Demand in Grermany for a modification 

of the law against abortion. Critic and Guide, 1912, p. 826. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Diminished birth-rate not due to dimi- 
nished fertility. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 49. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Doctors and the girl — who was more 

moral? Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 402. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: An anti- birth-control editor who is a 

real donkey. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 406. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Eugenics and limitation of offspring. 

Critic and Guide, 1918, p. 265. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Few or many diildren? Critic and 

Guide. Oct. 1904, p. 81. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Few or many children? Critic and 

Guide. Sept. 1906, p. 100. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: How to abolish the law against the 

prevention of conception. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 82. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Formulas for prevention of conception. 

Critic and Guide. Nov. 1907, p. 167. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Four birth-control organizations. 

Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 60. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Four infallible means for preventing 

conception. Critic and Guide, 1913, p. 146. 



Robinson, Dr. William J. : The fringe of undesirables. Critic and 

Guide, 1917, p. 51. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : History of the birth control movement. 

Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 322. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Illegitimate babies and the non plus 
ultra of cruelty and hypocrisy. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 835. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: A very important notice. Critic and 

Guide, 1917, p. 81. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Large families the bane of the poor. 

Critic and Guide, 1909, p. 5. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : A leaf from the lives of the poor. Un- 
impeachable human documents. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 419. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Limitation of offspring, abortion, and 

pornography. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 125. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Limitation of offspring by artificial pre- 
vention of conception : from individual, social and eugenic stand- 
points. Long Island M. J., VIII, p. 241-257, Brooklyn, 1914. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Limitation of offspring or birth control 
by prevention of conception. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 248. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: The limitation of offspring the most 
important immediate step for the betterment of the himian 
race, from an economic and eugenic standpoint. Am. J. Clin. 
M., XVIII, 591, 719. Chicago, 1911. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Limitation of the number of children. 

Critic and Guide, 1910, p. 114. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Limitation of offspring. Critic and 

Guide, 1915, p. 162. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Limitation of offspring. A statement 

and a challenge. Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 1. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Limitation of offspring in spite of the 

war. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 7. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Limitation of offspring and the war. 

Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 330. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Malthus in Harlan and his reply. Critic 

and Guide, 1911, p. 199. 
Robinson, Dr. Wm. J. : "Maternity." Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 46. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Meaning of the work proletariat. 

Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 7. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: A medico-legalist on birth control. 

Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 56. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Ministers of the Grospel and birth 
control. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 168. 


Robinson, Dr. William J.: The most important measures for im- 
provement of the human race. Critic and Guide, 1912, p. 101. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: National birth-control league. Critic 
.and Guide, 1916, p. 127. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: New movements and their supporters. 
Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 161. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : A new important book on birth-control. 
Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 88. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : No danger of race suicide. Critic and 
Guide, 1909, p. 80. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : One of the causes of female frigidity. 

Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 415. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Open letter to Comstock and other 

censors, Critic and Guide, 1913, p. 225. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Pioneer of the birth control movement 

in America. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 321. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: A place for the children. Critic and 

Guide. May 1906, p. 154. 
Robinson,. Dr. William J. : The preservation vs. the prevention of 

life. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 81. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Prevention of conception. Critic and 

Guide. Jan. 1906, p. 7 and p. 14. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: The prevention of conception. New 

Review. April 1915, p. 196-199, New York, 1915. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Prevention of conception in Brooklvn. 

Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 255. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Prevention of conception in Gremiany 

and here. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 130. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Prevention of conception. One of the 

momentous questions of the century. Critic and Guide. Feb. 

1906, p. 39. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : Prevention of concepticm and abortion. 
Critic and Guide, 1913, p. 205. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: The prevention pf conception. Dis- 
cussion. Critic and Guide. Mar. 1906, p. 68. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Prevention of conception to be ex- 
plained by experts. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 444. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Prevention of conception and some of 
our medical journals. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 83. 

Robinson, Dr. William J. : Prevention of criminal abortion and a 
question. Critic and Guide. June 1906, p. 182. 


Robinson, Dr. William J.: Prevention measures not to be relied 
upon implicitly. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. S40. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: Prevention vs. destruction. Critic and 

Guide, 1915, p. 167. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Professor Forel on the sexual question. 

Critic and Guide. Nov. 1906, p. 140. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Race suicide bugaboo. Critic and 

Guide, 1913, p. 42. 

Robinson, Dr. William J.: "Racial Decay.*' A Review. Critic 

and Guide, 1913, p. 354. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Reason and purpose of the American 

Society of Medical Sociology. Critic and Guide, 1911, p. 260. 
Robinscm, Dr. William J.: Regulation of reproduction. Critic 

and Guide. Jan. 1907, p. 2. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Relative fecundity of the rich and the 

poor. Critic and Guide. Dec. 1904, p. 163. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Remarkable letter about prev^ition of 

conception. Critic and Guide, 1913, p. 73. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Socialism and the limitation of children. 

Critic and Guide, 1913, p. 360. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Story with two morals. Critic and 

Guide, 1915, p. 439. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : A ten-minute talk on the limitation of 

offspring, or birth-control in a nutshell. Critic and Guide* 

1916, p. 169. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Tolerance, prevention and abortion. 

Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 47. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Two important books. Critic and 

Guide, 1917, p. 2. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Two minor objections to birth control. 

Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 324. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Unanswerable argument against Mal- 

thusianism. Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 213. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Unjustifiable barriers against marriage. 

Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 207. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Unknown victims of our Draconian 

Laws. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 325. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Very important notice. Critic and 

Guide, 1917, p. 56. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: War and our duty to preadi birth- 
control to backward nations. Critic and Guide, 1917, p. 62. 


Robinson, Dr. William J.: War and motherhood. Critic and 

Guide, 1914, p. 831. 
Robinson, Dr. William J. : Wobbling on the race suicide question 

Dec 1906, p. 168. 
Robinson, Dr. William J.: Words and action in our prevention 

propaganda. Critic and Guide, 1915, p. 128. 
Rosenbaum, Dr. and Skudro, Dr. : Der Malthusianismus und seine 

Folgen. Eine Medizinisch-Soziologische Studie. Wien. Med. 

Pr. XXXIII, p. 1055, 1097, 1139, 1177, Wien, 1892. 
Roya, Louis: Malthusienne. (A novel). Paris. 
Riimelin, Prof. G.: Reden und Aufsatze. Neue Folge, 1887, p. 613. 
Rutgers, Dr. J. : The conscious limitation of offspring in Holland. 

Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 174. 
Rutgers, Dr. J.: Volkskracht door Nieuw-malthusianisme. Stud. 

in Volkskracht. Haarlem, 1903-4, p. 481-522. 
Ryan, Father John A. : The Catholic Church and birth restriction. 

The Survey. Mar. 4, 1916. [Of course, distinctly anti birth- 


Sadler, Michael Thomas: The law of population: a treatise on 

sex books ; in disproof of the superf ecundity of human beings, 

and developing the real principle of their increase. London, 

J. Murray, 1830, 2 volumes. 
Saleeby, Dr. C. W. : The methods of race-regeneration. London, 

New York, 1911, 68 p. 
Sanger, Margaret: Shall we break this law? Birth-Control Rev., 

vol. I, No. 1, Feb., 1917. Also several editorials in The Woman 

Sanger, Margaret: The fight for birth controL Physical Culture. 

April, 1917. 
Schallmeyer, Wilhelm: Die Politik der Fruchtbarkeitsbeschran- 

kung. Ztschs. f . Politik, vol. 2, p. 391-439. Berlin, 1909. 
Schippel, Max: Das modeme Elend und die modeme Ueben'ol- 

kerung. Stuttgart. J. N. W. Dietz, 1889, 264 p. 
Schlegtendal, Dr. B. : Die Empfangnis und ihre Verhiitung. 

Ztschr. f. Med. Beamte, XXVH, 329-836. Beriin, 1914. 
Schmoll, Mme. : La propaganda anticonceptionelle. Soc. Fran9. 

de Prophyl. San. et Mor., IX, 174-179. Paris, 1909. 
Schroeder, Dr. H. : Die Gesunderhaltungspflege in der Ehe. 

Leipzig, 1892. 
Schroeder, Dr. H. : Die Vorbeugung der Empfangniss aus Ehenoth. 

Leipzig, 1892, 111 p. 


Senior, Nassau William: Two lectures on population delivered 
before Univ. of Oxford. To which is added a correspondence 
between the author and T. R. Malthus. London, 1829, 90 p. 

Siebert, F. : Der Nieo-malthusianismus und die offentliche Ankiin- 
digimg der Verhiitungsmittel. Arch. f. Rassen- und Gresell- 
schafts-Biologie. Leipzig und Berlin, 1912, IX, 475-496. 

Smissen, Edouard van der: La population, les causes de ses pro- 
gris etc- Bruxelles, Soci^U Beige librairie, 1893, 661 p. 

Soetbeer, Dr. Heinrich: Die Stellung der Sozialisten zur Mal- 
thus'schen Bevolkerungslehre. Berlin, 1886, 117 p. 

Solomon, Dr. Meyer: The story of the birth of an undesired baby. 
Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 211. 

Sowden, Mary : Wedded life: as it is and as it should be. Pamphlet. 
W. H. Reynolds, London. 

Standring, George: The Malthusian movement. Pamphlet W. 
H. Reynolds, London. 

Starkman, Dr. J.: Coitus reservatus. Medycyna, XIX, p. 197- 
199. Warsaw, 1891. 

Stille, G. : Die Bevolkerungsfrage in alter und neuer Zeit. 
Neuwied, 1889. 

Stille, G. : Malthusianische Bestrebungen in Westeuropa. Ztschr. 

f. Socialwissensch., Jahrg. 6, p. 837-847. 
Stille, G. : Der Neo-Malthusianismus, das Heilmittel des Pauperis- 

mus. Neuwied, 1880. 
Stillman, Clara G.: Prevention of conception. Critic and Guide, 

1918, p. 198. 
Stocker, H. : Greburtenriickgang und Monismus. Der Diisseldorfer 

Monistentag. 7. Hauptversammlung des D. Monistenbundes, 

p. 40-61. Leipzig, 1914. 
Stocker, H. : Staatlicher Gebarzwang oder Rassenhygiene. Neue 

Generation, 1914, H. 8, p. 134-149. 
Stockman, Dr. Alice B. : Karezza. Ethics of marriage. New 

York. R. F. Fenno and Co., 140 p. 
Stone, Dr. I. S. : Lessened fertility in women. Am. Jour. Obst. 

Sept, 1916. 
Strike of a sex, or woman on strike against the male sex for her 

magna charta, the ownership of her own person. London and 

New York. 
Sweringen, Dr. H. V. : Welfare of coming generations. Critic and 

Guide, Nov., 1903. 


Talmey, Dr. Bernard S.: The limitation of offspring: by abortion 
or prevention of conception — which? American Journal of 
Urology and Sexology. New York, 1916. 

Tatham, Dr. J. F. W. : On birth-rates and fertility. Lancet, June 
24, July 1st, 1917. 

Theihaber, F. Die Greburtenbeschrankung im Alterthum u. bei den 
Naturvolkem. Neue Generation. Berlin, 1918, v. IX, p. 184-201. 

Thompson, W. : Principles of the distribution of wealth most con- 
ducive to human happiness. London, 1824. 

Thompson, Warren S.: Population: A study in Malthusianism. 
New York, 1916, 216 p. 

Thornton, W. H. : Over-population and its remedy. London, 1846. 

Thurston, Herbert: The declining birth-rate. Month., London, 

1916, V. 188, p. 161-164. 

Tuckwell : Village life in France. Contemporary Review. Jan., 1892. 
Tufts, Mary H. : A professional nurse's view. Critic and Guide, 

1917, p. 109. 

Ussher, Rev. R. : Neo-Malthusianism. An enquiry into that system 

with regard to its economy and morality. London, 1897, 825 

p. [Rabidly anti.] 
Uthoff, H. C: Light sentence for prevention of conception pro- 
paganda. Critic and Guide, 1914, p. 168. 
Vickery, Dr. Alice: Early marriages and limited families. W. H. 

Reynolds, London. 
Vilbiss, Dr. Lydia Allen De: Questions of contraception. Critic 

and Guide, 1916, p. 876. 
Voice from Africa on the prevention of conception question. Critic 

and Guide, 1911, p. 886. 
Volkmann, Dr. L. : Die Losung der Socialen Frage durch die Frau. 

Berlin and Neuwied, 1889. 


Walker, Edwin C. : Prevention of conception and woman's sexual 

nature. Critic and Guide, 1913, p. 286. 
Wallas, Dr. Graham : Life of Francis Place. London, 1908, p. 416. 
Warbasse, Dr. James P.: Prevention of conception. Critic and 

Guide, 1911, p. 266. 
Warbasse, Dr. James P.: Prevention of conception. Critic and 

Guide, 1918, p. 192. 
Webb, Sidney: The decline in the birth-rate. London, 1910, 19 p. 


Warren, G. W. : A confidential letter to the married^ by Dr. G. 
W. Warren. Cleveland, O., 1854, 9S p. 

Weinhold: Uber das menschliche Elend welches durch den Miss* 
branch der Zeugung herbeigefiihrt wird Leipzig, 1828. 

Weisl: Uber Praservation und Demonstration eines weibliohen 
Condoms. Allgem. Wien. Med. Ztg., X, p. 628. Wien, 18Q5. 

Welling, Dr. J. C. : The law of Malthus. Am. Anthrop. I, p. 1- 
SS. Washington, 1888. 

What shall we do about birth control? Pictorial Review, October, 
1916, February and March, 1916. 

White, James: Darwinism and Malthus. Victoria Inst. Jour, of 
Transact., vol 42, p. 222-240. London, 1910. 

Willcox, Walter F. : The nature and significance of the changes in 
the birth and death rates in recent years. Am. Statist. Assoc. 
Quar Publ. Boston, 1916, v. 16, p. 1-16. 

Wittels, Dr. Fritz: Law against abortion. The greatest crime on 
the Statute Books. Critic and Guide, 1916, p. 171. 

Wolf, Julius: Der Greburtenriickgang; die Rationalisierung des 
Sexuallebens in unserer Zeit. Jena, 1912, 263 p. 

Wolf, Julius: Religion und Greburtenriickgang. Arch. f. Rassen-. 
und Gesellschaftsbiologie, 10, 1914. H. 6., p. 586-694. 

Wolfheim, Dr. M. : Uber ein neues Mittel zur Verhiitung der Gra- 
viditas Frauenarzt, XXVII, 66-69. Leipzig, 1912. 

Women's Co-Operative Guild: Maternity. Childbearing autobio- 
graphies of English working women. 

Wright, Benson: Five stories with one moral. Critic and Guide, 
1916, p. 63. 

Wright, Dr. Henry C. : Marriage and paternity: or, the repro- 
ductive element in man, as a means to his elevation and happi- 
ness. Boston, 1864, 228 p. 


Yarros, Dr. S. : Practical aspects of birth-control. Surg. Gyn. 
Obst., XXIII, p. 188. August, 1916. 

Young, Dr. Evangeline: Shall parenthood be provident or hap- 
hazard? The Medical Review of Reviews. August, 1916. 


Zacharias, O. : Die Bevolkerungsfrage in ihrer Beziehung zu den 
Socialcn Nothstanden der G^genwart. Jena, 1892. 

Zadek, Dr. F. : Frauenleiden, nebst einem Anhang: Die Verhiitung 
der Schwangerschaft. Mit 9 Textillustrationen. Berlin, Buch- 
handlung Vorwarts, 1912, 20 p. 

Zikel, Dr. Heinz: Die Verhinderung der Empfangnis vom Mcdi- 
zinischen u. sozialen Standpunkt. Berlin u. Leipzig, 1912, 56 p. 


The American 

Journal of Urology 
and Sexology 

widi wkkh iMt bMi cwiflidtf^ 

The American Pracbhoner 


Hard Dry Feces 

are not only difficult to pass* but may give rise to (I) irritation and congestion of 
the rectum, which may influence fissures and hemorrhoids (2) by their physical 
pressure, they may affect prostatic and other genito-urinary conditions. These 
are in addition to (3) the effects of any autotoxemia that may arise. 

HARD DRY FECES are often caused by over-extraction of fluid by the colon, or 
by lack of intestinal mucus, or both, but they are overcome by INTEROLf which 
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keeps them soft and mouldable so that they pass easily through constrictions. 

With INTEROL well mixed in them, more HARD DRY FECES cannot form, 
but instead, SOFT PLASTIC F*ECESy so that the patient obtains evacuation 
without straining at stool, and life becomes worth living — so far. at least, as 
INTEROL'S combatting of obstipation-stasis-autotoxemia is concerned. 

INTEROL* is more than "ordinary mineral oil": (1) it po^BttatB ^ecttve labrkattng body 
so that it dimrs to the fecal mass-j-INTEROL has efficient "spread and mix" properties 
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*INTEROL booklet on request. Pint bottles, at druggists. 

VAN HORN AND SAWTELL. 15 and 1 7 East 40th Street, New York City 



Entered N. Y. Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

Copyright, 1917, by Dr. William J. Robinson. 


Subscriptions and all communications relating to the business or editorial 

department, exchanges, and books for review, should be addressed to THE 
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, 12 Mt. Morris Park W^st, New 

York City. 



Sexual Hypochondriasis. By Sir James Paget 337 

Marriage: A Pessimist's View. By Prof. R, Kafemann 353 

The Sex Ideas of Some People. — ^A Remarkable Letter 364 

Country Conditions. By a High School Principal 368 


Chancre of the Eye. Dr. W. G. Cameron 370 

Mental Derangement Occurring at the Beginning of Menstruation. 

Buissoii and Girard 371 

Acute Urinary Retention. Dr. Claude Hoffman 372 

The Fear of Death. J. J. Rousseau 372 

Nietzsche. Weininger 373 

Sexual Diversions of Pope Alexander VI. Joh, Burchardi 373 

Physiological Differences between the Male and the Female. 

Eduard von Hartmann 373 

The Single Standard Untenable. Eduard von Hartmann 374 

The Higher Expression of Sex- Love. Gideon Dietrich 374 

Sex-Love a Self- Fertilizing Power. Gideon Dietrich 375 

A Clever Judge in a Case of Rape. Cervantes 375 

The Importance of the Sexual Glands 376 

The Instinct of Procreation. Maudsley 376 

An Old Writer on the Con&equences of Abstinence. Dr. Wieckard 376 

Abstinence a Cause of Nervousness. A. Moll 376 

A Sadistic-Masochistic Relationship between Two Children. Zola 377 
On Faithfulness in Men and Women: A Misogynist's View. 

Weininger 378 

Talent and Genius. Weininger 378 

Genius and Marriage. Hennr T. Finck 379 

Marriage on Approval J, P. Nisbet 380 

Why He Did not Marry. Walt Whitman 380 

Why are Women Conservative? 381 

Marriage Bleeding from a Thousand Wounds. Robert Micheb... 381 

"Holy Matrimony." Geo. Hirth 381 

Man Naturally Polygamous and Varietist Robert Michels 382 

Love: Its Definition, its Origin, and its Nature. Prof. Lester F. 

Ward 383 

Art in America. Percival Pollard 383 

Civilized Man a Hypocrite and Coward 383 

The Sexual Theory of Christendom. E. B. Bax 383 

Woe to Us. Buddha 384 

American Petticoatism and Puritanism. Percival Pollard 384 

The Sexual Act **A Self-Regarding Action." Ernest Bclfort Bax 384 

Sex-Love a Plastic Impulse. Gideon Dietrich 384 

Nature is Egocentric. Gideon Dietrich 384 

Life is an Egoistic, not an Altruistic Act 384 

Published monthly by the Urologic Publishing Association, 
12 lit. Morris Park West. New York. N. Y. 



Treatment of 
Sexual Impotence 


William J. Robinson, M. D. 

CMef of tlM Denirtmeot of Geoho-Urintry Dintiei and Dtrttttology. Broax Hofpital and 
DiipeoMry; Editor The Amcrictn Jonrnal of Urolofy, VonorMl tMi SojR^ul Qis^asef; 
Editor of Tlie Critic sad Guide: Author of 9«Xtt«l ProMoiM of Todnr. Nerer 
Told Tales, Practical Bufenics, etc. ; PreaideBt of the Amefkiin SAietj 
of Medical Sodolopr. President of the BTortlMni iMOeal So- 
ciety, Ex-Presideiit of the Berlin Anno-Amt rieaa Med- 
ical Society, Fellow of the New York Aea- 
deioiT of M f d ifin ^i eto^ ate* 

Unquestioiuibly and incomparably die beat, aimpleat and moat tiioroogh 
book on the aubject in the Engliah language. 


Part I~Maaturbation. Ita Prevalence, Cauaea, Varietiea, ftrmptoma, 
Reaulta, Prophylazia and Treatment Coitua Intermptoa and Ita Bffecta. 

Part II— Varietiea, Cavaea and Treatment of PoUntiona, Spermatorrhea, 
Proatatorrhea and Uretfarorrhea. 

Part III — Sexual Impotence (n the Male. Bvery phaae of ita widely vary- 
ing causea and treatment, with illuminating caae reports. 

Part IV— Sexual Neuraathenia. Cauaea, Treatment, case reports, and ita 
relation to Impotence. 

Part V— Sterility, Male and Female. Ita Canaea and Treatment 
Part VI — Sexual Disorders in Woman, Including Frigidity, Vaginismus, 
Adherent Qitoris, and Injuries to the Feinale in Coitus. 

Part VII— Priapism. Etiology, Case Reports and Treatment 
Part VIII — Miscellaneoua Topics. Including: la Masturbation a Vice?— - 
Two Kinds of Premature Ejaculation.- The Frequency of Coitus. — ^^Use- 
less'' Sexual Excitement — ^The Relation Between Mental and Sexual Activity. 
—Big Families and Sexual Vigor. — Sexual Perversions. 

Part IX — Prescriptions and Minor Pointa. 

Sixth edition reviaed ^nd enlarged* 
Cloth bound, 422 pmgea. Poatpaid, $3.00. 



Dr. Robinson's Never Told Tales, $l.oa Sexual Problema of To-Day, $2.00. 


Vou XIII. AUGUST, 1917. No. 8. 

By Sie James Paget. 

THE cases which I advise you to include under this name are 
those of male patients who regard trivial maladies, or 
even some of the natural events, in their sexual organs 
with the unreasonable dread or gloom and watchfulness 
which are characteristic of hypochondriasis. They are such as are 
accused or accuse themselves of spermatorrhoea, or of the other 
maladies of the sexual organs which swindling advertisers profess 
to cure. 

You will find that men with healthy nervous systems, or who 
are careless, or sensible, or well-informed, will very rarely consult 
you on any of the so-called functional diseases of their sexual 
organs; when they have them they endure them without harm or 
distress. Of those who will consult you, some are merely ignorant 
of what the natural actions of these organs are or may be; some 
have brains too emotional, or spinal marrows too irritable, hurry- 
ing the secretion of seminal fluids and disordering their emission; 
but those are most numerous whose minds in reference to their sex- 
ual organs, are unsound. The unsoundness may not be sufficient 
to be called insanity : let it be called hypochondriasis ; and if you 
will study its general characters with the help of the best essays 
on the subject, and best of all with the essay on Hypochondriasis 
by Sir William Gull and Dr. Anstie in Reynolds* System of Medi- 
cine,* I may limit myself to speaking of the conditions of the sexual 
organs which are associated with disorders of the nervous system. 

Of these I will speak rather fully; but first, let me ask you 
to note the ignorance concerning sexual matters of which I just 
now spoke: for it is the source of a kind of hypochondriasis in 
some who, in mere ignorance, imagine miseries for themselves or 
are made miserable by others' falsehoods. 

* This classic is worth reprinting. 



Ignorance about sexual affairs seems to be a notable diarac- 
teristic of the more civilized part of the human race. Brutes, even 
those most changed by our domesticaticm, copulate as naturally 
as they eat or defalcate. As the instinct for food leads them to 
eat, and carries with it all the knowledge necessary for the choice 
and taking of their food, ao the sexual instict has with it the know- 
ledge how to copulate. It is the same, I believe, with the least 
civilized of our race; but it is not so with the most civilized. It 
seems as if, in the course of generations, the transmission of intel- 
lectual powers gained by education had the effect of subduing or 
superseding those of instinct. How far up the grades of civili- 
sation tins change begins, I do not know ; but among ourselves it 
is certain that the method of copulating needs to be taught, and 
that they to whcMn it is not taught remain quite ignorant about 
it; as ignorant as, I suppose, we should be of what to eat and 
drink if we were not taught. Of course very few, I mean very 
few of our sex, grow-up without being taught, either by the talk 
of schoolfellows or by books or other means ; but a few grow up 
and even marry in complete ignorance; and this ignorance, which 
is rare among men, is very common among well-educated women. 

The fact is of much interest in relation both to the natural 
history of our race, and to the frequency of sexual disorders depen- 
dent on the mind or <m the nervous system. For sexual desire arises 
and grows without the knowledge how to satisfy it; and in the 
learning how to satisfy it errors and fancies and things half under- 
stood get into the mind, and become to some men sources of misery 
and fright, and to some the subjects of hypochondriac gloom and 

Among the merely ignorant you will find that, if they be other- 
wise sensible people, they need only to be told the truth concern- 
ing the disorders, real or imaginary, for which they consult you. 
Knowledge will cure them. But if they be or have become hypo- 
chondriac they will not receive, or will not retain, knowledge ; their 
erroneous beliefs will be to their minds stronger than your truths. 

Of these I shall have to speak again in reference to all the 
sexual disturbances of which they complcdn. 

Now the complaint of some is that semen passes with their 
urine, and that all their ^strength is going from them'; and of 
this they give various symptoms, which, if they be at all true are 
due to something else. For the general notion of semen passing 


with the urine is erroneous and is usually derived from dishonest 
advertisers, who make it one of the grounds on which they rob their 

There is, indeed, a very rare case in which after gonorrhoea 
or other disease affecting a seminal vesicle, a part of it seems to 
become sacculated and may be so filled that mucus, and perhaps 
seminal fluid, may be pressed from it in the last lifting efforts of 
the muscles for expelling urine. And this out-pressing may be 
attended with sensaticms of discomfort, shuddering and tremors; 
but it is harmless. In the ordinary cases, and those of hypochon- 
driasis, the supposed semen is mucus from the bladder, whidi, when 
it exists in its natural small quantity in the urine, appears as a 
pale dim doud at the bottom of the vessel, sometimes sparkling 
when light passes through it. 

As to semen passing with the urine, I am nearly certain that 
it never does so unless when an emission of semen, in whatever way 
provoked, has lately taken place or where there has been disease 
of a saninal vesicle. In the former case some semen, remaining 
on the walls of the urethra, or possibly having passed into the 
bladder, is washed-out with the next stream of urine, and may 
be found in it with the microscope. I once examined, for many 
days in succession, the urine of a patient who was persuaded that 
he passed semen with it; and semen could always be found when 
he had a nocturnal emission, but never on any other occasion. A 
former colleague of mine assured me that he had frequently ob- 
served the same thing after copulation. And this, I believe, is the 
whole truth concerning semen passing with urine; whatever may 
chance to be left in the urethra after an emission is washed-out. 
But that which frightens the ignorant and the hypochondriacal 
is not even this ; it is mucus of the urinary passages, either quite 
healthy or in some trivial manner changed. This form of what is 
called spermatorrhoea, therefore, should be treated by instruction, 
which the merely ignorant will receive, and the hypochondrical, 
very probably, will not. 

Not much unlike this misunderstanding about vesical mucus 
is another in which some people, chiefly middle-aged and elderly 
people with diminishing sexual powers, make themselves miserable. 
They find in their urine little flakes or threads of floating mucus, 
which, they say, are always washed out of the urethra at the begin- 
ning of the urine-stream, especially in the morning. They watch 


these with the greatest anxiety; and send them to you on bits of 
paper or of glass, begging you to examine them very carefully. 
I believe that they are bits of prostatic mucus, secreted in the 
night and washed-out with the morning-urine. But, whatever 
they may be, they are not of the least importance. You may find 
them passed by men who neither know nor care anything about 
them and whom they never harm; and even hypochondriacs go on, 
month after month, passing them and yet suffering nothing but 
their mental misery. 

There is nothing really more serious in these flakes of mucus, 
than there is in the mucus for which some men, or even these same 
men, blow their noses oftener than others ; or in the secretion which 
makes some people's eyelids stick together in the morning. It 
seems strange that mucus from one place should make peojde so 
much unhappier than mucus from another. But this is the usual 
character of hypochondriasis; it is as if a morbid element of the 
mind could localise itself, as a morbid element of the blood may, in 
some *place of election.* * 

Again, some of the same persons are unhappy because, as 
they say, they pass semen during defaecation. But these, again, 
do nothing more than healthy men often do. When the rectum is 
emptied with much muscular force, and especially when large solid 
faeces are being passed, the contents of the vesiculae seminales 
and of the prostatic ducts, and, I dare say, of Cowper's and other 
mucous glands besides, are apt to be pressed-out; and hence it 
is not rare for healthy men to find mucus, or some fluid like it, 
escaping from the urethra during defaecation attended with strain- 
ing. And, when the vesiculae seminales are filled with semen, as 
they may be when it is long since an emission took place, or 
when, in an emission they are not emptied, their fluid together with 
semen may be pressed from the urethra with something even of 
the sensation of emission. All these things happen to healthy peo- 
ple without harm: they are not unnatural; certainly they are not 
effects or signs of diseases: and when anyone comes to you com- 
plaining of them, it is his mind, not his sexual organs, that requires 

* Prostatorrhoea, prostatic gleet, or whatever else the disease may 
be called which is attended with constant excessive secretion from the 
prostate, or vesiculae, or both, is not here referred to. This is a real 
disease and very troublesome, whether associated or not with spinal irri- 
tation or with hypochondriasis. 


Another subject of gloom and alarm to some is that, during 
sexual excitement, and, as they suppose, worse still, when they 
wake in the morning, they find a clear colorless liquid flowing 
from the urethra or easily pressed from it. Here, again, the com- 
plaint is of that which is natural, and it would be quite as just if 
directed against tears during grief. The urethra naturally se- 
cretes mucus during sexual excitement; it secretes more or less 
in diflFerent persons, but some, I believe, in all ; and as for the morn- 
ing-secretion, it is due either to some sexual excitement during sleep* 
forgotten before waking, or to the general condition of turgescence 
or erection of the sexual organs which, in most healthy persons, 
exists during sleep or some part of it. In no case is this clear ure- 
thral mucus a sign or consequence of disease, unless indeed when an 
excess of it is a residue of gonorriiea. It is, I think, most abun- 
dant and most quickly formed in those whose sexual organs are 
more irritable than potent; but this is the worst that can be said 
of it ; and even in these it ib not the sexual organs, but some part 
of the nervous system, the brain or the spinal marrow, that is in 
the wrong. In no case does the secretion deserve to be called or 
treated as a disease. 

Again, there are some to whom, whether through ignorance, 
or misguidance, or hypochondriasis, a varicocele is a source of 
misery and dismay. They look on it as a forerunner of impotence, 
and of wasting testicles, and I know not what besides. All such 
fears are groundless. Varicocele is troublesome because of the 
sense of weight and aching which sometimes, though far from 
always, attends it, and which is sometimes much increased by long 
standing or walking. In some cases, too, the dilated veins, like 
varicose veins in the leg, are apt to become inflamed or very s^isi- 
tive. But this, I believe, is the widest limit of the harm that vari- 
cocele ever does. I do not believe that it ever produced wasting 
of a testicle or impotaice or any such thing. It is common enough 
to find varicocele in quite healthy men who, being sufiiciently 
careless or sensible to make light of it, suffer no harm either ment^ 
or bodily. Some who have it while they are single and chaste 
are cured by marriage; and in some it ceases to cause even its 
slight occasional aching when they begin to grow old. In short, 
the cases in which varicocele is more than a trivial affair are very 
few; and in these few its mischiefs are not such as the sexual 
hypochondriacs imagine. They are, indeed, altogether distinct 


from the functions of the sexual organs; being such achings and 
wearing pains as may be felt in varicose veins in the legs. These 
may be sufficient to disqualify a man for military service; but 
they are not sexually important; and, in those who believe they 
are, it is a mental error, not a bodily one, that needs cure. 

I can very positively give you the same assurance about 
those who will consult you on several other things; such €is the 
scrotum being too pendulous, or the penis being cold or shrivelled, 
or the testicles too small when in fact they are of ordinary si^e. 

But now I must speak of something which may in its greater 
degrees, have the character of real if not serious, disease; I mean 
the nocturnal and other involuntary emissions of semen. I say, 
in its greater degrees ; for, in the lesser, the emissions are natural, 
and it is a sign of ignorance or hypochondriasis if the mind dwells 
sadly on them. And, I may add that of all the cases of such 
emissions on which you will be consulted, not more than one in 
fifty will deserve serious consideration unless for the state of the 
patient's mind and nervous system. 

To those who lead chaste lives, and to some of those who do 
not, nocturnal emissions of semen are natural occurrences. I 
never met with a chaste healthy man, of whom I had occasion 
to ask about them, who did not say that he had them sometimes. 
Their frequency is in different men very various: varying accord- 
ing to many things, such as climate, diet, social habits, and, 
above all, I think, according to the degree in which the minds of 
those who do not have sexual intercourse are directed to sexual 
matters. Thus nocturnal emissions may vary from once or twice 
in a week, to once in two or three months, or, at times of unusual 
exhaustion or excitement, they may exceed those rates or may 
fall short of them : but in both sets of cases and in all the intermed- 
iate frequencies they are consistent with good health. Men who 
are careless, or sufficiently well-informed, say nothing about them, 
and suffer no harm. When, therefore, any person with a sound 
nervous system, and having nocturnal emissions within such limits 
as I have mentioned, consults you about them, it is best to teU 
him that they are^natural occurrences which may be left to their 
own course, and you may add that they cannot be put an end to 
and ought not to be if they could. 

But the case is different in men with over-sensitive nervous 
systems, or in whom one may believe that at least that part of the 


spinal marrow which is in nearest relation with the sexual organs 
is over-irritable. In this condition the emission of semen is apt 
to take place with much less than the normal amount of excitem^it. 
Hence it may take place too quickly during or even before sexual 
intercourse; sometimes without erection and almost without sensa- 
tion; sometimes from the mere friction of the dress in riding or 
walking, or during sensual thoughts ; and frequently at night with 
or without sensual dreams. This if anything might be called sper- 
matorrhoea; but even this is not properly a disease of the sexual 
organs, it is a disease or disorder of the nervous system, and may 
most probably be referred, as I have sciid, to a too irritable condi- 
tion of the spinal marrow or of some portion of it. For, with too 
frequent and too quick emissions there are always other signs 
of nervous disorder which, though commonly regarded as due to 
the emissions, are really not so. 

The chief of these signs are aching of the back and lower 
limbs, especially after emissions; readiness to be fatigued, and 
in all fatigue pain; weary limbs and spines; indisposition or 
seeming incapacity for mental exercise; defect of will and of 
power of attention; often restlessness at night and unrefrcshing 
sleep; hysteric fits or feelings. Many patients, too, are troubled 
with palpitation; many with constipation; some with excess of 
lithates; some with oxalates in their urine; not a few with irri- 
table bladder; some with various nervous indigestions; some with 
coldness of feet and hands. 

Now, neither these nor any other of the signs commonly 
enumerated with them are characteristic of disease of sexual or- 
gans; they are signs of a central nervous disorder; they are the 
very same as are found in many cases of *spinal irritation' and 
of so-called hysteria in which there is no indication of any sexual 
disturbance, but, if anything, some disturbance at the heart, or 
the bladder, or a joint or some other part. Moreover, these ner- 
vous signs bear no proportion to the emissions, and though com- 
monly aggravated by them, are only so aggravated as the same 
symptoms are in nervous women at the menstrual period, or by 
any other sudden or considerable expenditure of nervous power. * 

♦ This lecture was given before those on Nervous Mimicry; but 
the points of likeness between the subjects of sexual hypochondriasis 
and those with disorderly nervous systems to whom these lectures re- 
late are very numerous and clear. Especially, there is likeness be- 
tween the men with this disease and the women who have uterine dis- 
turbance: and the difference in their mental states agrees with th-e gen- 
eral fact that hypochondriasis is much commoner in men than in women. 


The utter prostration which women, and Bome men too, with 
spinal irritation complain of after walking is the counterpart of 
that which is complained of by these nervous patients after their 
emissions; and I have heard patients complain of it even during 
digestion, or after their daily defaecations, though these were with 
neither pain nor straining. It is true that there are few if any 
of these cases worse than those in which the nervous disorder, 
which I hold to be the primary affection, is directed on the sexual 
organs, or has been wilfully directed on them by frequent mas- 
turbation or irregular sexual practices ; but, in not a few of those 
who lay the fault of their nervous troubles on their seminal emis- 
sions, the sexual organs act healthily. One of the worst cases 
that I have ever seen was in a married man who, because of back- 
ache and many more of the sensations I have enumerated, lay, 
like many hysterical women, constantly on his back, travelled on his 
couch, or at most moved slowly on crutches. He had occasional 
sexual intercourse; and his back was always more painful after 
it, and he felt miserable and exhausted and prostrate ; but so he did 
•after a walk or any other unusual expenditure of nerve-force. In 
another, a man of 80, who lay helpless and will-less, weak-eyed 
and utterly enfeebled, a very type of the supposed victims of 
spermatorrhoea, nocturnal emissions occurred very rarely. They 
were followed by increase of back-ache and other miseries, but in 
no greater degree than was every unusual mental or bodily effort: 
and this patient had never had sexual intercourse, had mastur- 
bated only twice or three times in his life, and had had very few 
nocturnal emissions. 

Now, in some of these cases of rapid and frequent emissions, 
the consequence, as I want you to believe, and not the cause, of 
nervous disorder, there is no mental error : the patients are not more 
than reasonably distressed by the inconvenience they suffer. But 
in many cases, hypochondriasis is associated with the rest of the 
disorder, and increases immeasurably both the misery and the diffi- 
culty of cure. The patients are full of apprehensions, unable 
to divert their minds from their sexual functions, constantly 
watchful of their sensations and making them constantly more 
intense. And further mischief follows all this: for the direction of 
the mind to the sexual organs makes both them and the parts of the 
nervous system associated with them more and more irritable; it 
increases the secxetion of seminal fluid and hurries its discharge. 


The mind thus continucdly multiplies the sources of its own misery. 

Few conditions are more pitiable than those of hypochondriacs 
who thus suffer, and few more difficult to cure. Your chance of 
doing good will depend mainly on the skill with which you can 
influence the patient's mind : for of the components of his case the 
mental condition is the worst, the irritable spinal marrow the next, 
the state of the sexual organs the last, in order of gravity. Not 
that local treatment is to be neglected, for if the unnatural sensi- 
bility of the sexual organs can be diminished the mind may be 
less often distressed by emissions. 

To this end, cold enemata are sometimes useful, and sometimes 
galvanism ; and in some cases the passing of bougies or catheters, 
with or without caustic for the prostatic part of the urethra. But 
all these things often fail ; and, as for the last, I have seen so many 
cases in which it has been mischievous that I am sure it should be 
used seldom and never without more than ordinary skill. But of 
its being sometimes useful under these conditions I cannot doubt. 

For the nervous state you must use, as for any other cases 
of ^spinal irritation' iron, good food, and good air, and the cor- 
rectives of any coincident disorder of the digestive or other organs ; 
and you must persuade to a robust, sensible and fully occupied 
habit of life, with much sleep and the best self-control that can be 

But do what you may the hypochondriasis will, in the worst 
cases, remain; and if, even the sexual trouble should cease, the 
mental wrong will continue, only changing its subject, or dwelling 
on the past as gloomily as it used to dwell on what was present. 
And in some the hypochondriasis will gradually drift into a more 
evident insanity. 

Now, when one of these patients becomes insane the blame 
is commonly laid on his sexual organs, or on his having practiced 
masturbation. Before I end, I will tell you the wrong of this: 
but I must first speak of another of the conditions on which hypo- 
chondriacs think erroneously; namely, impotence. This impo- 
tence, or even greatly reduced sexual power, is so distressing even 
to those who may be called reasonable men that you may sometimes 
be ready to ascribe to mental disorder what is a material disease 
or defect. Your study* therefore, in each case, must be to ascer- 
tain whether the impotence complete or incomplete be real, or due 
to ignorance or some nervous disorder; or whether there be no im- 


potence at all but only an hypochondriacal fear ot false per- 
suasion of it. Now of the real cases of impotence I can only 
enumerate the chief forms. It may be due to disease or wasting of 
the testicles, but this, unless the disease or wasting be extreme, 
is very rare. (Observe, I do not speak of sterility which means 
only inability to beget children, but of impotence which means 
inability to copulate. ) It may follow abscess or other acute disease 
of the prostate. Very rarely and inexplicably, it is sometimes a 
sequence of fever; sometimes of injuries of the brain or spinal cord. 
It is found during exhaustion from excessive and anxious mental 
work, with 'jaded brains'; and during some forms of dyspepsia, 
with oxaluria: but in these cases it is only temporary. It is not 
rare with advanced diabetes ; and is common with sevearal forms of 
degeneracy of the spinal cord. In old age it is happily not rare. 
At any age it may begin and continue very long in those who have 
been excessive in either sexual intercourse or masturbation. Nay, 
all sexual power and desire may cease in apparently healthy m«i, 
and without apparent cause, at unusually early ages: in cases 
that I have known, as early as thirty-five or forty even in those who 
never masturbated and very rarely had sexual intercourse. 

But although the physical causes of impotence and great de- 
crease of sexual power may be thus numerous, yet from all these 
causes together the cases are less frequent than those due to 
nervous disorder or to mental defects; and the impotence which 
is complained of or dreaded without any real reason is more com- 
mon still. The mental and nervous defects which may make a man 
impotent are various in different persons; some hindering or in- 
terrupting erection ; some preventing emission ; and they are as var- 
ious in degree; some are only occasional, a few are habitual or 
scarcely constant. They may be cured, if at all, by means addressed 
to the mind or to the nervous system ; but they are all hard to cure ; 
as hard as it is to cure stammering, whether in speech or any other 
function, or to cure any of the disorders of those functions for 
the perfection of which the will must act in exact harmony with 
parts not under its direct control. 

I have enumerated all these cases of impotence to help you 
to guard against the risk of treating as a mere hypochondriac any 
one who really has this malady from either mental or physical 
causes. As a rule the distinction is not difficult. They who com- 
plain of impotence alone are distressed about it, and are very 


anxious for its cure; more so that to the cool judgment of any- 
body else may seem reasonable; but here is the boundary of their 
unhappiness ; they do not tell or prophesy other miseries, and do 
not give tip their minds to their diseases. Moreover, they who are 
impotent, or nearly so, from other than mental or nervous states 
have a loss of sexual desire as well as of power. 

The sexual hypochondriac may or may not be mentally impo- 
tent ; but in the great majority of cases is not. Most of those who 
consult you will tell you that though they have sexual desire yet 
are impotent, or are afraid they are, and are therefore afraid to 
marry, because they have some of the trivial things I have been 
speaking of; occasional nocturnal emissions, or urethral mucus or 
varicocele or something not more important. Now if a man has 
sexual organs, including the prostate, not manifestly diseased 
or wasted, and has erections and occasional nocturnal emissions, and 
any sexual desire, you may be sure that he is not impotent unless 
he has very clear facts to prove that he is. The statements that 
hypochondriacs make to show that they are, or are becoming, 
impotent, are usually evidences that they are not. And what is 
true of hypochondriacs is equally true of those who are frightened 
by mere ignorance of sexual matters, or who have been fraudu- 
lently misinformed. 

You may observe that, in speaking of sexual hypochondriasis* 
I have spoken of three different classes of men or boys in whom 
functional disorders of the sexual organs may need to be treated. 
There are, first, the merely ignorant or misinformed; next, those 
with over-sensitive or too irritable nervous systems ; and lastly, the 
hypochondriacs. The conditions respectively characteristic of each 
may be mingled in various degrees, but they are worth keeping 
in mind as guides to treatment. The patients of the second class 
alone need medicinal help, and what this may be I said just now: 
the others must be mentally helped. 

With careful and very positive treatment you will cure the ig- 
norant, and do good to all those but those whose hypochondriasis 
is near to complete insanity. But on some subjects of your teach- 
ing you will have to be very clear as to matters of fact; especially, 
for instance, as to the practice of masturbation, to which many of 
your patients will ascribe their chief distresses. 

Now, I believe you may teach positively that masturbation 
does neither more nor less harm than sexual intercourse practised 


with the same frequency in the same ccmditions of general health 
and age and circumstance. Practised frequently by the very 
young, that is, at any time before or at the beginning of puberty, 
masturbation is very likely to produce exhaustion, effeminacy, 
over-sensitiveness and nervousness; just as equally frequent cop- 
ulation at the same age would probably produce them. Or, prac- 
tised every day, or many times in <Mie day, at any age, either 
masturbation or copulation is likely to produce similar mischiefs 
or greater. And the mischiefs are especially likely or nearly 
sure to happen, and to be greatest, if the excesses are practised 
by those who, by inheritance or circumstances, are liable to any 
nervous disease, — ^to ^spinal irritation,' epilepsy, insanity, or any 
other. But the mischiefs are due to the quantity, not to the 
method, of the excesses; and the quantity is to be estimated in 
relation to age and the power of the nervous system. I have 
seen as numerous and as great evils consequent on excessive sexual 
intercourse as on excessive masturbation: but I have not seen 
or heard anything to make me believe that occasional mastur- 
bation has any other effects on one who practises it than has 
occasional sexual intercourse, nor anything justifying the dread 
with which sexual hypodiondriacs regard the having occasionally 
practised it. I wish that I could say something worse of so nasty 
a practice; an uncleanliness, a filthiness forbidden by God, an 
unmanliness despised by men. 

Another point on which you may have to teach is that of 
dreams associated with nocturnal seminal emissions. Men of scru- 
pulous conscience are deeply distressed with the thought that 
these emissions are due to sexual feelings which they ought to 
be able to suppress even in their dreams; they look on them as 
tokens of a prevalent impurity of mind which they must cure. 
Well, you may tell them that, according to all we know of dreams^ 
it is not the dream that excites the emission, but the natural and 
involuntary erection and emission that determine the dream, and 
that over the erection and emission that may occur in sleep or 
just on waking it is impossible that any man should exercise 
direct control; he might as well try to control while asleep the 
tone of his snoring or the posture of his limbs. Some indirect 
control a man may have on all these things, and on the sexual 
part of them it may be held that the more the mind while awake 
is occupied in other than sexual matters, and so occupied that 


it IS not even necessary to use any effort for the suppression or 
exclusion of sexual thoughts, the less will be the secretion of semen 
and the sensibility of the sexual organs, and therefore the less 
frequent the excitements and emissions during sleep. But, in 
some persons, and, as I believe, in the great majority of those who 
are chaste, nocturnal tmissions and the associated unclean dreams 
are simply irrepressible: they are due to a natural secretion of 
semen which we have no means of suppressing and no right to 
suppress. Therefore, to men with healthy nervous systems you 
must tell that their nocturnal emissions are evidences of health 
rather than of disease. And to those in whom too frequent emis- 
sions are connected with a too irritable state of the spinal mar- 
row, you may tell that they cannot and ought not to be wholly 
suppressed ; but that they may be remedied by marriage, and may, 
very probably, be diminished by means that will improve the con- 
dition of the spinal marrow. 

To all alike you may try to teach a judicious carelessness 
about these things: a state of mind which would be an estimable 
blessing to many besides these sexual hypochondriacs. 

Many of your patients will ask you about sexual intercourse 
and some will expect you to prescribe fornication. I would just 
as soon prescribe theft or lying or anything else that Grod has for- 
bidden. If men will practise fornication or uncleanness it must 
be of their own choice and on their sole responsibility. We are 
not to advise that which is morally wrong, even if we have some 
reason to think that a patient's health would be better for the 
wrong-doing. But in the cases before us, and I can imagine none 
in which I should think differently, there is not ground enough 
for so much as raising a question about wrong-doing. Chastity 
does no harm to mind or body; its discipline is excellent: mar- 
riage can be safely waited for ; and among the many nervous and 
hypochondriacal patients who have talked to me about fornica- 
tion, I have never heard one say that he was better or happier 
after it; several have said they were worse: and many, having 
failed, have been made much worse. ♦ 

♦ Professor Humphry very justly points-out that the functions* of 
the sexual organs, and we may include within them the related parts of 
the nervous system, 'may be suspended for a long period, possibly for 
life; and yet they may be sound and capable of being roused into 
activity.* The same can scarcely be said of any other parts. Holmes' 
System of Surgery, vol. V. p. 151. 


The mental treatment which I have thus suggested will be 
in many cases sufficient. It will be more or less useful according 
to the degree of good sense possessed by the patient. A sensible 
man, who has been only ignorant on sexual subjects, who can 
understand evidence and is ready to believe those who are most 
likely to tell him what is true, will be c^ed when the truth is 
told. At the opposite extreme, the worst of the hypochondriacs 
win be almost incapable of cure: they will believe nothing hope- 
ful; they will be dull to all common-sense statements; many of 
them will prefer to be guided by rogues rather than by honest 

Between these extremes you will have various degrees of suc- 
cess; and in the vast majority of cases time does good. Some few 
patients, whose hypochondriasis is a form of inherited insanity, 
become plainly insane; some, though they marry and have duly 
regulated sexual intercourse, and may cease to have involuntary 
emissions, yet retain their other nervous symptoms, and continue 
hypochondriacal; but the vast majority get well. Some fall in 
love, marry, and are cured ; some getting into the weighty respon- 
sibilities of life, have things to think-about more important than 
their sexual organs, and in all, as they grow older, the spinal 
marrow becomes less irritable, so that the emissions, if they have 
been annoyed with them, become less frequent and are attended 
with less feeling of exhaustion. 

Now, let me end by speaking, as I said I would, about the 
statements that miseries beyond any that I have told of are fre- 
quent consequences of the so-called functional sexual diseases. Epi- 
lepsy, all forms of paralysis, wasting palsies, amaurosis, impo- 
tence, insanity, indiocy, emaciation, disease of the heart, phthisis^ 
and whatever else may frighten the timid, or attract the morbid 
fear of the hypochondriac, are advertised by swindlers as the sure 
consequences of sexual disorders, unless they be averted by some 
secret treatment. And these men live on the insane and the fool- 
ish whom they can attract. . They would do less harm, and be 
less encouraged in their frauds, if they could not refer to the 
works of some members of our own profession for opinions justi- 
fying what they pretend to be their own. 

First among these false teachers is Lallemand. His picture 
of Spermatorrhoea, in its complete form, is a description of some- 
thing which I believe to be unknown among Englishmen. It may 


be that there is no such disease In France: a wild imagination 
may have suggested it: but whether it can be found in France 
or not, I believe you will never see it here. I have not yet seen 
such a case as any of the worst cases which Lallemand describes, 
nor any which would justify the general tone of his descriptions. 
To many others with as good opportunities as myself for seeing 
rare and severe cases they are as completely unknown: and I ob- 
ser\'e that English writers on the subject, when they wish to tell 
the worst things to which spermatorrhoea can be said to lead, 
speak, not from their own observations, but from what they believe 
to have been Lallemand's. 

But setting-aside his account, you will find, even among hon- 
est English writers, more serious troubles assigned to sexual dis- 
orders than I think they can justly be charged with. 

In speaking of the symptoms of irritable spinal marrow 
associated with frequent seminal emissions, I indicated the fallacy 
of the argument on which it is held that these symptoms are the 
consequence of the emissions. The emissions I said and (I hope) 
showed, are the consequences not the cause of the disorders of 
the nervous system ; they may aggravate the condition from which 
they themselves arise, but it is only in this sense that any measure 
of the disease can be ascribed to them. 

Nearly the same may be said concerning the other supposed 
consequences of sexual disorder and sexual excess of whatever kind. 
Let us take, for instance, insanity; and what is said of it might 
be said of epilepsy and the other horrors assigned as consequences 
of spermatorrhoea and masturbation. 

Masturbation and sexual excesses are commonly assigned as 
the cause of insanity in a considerable proportion of the insane 
inmates of asylums. But, I think you wiU find that no estimate 
is attempted of the probability that they who are said to have 
been thus made insane would have become insane without this or 
any other excess. No doubt, in any man who inherits a disposition 
to insanity, excess of any kind, whether in sexual things, or in 
drinking, gambling, or any other, will hasten or determine the 
advent of insanity ; but excesses do not make men insane who have 
naturally healthy brains. Think of the number of habitual drunk- 
ards whom we see dying here: the poor wretches are not mad, un- 
less their drunkenness be a sign of it, an effect not a cause of in- 
sanity. Or, think of the number of sensualists in all classes of 
society, who, to the last degree and their latest life, stimulate and 


indulge their sexual desires in any way they can. These do not 
become insane in any larger proportion than do gamblers, or over- 
active politicians, or even the vehement students of science. To 
determine the influence of excesses in producing insanity you must 
count not only the insane but the sane who have committed excesses 
and retained their mental power. 

And, even among the insane there are many of whom it would 
be truer to say that they masturbated because they were insane, 
than that they became insane because they masturbated. It is 
the same as with drunkenness. Habitual and paroxysmal drunk- 
enness seem to me more frequently the consequence of insanity 
than insanity is of them. Certainly, the most marked cases are 
in those who are members of families in which insanity and other 
maladies of nervous centres are prevalent, and in those who are 
on other and previous grounds known to be most wholly sane or 
of average mind. Given a predisposition to insanity, and, no 
doubt, any of these exciting or, as they may better be called, ex- 
hausting causes, may induce it; may hasten it or determine its 
occurrence. And the greater the disposition, the less need be the 
exhaustion that will suffice: while in those in whom there is only 
the least, if ^ny, disposition to insanity, nothing less than the 
utterest exhaustion from excess may suffice to produce it, if even 
this may. The drunkards and sensualists who live and die sane 
are too many to let us speak of hard drink, or masturbation, or 
sexual excesses as causes of insanity, unless under many reserves 
and conditions. 

And what is true in respect of insanity is true in respect of 
other assigned consequences of sexual disorders. These disorders 
are effectual exciting causes of only such diseases as the patients 
are prone to; and the proneness or predisposition is much nearer 
to the essence of the disease than is the exciting cause. 

By Prof. R. Kafemann.* 

SCHOPENHAUER'S posthumous works contain a witty 
aperfu: "That singular, instinctive joy of paternity has its 
source in the consciousness that by contributing to the life 
of the species one has escaped the death to which one suc- 
cumbs as an individual.'' 

The captain in Strindberg's "Father" hopes to perpetuate 
hb own existence in his child, to whom he has devoted a life full 
of toil and moil; his child is the embodiment of his thoughts of 
immortality. Primeval delusion of immortality, profound biol- 
ogical error which makes numberless men unhappy and led Strind- 
berg to better experience. Remembering which, he exclaims: 
**Family, thou art the home of all social vices, the asylum for 
lazy women, the inferno of children, the hell where chains are forged 
for the pater familias!" 

Thousands of books, full of golden words, give advice and 
warning. Who heeds them, who profits by them? 

The great satirist Juvenal, who lived meagerly on the parsi- 
monious patronage of the great (aeris inops — corpus eget), writes 
bitterly: "They say thou wilt marry, oh Postumus, — ^what whim 
has entered thy head that thou wilt take a wife unto thyself as 
long as there are ropes by which thou canst hang thyself, high 
windows from which thou canst precipitate thyself ; as long as the 
bridge of the Tiber is at hand." 

Epicurus shows a similar attitude toward marriage. He was, 
of course, unmarried, as most of the great men were. Lucretius, 
his greatest disciple, has recorded the master's views on marriage 
in that celebrated poem "De rerum natura." 

Goethe recognized the sacredness of marriage as a result of 
Christian civilization, but declared that marriage was unnatural. 
He lived according to this view. In spite of his ardent affection 
for Antonia de Branconi he never thought of marrying her. 

Ibsen believed that marriage had corrupted and enslaved man- 
kind. Tolstoy was a decided antagonist of marriage, as we read 
in his posthumous conversations. According to him, marriage is 
one of man's heaviest chains, dragging him down. 

Unhappily married men of genius are numberless. Klenz calls 
them with a word of his own coinage: Kakogamists. 

Nor do wpmen fare better — at least, not the intellectually 
advanced women. 

* Translated from his book: lUusionen, Irrtumer und Fahrlassig- 
keiten im Liebesleben der Mensch^n. 



Marquise de Maintenon called marriage a state which caused 
the unhappiness of two-thirds of mankind. She admonished the 
young people entrusted to her care not to submit to the conjugal 
yoke. It is probable that she spoke from experience. 

Queen Christina of Sweden, daughter of the great Gustavus 
Adolphus, writes in her memoirs : "Men marry because they do not 
know what they are doing, girls marry because they, want to enjoy 
freedom under the protection of a husband.'' 

No more quotations ! It cannot be denied, that most marriages 
show flaws and cracks. They are caused by deep-seated biological 
differences which do not emerge to the surface and make them- 
selves felt until the hurricane of sexual passion has become calm. 
However, these defects prove nothing against marriage as such. 
I assert that there are many happy marriages. I go further and 
declare: Marriage is for many men the conditio sine qua non for 
becoming morally strong through the burdens and responsibilities 
which the conjugal union imposes. Most men have yet to learn 
how to control their impulses and regulate their lives according 
to the laws of reason. Intellect and will alone are not sufficient to 
maintain their authority over body and mind. Marriage with a 
soft but firm hand tames man's passions, which so often overpower 
him in his unguarded moments^. Marriage is the perennial source 
of beneficial influences which break the violence of impetuous im- 
pulses, restrain them and regulate their course. According to 
Abb^ Jerome Coignard (Anatole France), the Philistines do not 
know what society is in a large city, what man there is and how 
his blood seethes. In a letter to Max Kahlbeck, the well-known 
poet Widman describes very aptly his mental condition as a man 
of twenty-eight: "By reason of my experiences I declare that I 
would have been ruined at twenty-eight if marriage had not saved 
me; if I was alone for awhile my mind was divided against 
itself, not to speak of all the disorders into which my disposition 
plunged me." Widman describes here that mental condition so 
well known to all bachelors: "Room fear," i. e. the fear of being 
alone which urges them to leave their lodgings and seek company. 
That fear of being alone is nothing else than a condition of excite- 
ment, caused by excessive secretions of the testicles; the sufferer 
cannot sleep and is impelled — without being conscious of it — to 
seek amorous adventures. Contact and evacuation appeases the 
excitement. Otherwise, alcohol does it. There is no other biological 
anodyne as powerful as sexual intercourse. 


Benvenuto Cellini narrates that when he was 29 years old he 
took unto himself a model of great beauty and slept with her nearly 
every night; "before I used to be a light sleeper," he says, "but 
now it was difficult to wake me up.'* 

Although I admit the educational value of marriage I do not 
agree with certain conclusions drawn from statistical data. 

In an interesting essay on the excess (surplus) of women, 
Griinspan says: "The public and the individual weal are identical 
here ; for marriage is beneficial in every respect. Marriage prolongs 
life and promotes health. Of one thousand single persons of mar- 
riageable age (20-50 years) in Prussia, there died between 1891 
and 1900: males, 42.07; females, 25.58; while out of one thousand 
married persons there died: males, 24.26; females, 28.00. The 
great advantage of marriage is conspicuous, chiefly in regard to 
the males.'* 

The old mistake, made again and again by philogamists ! The 
greater mortality of unmarried men of marriageable age proves 
absolutely nothing in favor of the hygienic value of marriage. 
The strong, the healthy, the vigorous are undoubtedly more inclined 
to marry than weaklings, physical and mental cripples; a great 
many of the latter abstain from marriage, but they die at an earlier 
age on account of a biologicaUy inferior constitution. Those 
figures are applicable to a whole nation, but not to smaller sections. 
This was demonstrated recently by F. von der Velden. According 
to RiflFel's tabulation, the effects of married life are not at all 
beneficial to men. The longer the union lasts, the shorter is the 
average life of the husband. A late marriage or an early dis- 
ruption of the bond by the death of the wife is favorable to the 
average age and health of the husband. For the number of chil- 
dren is determined, as a rule, by the length of the marriage (this 
is the case chiefly in rural districts). In spite of the fact that 
all or most of the children die during infancy, procreation is going 
on. The advantages of a regulated life are considerably surpassed 
by the unfavorable effects of marriage. An ever growing number 
of children imposes new burdens on the father: more work, more 
cares, greater poverty. All these circumstances are detrimental 
to the longevity of a married man. 

The average age of men with no or very few children is 
about 3 or 4 years longer than the age of those with the usual 
number of children (probably more than 4 years, for men who have 
only a few children marry early, as a rule. According to statistics, 
their average age is 34 years). 


The smaller amounts of cares and wori^ preserves childless 
fathers; they live longer, although the state of their health is 
below the average; for childlessness is generally a symptom of 
inferior health. Notwithstanding the fact that this applies only 
to the moiety of married men, while the other percentage is 
represented by women, the higher average age of childless men 
shows that their inherited inferior health is antagonized by certain 
factors: the absence of cares for the offspring. 

Marriage is associated with great dangers for the women of 
rural districts. Eiarly marriages (before the 22d year) are harm- 
ful. Childless mothers reach the highest age on account of their 
carefree existence; short birth intervals — up to 8 years— shorten 
the lives of the mothers, while longer intervals are more favorable 
to the duration of life. Von der Velden is right : the rapid succes- 
sion of births is one of the evil consequences of monogamy. The 
procreation of children is the Scylla, fecundation the Charybdis 
of conjugal bliss and health. 

I hope the above figures, which are absolutely authentic, have 
a sobering effect upon the disgusting birth-fanatics. 

It would not be difficult to dispel by additional discussion the 
popular illusion as to the hygienic advantages of marriage. The 
Life Insurance Association of Gotha states, with unmistakable 
clearness, that there is no difference between the average age of 
married and unmarried persons (provided their moral conduct is 
the same). The greatest, but steadily decreasing, mortality is 
represented by persons under 15 years of age; deaths of persons 
over 60 show a small reduction while those of middle aged pcj'sons 
remain stationary. As the majority of men are married, we may 
conclude from these statements that marriage has no favorable 
influence on longevity. 

In an interesting lecture on the fluctuations of mortality, 
Hirschfeld corroborates our conclusions. He further maintains 
that the average longevity is small after the 40th year. The 
assertion that celibacy induces mental disorders is idle talk, based 
on dead figures which prove nothing and can be applied this or the 
other way. If there are more unmarried than married persons in 
insane asylums, this must be explained by the fact that insanity 
manifested itself at such an early age that marriage was im- 
possible. The report of 1902 on Insanity of the Canton Bern, 
lays stress on the fact that the Uncertainty of Economic Existence 
contributes more to mental disorders than alcohol, venereal diseases, 
heredity and other factors. 


What remains of that wonderful beneficial influence of mar- 
riage? Nothing, absolutely nothing ! For the little which marriage 
gives, it takes ten times more. It is not so bad if both parties 
have some property. However, marriages among the upper classes 
represent the disgusting spectacle of overworked husbands when 
both parties are poor. Our indignation is aroused if we see that 
these unpleasant conditions have their source in ignorance about 
the true nature of love. Many men are sorry afterwards for ever 
having married, but they have too much honor to undo their fatal 
decision. The poor man was helpless under the power of mysterious 
influences when he made the critical and most important decision 
of his life. But the iron law of habit slowly will relax that mental 
tension. The meaning of that influence in organic life — ^the phys- 
ical as well as the mental — can be ascertained by a study of the 
eye. If the conjunctiva is irritated until inflammation is produced 
and this repeated for several times, we observe at the third irrita- 
tion the reaction growing less intensive; at the seventh, or eighth 
irritation, the reaction does not take place at all. The law of 
habit is valid for all manifestations of life. 

We never can escape the effects of this law; in exceptional 
cases, they may not manifest themselves at once. The truth of 
this statement is amply demonstrated by many marriages of 10 
or 20 years standing becoming suddenly wrecked. Of 909?? of 
married couples, both parties come to know the tyranny of this 
law: love takes its leave, the misery of the conjugal union remains ; 
the burdens of life are doubled and multiplied by the arrival of 
more children. 

An unfortunate husband may be a man of finer sensibilities 
and higher culture — ^it does not matter — ^he must submit to the 
pitiless despotism of foolish customs and absurd conventionalities. 
It is lamentable to see how an intellectual man wears out himself 
in tedious routine work, how he is deprived of his natural right 
to live his own life and to make personal liberty the foundation of 
his existence. 

Exhaustion and resignation are the consequences of such an 
enslaved Ufe; only a few have the moral courage to break their 
chains. At middle age organic defects show the results of such a 
joyless, humdrum existence. The sclerosis of the arteries appears 
comparatively soon. These are the wages of a laborious, weari- 
some, monotonous, cramped, spiritless life. 

I agree with Max Herz, the distinguished Viennese heart spe- 
cialist, who maintains that mental influences are the chief cause 


of the extraordinary frequency of sclerosis of the arteries ani<mg 
hard-working men of the middle class and with large families. 
He foimd that continual annoyance and worry is exceedingly harm- 
ful to the kidneys and the blood-vessels of the heart, and that the 
morality of which we hear so much nowadays is the corroding evil 
which induces sclerosis of the arteries. The young people of to-day 
are treated with nothing else than sermons on duty and morab; 
ideals are put before them which are aitirely beyond their reach, 
l^e results are disappointment and worry, which destroy health 
and life. Also **unfettered** persons, men that are bom wealthy, 
suffer from the same complaints: by an unfavorable constitution, 
an unhappy mental disposition they are not adapted to enjoy life. 
But there are no better remedies than pleasure and joy. Those 
men are busy always and possessed with an idea, worrying about 
their fkmily, the brilliant prospects of their children, they are 
scheming new undertakings or grappling -with social problems. 

In her splendid book "The Sexual Crisis,"* Grete Meisel-Hess 
makes the following apt remark: ^^he mania of modem man for 
work is a correlation of his inability to love and feel happy. He 
has no time for being human, while the truly great men always 
had time. The ideas of business and social duties dominate him 
entirely. The aim of life is complete perfect manhood. This 
cannot be attained without sexual love.'' 

Heinrich Gomperz says that to-day we have an industrial 
civilization and despise the man who does not work. But this is 
not the only possible standpoint, and, perhaps, our position is 
unjust and one-sided. The man, Gomperz continues, who suboi^ 
dinates material interests to his human dignity is nearer the ethical 
ideal than a man who is forced to center all his thoughts, hopes 
and wants on those interests. Indeed, this perpetual struggle for 
existence, the continual chase after the dollar — made fair or unfair, 
it does not matter! — the never-ceasing solicitude for the family, 
and the daily grind and toil produces lamentable results. The 
modem pater familias — even if he is well-to-do — offers the mourn- 
ful spectacle of a prematurely aged, dried up, mummified wretch. 
These views are not in accord with those of Hartmann who believes 
that the moral dangers of riches are inferior to those of poverty. 

Let us return to our poor pater familias in evening dress. 
Too late he recognizes that he cannot have a wife who lives only 

♦ English translation published by The Critic and Guide Co., 1917; 
price, $3.00. 


for himself and the children. Schopenhauer raised his mighty 
voice in vain on behalf of these men. 

The greatest among the great has said: "A man who has 
not followed the road which was laid out for him by nature should 
never marry. He who is without means is not firmly rooted in the 
soil, a storm may throw him down ; therefore, he must stand alone. 
Only a single man can venture to live with small means and without 
work. The evils which are engendered by the loss of freedom to 
dispose of his own person outweigh by far the advantages which 
may accrue from the possession of a woman. It is absolutely im- 
possible that she could make him happy if she is not happy with 
him. He expects a life of pleasure, but as a rule he is disappointed 
after having half his fortune paying milliners and dressmakers. 
It is the greatest ingratitude to fate to throw away the means 
which secure one's existence. Bacon of Verulam was right : he who 
has wife and children, has given hostages to fate ; they are obstacles 
to great undertakings. The greatest and most meritorious works 
were produced by unmarried men. Marriage is a debt, continues 
Schopenhauer, contracted in youth and paid back in old age. Bal- 
thasar Gracian was right : he calls a man of forty a camel, because 
he has a wife and cliild. 

The aim of the career of most young men, Schopenhauer says, 
is to become the beast of burden of a wife. In the service of their 
wives they spend their leisure time which the philosopher needs for 
himself. The married man carries the full burden of life, the 
unmarried man only half of it. He who wants to devote his life 
to the Muses must stay single. All great philosophers remained 

Gwinner says that these words are sensible and true, and can 
not be contradicted from the standpoint of pure reason. Yet, he 
thinks, a voice within us which we cannot silence, says that we 
must fetter our reason when we want to face the highest duties of 
life; we must submit to a yoke in order to acquire transcendental 

Schopenhauer, wJien quoting Montaigne's remark that we do 
not marry for our own interests, but for those of others, ought 
to have been mindful of his own ethical principle: He who lives 
for others best promotes his own welfare. 

Rhode says in a letter to his friend Nietzsche: "Marriage is 
a ticklish thing; it is remarkable how soon married people grow 
old. They expect nothing more from life. This has its advantages 


and also its drawbacks. Slowly, gradually it transforms man. 
I should like to know the result of marriages of very young men.*' 

Rhode refers to an English physician who had examined the 
health of a number of Indian high school boys, 15 to 22 years 
of age. The results were astounding. 

Most of the boys were anemic and pale ; their lungs were poor 
as were their hearts, their teeth, their eyes. Think of a boy of 
17 who is burdened with the care of one or two children; he is 
tormented by his wife and mother-in-law; both are quarrelling 
always! — Indeed, the pecuniary side of the marital question is of 
great interest for the physician. 

We know from Ferrero how the middle classes, 2000 years ago, 
had the choice between starvation with children and bread without 

The world's literature is full of sayings which confirm the fact 
that poverty never was highly esteemed, neither in ancient times 
nor to-day. 

Full of auri sacra farms were the men of Babylon, of Sparta, 
of Rome. The great physician Galenus says: "I cannot hope 
for great success, for at present science is of low repute. Only 
riches, social standing and political power excite admiration." 

Okura, a Japanese poet of the 17th century complains: 
"Yes, I am a man — a rare fortune ! 

And as man I was bom; 

Yet, I am covered with rags, 

My robe hangs from the shoulders 

Like sea-tang. 

And, without, the task-master standeth 

With the whip in his hand : 

Gret up ! he cries, get up ! 

Oh, cruel, cruel is life !*' 

Hebbel writes : "This is the curse of poverty : one is not allowed 
to follow the human urgings of one's heart, one must be resigned 
until, at last, one receives that which is not denied to the beggar, 
for if Christian charity leaves him lying at the street comer, 
people would hold their noses.** 

Their works show that our greatest poets, Schiller, Goethe, 
and Ibsen, were intenselv interested in the material side of existence. 
A short time before he died, Schiller told Karoline von Wolzogen : 
"I hope I can lay aside for the children so much that they are 
protected against want ; this thought weighs heavy upon my mind." 


Our sentim^ital optimists want to make us believe that we 
are able to raise three or four children with a yearly income of a 
thousand dollars. Humbug! ^Tatched pants are the sepulchre of 
self-consciousness." Millions of beings curse the industrious 
fecundity of their parents. 

Hippel says : ^^Sometimes, it is best for married people to live 

from hand to mouth. ^There is no greater word than the word 

father. The man who is not a father does not deserve to be called 
citizen ; he is only half a man." Hippel died unmarried and left 
a fortune of 140,000 dollars ! 

It is surprising to note how similar our conceptions are to 
those held 2000 years ago. We praise poverty while despising it. 
Having awakened to self -consciousness, he who is bom poor feels 
the contempt and cannot get rid of it. To get rich is the formula 
of his inmost law; this is the cause of many conflicts and often 
leads him to destruction. 

The great sociologist Simmel says in his classical work : *^The 
Philosophy of Money": 

^^The rich man enjoys many advantages which reach far be- 
yond those things which he can buy with his money .... he who 
does not profit at all by his riches treats him with more politeness 
than he would treat a poor man. The rich man lives in an ideal 
sphere of distinction. — Yea, even a kind of moral worth is attri- 
buted to riches. One treats a poor man as if he was guilty of 
some crime, and one turns away the beggar with anger; and good 
natured people seem to feel that they are the poor man's superiors. 
This attitude can lead to real perversities : the practical idealism, 
as an unappreciated scientific work of a rich man is regarded with 
greater respect and valued more from an ethical standpoint than 
the production of a poor schoolmaster. Although people were 
greedy for money at all times avarice reached its acme when the 
modest satisfaction of the demands of life was no longer regarded 
as sufficient and the religious idea lost its efficiency; our whole 
civilization — as in the times of the decline of Greece and Rome — 
is impregnated with pecuniary interests. To-day, money is no 
longer a means to an end, but a perpetual condition and a necessity 
of life. Modem man is more the product of his milieu than the 
man of the past. The man of to-day is no longer plastic, but 
his productivity and his whole personality is bound up with and 
influenced by external circumstances. A higher intellectuality could 
not thrive and produce more under the modest conditions of the 


Because of this well-known fact, the great English novelist 
Meredith, some years ago, scandalized his respectable contempo- 
raries with the proposal of "temporary marriage." 

Our capitalistic system will produce a further decrease in mar- 
riages. Man's prospects for the satisfaction of his sexual desires 
are becoming darker and darker. The vigorous hero will find in 
a larger circle opportunities for the exhibition of his strength. 
But the condition of the weakling will be lamentable: to escape 
greater evils he will be obliged to decide for the lesser ones. 

The considerable excess of middle-aged women of 10 years ago 
is slowly but constantly decreasing, the number of independent 
women is continually increasing, and soon the demand will be 
greater than the supply. 

Within 50 years woman will rule over man. He will be found 
worthy of nothing but hard labor. Woman is the superior being, 
in spite of all the protests of the Anti-Woman's League. 

I will not support my assertion by arguments of personal likes 
or dislikes, but adduce facts which admit valid and general con- 

Woman is not the old, faded, worn-out specimen men like to 
represent her as being. The woman of the future will be the result 
of tlie impelling ideas and actual conditions of the present time. 

To-day, money regulates all the mutual economic. relations of 
men ; even children feel the influence of money, or rather, the lack 
of money. Nobody knows this better than the physician who is 
constantly in touch with these conditions. 

The man of to-day finds his hopes seldom realized in marriage. 
Tired of an equivocal sexual intercourse, the young man believes 
he can find a lasting satisfaction of his libido in the union with 
one woman. He soon finds this one of his greatest illusions. Mar- 
riage destroys the libido: calculation takes the place of affection. 
Without illusions, he is poorer now than he was before marriage. 
He finds himself in the state of his former freedom without the 
possibility of using freedom. He begins to look out and to seek 
what he thinks is due him. If he is strong enough to overcome 
the restraints of his own moral nature, he meets with many external 
obstacles. Struggling with them he faces neurosis to which he 
must succumb when sexual restraints remain. Freud makes the 
apt remark : "The psychic power of sexual satisfaction is enhanced 
by its denial; the restrained libido will find the weaker spots in 
the structure of the vita sexualis and break out in the form of 
morbid symptoms. The increase of nervous disorders is caused 
bv the increased sexual restrictions." 


If the sufferer is able to free himself from the fetters of 
restraint he oscillates between two homes, content that he has 
found his affinity who satisfies his sexual wants. 

The cataclysm of modern marriage comes, as a rule, at the 
fifth year, or so, — at least among the intellectual classes. 

In the womb and during infancy boys are already weaker and 
of less vitality than girls. Later in life, the longevity of men 
18 shorter than that of women. In 1890-1891, in Munich, the 
average age of women was 27.7 years, of men 24.21 ; at the age 
of one year: of females 44.9, of males 42.8. In 1909, in Berlin, 
1640 males and 2710 females had passed the 70th year. Of 
10050 married people, 6288 men ; but only 2767 women, died. 

In Berlin, 1910: 86644 boys five years old and 86120 girls of 
the same age. Between 55-60 the greater mortality of men is 
conspicuous. There were 2840 widowers against 14861 widows. 
There died 6J^ times more men than women. 

Between (50-65: widows 15981, 2762 widowers. 

At a higher age, the longevity of man is more conspicuous. 
Between 75-80 the widows prevail by 117,8% and 167% among 
those of 80 years of age. 

Ovaries that are inserted into male mammalia grow, mature, 
form follicles, the part which elaborates the inner secretions is 
preserved and becomes so active that it is able to check the growth 
of the bones of male animals and to stimulate certain female char- 
acteristics, as the adii>ose cushions, the development of the breastS", 
parts of testicles inserted into female animals decay soon. In 
Argentina more men die of tuberculosis than women. 

The physical powers of women, if developed, are marvelous 
(Female acrobats, etc. — Miss Annette Kellermann). The same is 
true of their mentality. The observations made with female high- 
school graduates are not always favorable. At the celebration 
of the jubilee of the university of Gottingen only one young 
female received a prize. In Prussia, five women were honored with 
the title of professor. 

I do not care to mention here the many learned women of the 
middle ages and the present time. I hope the few instances above 
reported are sufficient to show that an agitation in favor of a one- 
sided over-valuation of the achievements of man cannot be founded 
on biological facts. Of course, the limits of the accomplishments 
of both sexes are elastic. The extent of the average accomplish- 
ments is here the determinant factor. Yet, we see in woman "pos- 
sibilities," as in a gold mine, and are satisfied if the treasures of 


one side axe dug out at the expense of the generative riches of 
the other. 

Then we approadi the ultimate end which Schmauch (Chi- 
cago) has so beautifully prophesied: The Unification of Both 


Y. M. C. A., Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Dr. Wiluam J. RoBiKSON, New York. 

Dear Sir: Some days ago I saw your book under conditions 
which prevented my doing more than skipping through it. It 
struck me as containing some of the strongest ideas and language 
that are possible on the subject you dealt with; and I would like 
to know if you can advise me on several points which it suggested 
to me. 

My age is 41 ; married when ftft ; five children ; youngest, three 
months — eldest, a boy, 17 ; next, a girl of 15 ; just in the stage of 
develofMnent into womanhood. 

The statements in your book are so incredible to me — some of 
them — that I can hardly expect you to believe how ignorantly inno- 
cent both myself and wife were, when getting married. Do you 
know that, in the first place, I never had any relation with any 
girl previously? I am told this is very exceptional; surely that 
isn't so? I did not even understand the difference between a virgin 
and a married woman; did not know that some force was necessary 
on a first connection — did not know what the ^maidenhead' was ; (do 
not know now for that matter — except that I know that a first con- 
nection is generally bloody) ; and on the first attempt, felt disap- 
pointed because I did not succeed ; thought there was some deficiency 
in my wife — there was not, because a few days after — ^I don't know 
wfuit happened — cannot describe the sensation, but it was com* 
plete then — ^I imagine there must have been a rupture of the hymen 
on the first occasion, which I did not understand. Not only was my 
ignorance colossal; (perhaps better for me that it was?) but my 
wife's was as great — ^greater, I think; she has told me since, that 
she did not know that anything passed from the male organ — did 
not understand what seed was, or what took place ; and while you 
may not believe that, I am going to ask you to believe what follows, 
because I believe it myself: she did not even know, within twenty 


four hours of the birth of her first baby, how it was bom ! Some- 
one asked her to get a needle and thread ready, and she actually 
thought that it was in connection with some operation that was 
necessary ! That her body had to be cut open, etc. etc., and the 
child bom that way. Can you, after writing the book you have, 
believe that kind of innocence? 

The first question I ask is: what is the ideal state for a 
married man; is it absolute continence; or is it a question of 
^often enough, but not too often" as one physician once remarked to 
me, when consulting him on another matter. (I d<m't know 
quite what he meant, and did not go into any details with him; 
that was the first time I ever heard a man refer directly to the act in 
a professional way. What is ^often enough' anyway?) 

After the first baby, my wife certainly knew then how babies 
were bom; and she had had enough. Her mother assisted her to 
get the feeling that it was not ^love' that brought children into the 
world, but **lust ;*' and so, my wife, frightened by her experience, 
went to her mother. Her mother (dolgong her) introduced her to 

the 1 had heard them vulgarly referred to in occasional dirty 

conversation I might have heard — ^without understanding just what 
was meant. I used these abominable things a few times — not more 
than four — but it always meant a horrible headache — ^a sort of 
splitting pain across the forehead to me — and I would not do that 
any more. Then the lady's mother (again I wish her no good) 

introduced her daughter to a kind of — some sort of ^which 

introduced into the female organ ^neutralised* the seed, and preven- 
ted conception. These we used for some while, until I began to 
think — and finally I got the plan of substitution, shaping scnne of 
these suppositories of harmless material — the result was, without 
knowing how — a second baby was bom. My wife simply thought 
the suppository had failed to ^prevent' in that particular case. 

However, she would not run any more *risk' (what a word!) 
and when she was *in the way' again with a third baby — she sent 
for some horrible aborticm medicine — ^I got to know about it, and 
again I tricked her, by stopping the postman on his way to the 
house ; by taking the package of poison pills, and by substituting 
rhubarb pills. My wife (I have told her since of these things) does 
not believe it was done; she said she actually received the package 
herself, but of course, that was all part of the trick. Was it 
justified or not? I don't know now that it was. 

This stage was finally reached: "You don't love me," she 


says, ^^because, if you did, you would not do anything to make me 
have children. Look at G.^ she said, "Aw wife has only one child; 
he loves his wife.'' (Yes, look at G., I think now — this is ten 
years ago since that conversation — and G. is a half diildish, 
weak willed, unsuccessful, nervous, middleaged old failure, and his 

"You are mistaken,*' I said, "married people who abuse them- 
selves, do not love each other." "You are mistaken," she said, 
"no woman evee got maeeied expecting to have childeek." 
This made me rather upset ; and I began to think again ; unfortun* 
ately at this point in my life, a servant girl whom we had, must 
have got some inkling of what was transpiring, and made love to 
me — purely but of curiosity. I followed the idea up — and found 
that this girl was willing to do anything to fulfill her object, 
which was, to carry a child; and for a few weeks, she and I had 
relations — not more than six or eight times. The connection was 
imperfect — the old sensation of headache, of not being able to com- 
plete the act (as imder the system with my wife) was the 

result; but it taught me that it is not true, that women submit 
always with the hope of refusing consequences. 

Of course, it is horribly hard on my wife to treat her like that; 
but I feel that her mental attitude is incorrect. "You are married 
to me,'* I say, "and knowing the pangs of childbirth, you do 
not wish to go on." My plan then should have been to have waited, 
until she was willing to go on — and not to have made use of sub- 
terfuges to make her have children against her will. I recognize 
that mistake — ^now. But my question is — ^what is the ideal 
course? Satan only knows how they discover it, but I firmly believe 
that some intuition tells a woman that a man will not associate with 
them, for pleasure only^ but that here is someone who may be the 
means of their conceiving, and then they get after that particular 
man; sometimes it has made me tremble to have a woman — and 
married at that — look at me in a particular way, and I feel sorry 
for my wife, for her position of declining association, because 
of the fear of consequences, while at the same time (it is late in the 
day to be learning it) I realise that every woman is entitled to 
please herself whether she has children or not. If she does not 
desire children, then she must not permit intercourse ; and I would 
respect my wife even more than I do, if she adopted that method; 
if on the other hand, a woman desires children, or does not object 
to the natural consequences of marriage, let her get married. If, 


however, I choose (as I did) one girl out of the world, for marriage, 
I mean — ^marriage; and if the girl, after marriage, says. No, I 
did not understand that childbearing was to be one of the obli- 
gations, then I have felt there is no marriage. 

I recoUect some years ago, in conversation, how this idea 
came to me — and for the first time with a shock : "I believe," I said, 
referring to a man's general relations with women, "that no man 
should associate with any woman, unless it is their predetermined 
intention and desire that conception shall follow." Why, my 
acquaintance said, you mean marriage ! Of course, I did, without 
knowing what marriage really meant 

That is something then, that I have always felt — outside of 
the first few days — ^that I and my wife are not married in the 
meaning that I attach to that word. I don't mean that I want to 
drag her down to death with carrying children, not a bit; but 
that every time we 'associate' it shall always be with that particular 
desire on the part of both of us as I have stated before. 

Jt is easy for a man to talk about these things, because he 
does not have the burden to carry, nor does- he go down to the gates 
of death ; but it is still true that I have never — ^not once — (except 
with the servant giri I mentioned)— *got with' my wife, without 
the wish, on my part at any rate, for the proper consequences — 
conception. Even when using, always against my wish, means of 
prevention, I always hoped that 'something* would prevent the 
•preventatives' preventing. 

I have five fine children now, and all I desire, is to see them 
happy, and my wife with them ; what then, is the ideal course for me 
to take? Absolute continence; *often enough but not too often;' 
or, simply wait for her to declare herself differently, which may 
never happen? 

It appears to me on talking vaguely to different fellowb, 
that I have a somewhat crazy idea of sex relations ; a bit ^crotchety' 
or *dotty,' as the British call it; is that so? Am I right, when 
I tell my boy of 17 — C., my boy, don't have anything to do with 
any girl, until you get married ; and take care that your first night 
is really, not only your first night, but your wife's also; that is, 
in my opinion, the only marriage. And don't sleep with your wife 
unless you are both of one mind — and let that mind be not worse 
than the mind which is in animals — for no animals indulge in 
the sex relation, except for purposes of procreation. 

Isn't there any decent book that would present the subject 
to me properly? If I once admit that it may be right to seek a 


woman for pleasure and satisfaction — then, farewell, wife! which 
would be about the scabbiest treatment she could possibly have. 

Taking it allround, I am inclined to be satisfied that I have 
done as well as I have-— even using strategy against my wife's 
inclinations — but sometimes, I get just a vague wish that I had a 
woman, who positively desired and yearned after the ^consequen- 
ces" — a baby every time! Just as that servant girl did. Thank 
Heaven, there was ^something' — ^what, I know not — which preven- 
ted anything f (blowing as a result of my sin with her. 

Your book is so terrible — horrible — nightmarish — incredible — 
almost impossible for me to believe such things — ^perhaps you may 
be more inclined to credit my ^innocaice' if I met ytni. — ^F. A. 


Much has been said and written about the girl who goes wrong. 
What is to be done with the boy who wants to be bad and do 
risqui things and who has it in his power to demoralize a whole 
community? Is it not time that some serious thought was given 
to this phase of the increasingly important question of the rela- 
tions of the sexes? 

A boy, whom I will call Harry, grew up in a country village 
in New York State. He came of good stock and his family was 
highly respected in the community where they lived. When he 
was about fifteen he came upon a young widow and her paramour 
practicing coitus clandestinus in the cellar of an abandoned store. 
He knew both parties very well, the widow being the nearest neigh- 
bor to his family. She was much perturbed and used every device 
to shield herself from exposure at the hands of the boy. She tried 
threats and entreaties and even offered coitus to the boy if he 
would promise to keep mum. The boy declined the offer, but went 
away thinking.— This widow had a daughter very nearly his own 
age. Remembering the adage, ^Like father, like son," he argued 
that if the mother was permitting such freedom as he had witnessed, 
he might yet enjoy similar pleasure with the daughter. Accord- 
ingly he approached the daughter on the question one day when 
occasion offered and found her not hard to persuade. An unoccu- 
pied tenant house of his father's offered convenient shelter for 
numerous meetings with this daughter. Before long Harry was so 
successful that he had two other girls meeting him upon occasion in 
the same unoccupied house. 

This went well till he began to sigh for other worlds to con- 
quer. He then confided in a boy friend and together they proceeded 


to become more intimately acquainted with a number of the so-called 
^^nicest" girls of the village. The most astounding part of the 
whole matter is that in some twenty girls whom these boys ap- 
proached only one steadfastly refused coitus. This girl permitted 
titillatio but would go no further, in spite of the fact that her older 
sister who had ^^been there'' chided her for missing so many of the 
good things of life. This practice was kept up by the boys till 
one spermatozoon wandered from the intended path and brought 
a little group of young people into court with the result that 
Harry's father paid a neat sum of hush money and the girl was 
taken to a nearby city for an ^^operation" whidi was performed 
just as nature intended. 

I followed this boy's career carefully for several years and 
found that he soon left his home town, wandered to the city, earned 
good money there and was a regular frequenter of the brothels. 
Later he went to Michigan, married a telephone girl after enjoying 
coitus clandestinely with her for nearly a year, displayed no little 
knowledge of the use of the catheter, and finally left his wife after 
about two years of married prostitution. 

After leaving his wife he went steadily to the bad. He drifted 
about from city to city always visiting the bawdy houses and 
following a succession of country fairs for a time. It was his 
boast that he could find a ^^girl" in a new town within three hours 
after his arrival. He worked gradually south till he f eU in with the 
easy females of the black race and of the mixed races. Here he 
lived a fast life, "hitting" everjrthing in sight, as he expressed it 
and taking particular delight in new conquests. He was a photo- 
grapher and once showed me a collection of some fifty photographs 
of halfbreeds and full bloods every one of whom he had known 
carnally. He died at the age of twenty-eight, of tuberculosis. 

What is to be done to protect our daughters from such young 
men as this one who practiced coitus with more than a hundred 
different puellae to say nothing of those he met in houses of prosti- 
tution? For at least five years this young man had the entrfe to 
the best families of his home town and was considered a model young 
man, when in reality he was violating the chastity of the daughters 
of the very mothers who were opening their houses to entertain 
him. Other cases, not so extreme as this one, have come to my 
attention from time to time, till I have come to the conclusion that 
such young men are not really so unusual, after all. — 

A High-School Principal. 



Dr. W. G. Cameron (Northwest Medicine, Vol. XV, No. 10) 
reports the following interesting case: 

Miss K., a nurse, age 80. Has had no diseases except those 
of childhood. She has no knowledge of lues or any constitutional 
disease in her family. Previous to present illness has had no eye 
trouble. About one month ago she scratched her right eyeball 
with her fingernail. The eye felt uncomfortable and was slightly 
red with some lachrymation for a day or two, when the irritation 
subsided and the eye seemed entirely well. After a few days the 
eyeball again became red above the cornea, where it had been 
previously injured. There was no discharge of pus, but the eye 
watered constantly. The redness of the eyeball gradually in- 
creased, accompanied by a swelling of the upper eyelid. She had 
no actual pain but the eye felt irritated, which discomfcM^ was 
increased by rotation of the eye. 

On account of the mildness of her symptoms, the absence of 
pain and the fact that her vision was not impaired, she regarded 
her condition as the natural result of an abrasion, and did not 
consult a physician until she became alarmed at the continuation 
of her symptoms and their gradual increase. 

The Doctor found the right upper eyelid markedly sfwollen 
and so edematous that it drooped over the margin of the lower lid. 
It was quite tenjse and was everted with difficulty. Upon opening 
the eyelids there was a profuse lachrymation, but no signs of 
purulent discharge or gumming of the lid margins. The right 
preauricular glands were enlarged to the size of an English wal- 
nut. The overlying skin was tense but no redness was present. 
The glands were not pcunful except on pressure. 

The eyeball was beefy red. The superficial vessels were 
engorged. The bulbar conjunctiva was edematous. Above the 
cornea and to the nasal side was an area of superficial necrosis or 
ulceration. Surrounding this area was a firm induration, the 
edema being absent at this spot. 

Vision in the right eye 6/10. Ophthalmoscopic examination 
showed a normal fundus. 

She complained of no pain, except that elicited by everting 



the eyelid, which was no doubt due to pressure from the edema. 
Three days later the watery secretions changed to a thin, semi- 
purulent discharge, and continued so until the eye became well. 
There was also evidence of a slight superficial sloughing. 

For the next ten days the swelling of the eyelid became more 
marked, causing some discomfort at night and upon movement of 
the eye. The condition of the eyeball changed but little in this 

Two weeks later a slight macular eruption appeared on her 
chest and neck. A Wassermann examination of the blood was 
made and found to be positive. She was then given salvarsan, and 
one week after the first dose the edema of the eyelid and the 
glandular involvement had disappeared, as had also the macular 
rash. The primary sore was healed, leaving a scar in the con- 

Inquiry into the source of her infection reveals that she had 
been nursing a mother in childbirth. The child had a skin disease 
which proved to be congenital syphilis, and the nurse as one of her 
duties applied ointments to the child's body. 


Buisson (quoted by Berthier "i>e* Nevroses Menstruelles,** 
1874) reports the cases of twt> girls, aged, respectively, twelve 
and thirteen years, who imagined themselves bewitched by eating 
potatoes given them by an old woman to whom they had refuseil 
alms. They were taken with vomiting, convulsions and maniacal 
fury, during which they lost the faculty of speech and commit- 
ted a thousand extravagant acts. After a strong purgative, the 
delirium increased, but the menses also appearing, they soon be- 
came calm and remained entirely cured. 

Girard (quoted by Berthier) reports: A girl, aged 12, of 
a nervo-sanguineous temperament, suffered from pain in the 
stomach and bowels, cramps, difficulty of breathing, and the globus 
hystericus. The morbid condition lasted for two years, at which 
time the following symptoms were noticed: Constipation, pain 
on pressure over the abdomen, irregular distribution of heat, fre- 
quency of pulse and general hyperesthesia. She then entered the 
Hotel Dieu, at Lyons. On the second day she was delirious, had 
hallucinations of sight and smell, and pains in the thighs and 


lumbar region. The following day there was a slight menstrual 
flow. Immediately all the symptoms began to disappear, and, 
in less than three weeks from her entrance into the hospital, she 
was discharged as cured. 

Dr. Claude Hoffman {Ky. M. /., May, 1917) reports the 
foUowing case: On Aug. 6, 1916, a man, 42 years old, complained 
of retention of urine. On Aug. S, following an attack of 
ptomaine poisoning, he first noted upon slight straining at the 
close of urination the discharge of a small quantity of bright red 
blood. When seen on Aug. 6, he had acute retention and was 
suffering intensely because of bladder distention. The prostate 
was slightly enlarged and sensitive over the area of the right 
lobe. After trying several methods, the patient was prepared 
for cystoscopy. After a thoro irrigation of the bladder, the 
cystoscope was introduced. When the obturator was withdrawn, 
the patient complained of intenfie pain, and began straining. 
After releasing the opening in the sheath of the cystoscope, a 
handful of blood dots were extruded with tremoidous force. 
Tliese clots were distinctly organized, being dark, tough and 
"leathery** in character. The blood, evidently, originated in the 
posterior urethra from rupture of an intracapsular prostatic 
abscess and flowed backward into the bladder where it coagulated. 
The acute retention was caused by the organized blood clot acting 
as a ball valve. After the escape of the clots from the bladder, reten- 
tion was relieved. Daily intravesical irrigations with 1-10.000 silver 
nitrate solution for ten days, two applications of a S per cent, 
solution of silver nitrate to affected parts, caused disappearance 
of symptoms, and the patient was enabled to urinate in the usual 
manner. His recovery was uneventful. 


That all men fear to die is the great law dominating the think- 
ing world, and without which all living things would soon cease 
to exist. This fear is a natural impulse, not merely an accident, 
but an important factor in the order of things. — J. J. Rousseau. 

We all love life and tremble before death. Yet we allow 
ourselves to be dominated and tyrannised over by fears of the end 
and live only half our existence. — Jean Finot. 



Nietzsche seems to have devoted himself chiefly to what he 
thought would shock the public He is at his best when be is most 
umnindf ul of efl^ect. His was the vanity of the mirror, saying to 
what it reflects: "See how faithfully I show you your image." 
— Weininoer. 


Canon Burchard, chamberlain of Pope Alexander, reports 
The last Sunday of October, in the evening, there supped wit] 
Duke of Valentinois (Caesar Borgia, son of Pope Alexand< 
his apartments, in the Apostolic palace, fifty honest prostitutes, 
who are called courtesans. The latter, after the meal, danced with 
the servants and others of the company, at first dressed, and after- 
wards stark naked. There were placed on the floor the candelabra 
of the table, with candles lighted, and about them were thrown 
chestnuts, which the courtesans, naked on all fours, picked up as 
they passed between the lines of the candelabra, in the presence of 
the Pope, the Duke, and Lucretia, the Duke's sister, who also looked 
on. To terminate the feast, gifts were ofi^ered — silk cloaks, hose, 
caps and other things — ^to the man who should know carnally the 
greatest number of the courtesans, the act being done in public, in 
the court of the palace. — Joh. Burchardi, Diariiun Sive Rerum 
Urbanarum Commentarii. 148S. A. D. 

[These are historical facts, and still we are nauseated with 
litanies of the sexual corruption of our times. With all our free- 
dom from religious dogma we are now much more moral than were 
our ancestors of the middle ages.] 


The organism of the man is altogether unafi^ected by the tran- 
sition from bachelorhood to the state of husband and father. He 
adds nothing to himself, and does not lose by what he gives. Th^ 
woman, however, by this new relationship, does not give but re- 
ceives, and in this way enters upon a new physiological plane of 
life, altering her whole constitution down to the veriest detail. 
Besides, a mother has to live for some time in an interchange of 
blood with a second body, whose composition is only half-condi- 
tioned by qualities inherited by it from the mother, the other half 
being contributed by paternally inherited characteristics. She has 


therefore partly nourished her system with blood owing half its 
nature to her husband, and in this way has assimilated to a certain 
degree some of the peculiarities of the latter. These^ indeed, lie 
dormant within her, but they can manifest themselves all the more 
strikingly in the children of a later marriage. The husband of a 
widow does not therefore find a clean page but one written over 
by his predecessor with whose hereditary tendencies his own must 
enter into conflict. A woman really gives herself up, soul and 
body, to her husband; a husband yields his soul, and yields his 
body only as he has undertaken the charge for working for his 
wife. The diversity of their instincts is very closely connected 
with this physiological difference of the action of marriage in 
both sexes. So long as the champions of the new woman cannot 
explain away this physiological difference, their attempts to weaken 
the distinction of the instincts would prove unavailing, and with a 
social equalization which ignores both these differences, they would 
produce unnatural creatures which could not last. — ^Eduard von 
Hartmann : "The Sexes Compared.'* 


In the domain of social morality, the demand for equality and 
equal judgment of the sexes is. . . . not tenable. The desire for 
emancipation must lead to one of these alternatives. Either we 
must permit a woman to do everything that is allowed to a man, 
in which case a reign of libertinage would be inaugurated utterly 
destructive of family life and the welfare of the community, or we 
must look thru prudish spectacles and forbid man to indulge in 
any license denied to woman ; in which case we would be led to an 
ab&urd and unnatural constraint, which would inevitably bring 
about either a reaction or a state of hypocritical Pharisaism. — 
Eduard von Hartmann. 

[I need hardly remind my readers that I am not to be held 
responsible for the opinions found in the extracts and abstracts 
which I publish. I like to present many sides. — ^W. J. R.] 


Each individual in its life history repeats, in a comparatively 

brief period of time, the racial or species-history to which it 

belongs, and as the different complexities of organization and 

different functionizings are evolved within the individual, from the 

simple embryonic state to that of maturity, so must the principle 


of sex-love or function of fertilization develop within the individual 
from its lowest elementary stage to a higher and harmonious per- 
fection. In other words, the higher expression of sex-love or a 
higher function of fertilization must be developed within the indi- 
vidual like any other function or expression of life which is not 
elementary. From this scientific fact it is evident that the individual 
must be trained and instructed either thru his own experience or 
thru the experience of others in order to develop the highest expres- 
sion of sex-love. While hereditary knowledge or what was once 
called instinct may be a certain guide in its development, yet 
heredity is only the accumulated experiences of our ancestors, and 
if the basis life power of intelligence was not used as a guide in 
all experiences there never could be a higher development of life 
in any form. — Gideon Dietrich. 


We endeavor to train and guide the evolving individual in 
all other expressions of life thru the experience and knowledge 
gained by others, but when it comes to the vital function of fertili- 
zation which exerts a far greater and deeper influence upon the 
individual life, health and well-being than any other power, our 
hypocritical conventionality throws a chilling blanket of prudery 
over the perplexed and inquiring mind. In view of the fact that 
we now know the fertilizing nature of sex-love and its vital in- 
fluence upon individual well-being when properly expressed, is it 
not more than criminal folly to continue to teach that it is a shame- 
ful and vicious function, and thus allow thousands to ruin and 
destroy their lives thru its unnatural expression ? The simple know- 
ledge that sex-love has a great and primary fertilizing power — 
a SELF-fertilizing power — for those who express it properly, will 
have a great influence in guiding the individual to lead a rational 
sex life. — Gideon Dietrich. 


This judge, when a girl came before him with a charge of 
rape against a young man, ordered the latter either to marry her 
or to pay her a certain sum of money. He elected quite naturally 
to do the latter ; and the money being paid, he was then instructed 
by the court to follow the girl on her way home and take the money 
from her by force. This he attempted to do; but tli^e girl defended 
herself so energetically that he was unable to overcome her ; and the 


judge, calling once laore both parties before him, ordered her to 
refund the fine, remarking that if she had defended her chastity aa 
yigorously as she did her pocket book she would have had the 
former still. — Ce&vantes: "Don Quixote." 


When the Spaniard wants to indicate an energetic and cour- 
ageous man, he uses the expression: Tiene cojones (he has testi- 
cles). It is synonymous with the expression, "Un hombre de 
corage" (a courageous man). 


Were man to be robbed of the instinct of procreation, and 
all that arises from it, mentally, nearly all the poetry, and perhaps 
the moral sense as well, would be torn from his life. — ^Maudsley. 



Prolonged abstinence makes men sad, unbridled and wild, as 
we often observe in sailors. The retention of the semen may be 
injurious to those who by nature are passionate and full of semen. 
Among the inconveniences one may mention pollutions, sperma- 
torrhea, swelling and inflanmiation of the seminal ducts, thickening 
and finally destruction of the accumulated semen, priapism, spasm, 
melancholy, and at last the violent passion itself. The nerves and 
veins of a plethoric man possess a natural disposition to motions 
and evacuation of seminal fluid, which takes place during sexual 
pleasure. He feels particularly well when his nerves are put to this 
activity. On the other hand, complete abstinence and suppression 
of this appetite appear lyibearable to him. — ^Db. Wleckakd. 


An artist, 88 years old, stated that after moderate masturba- 
tion in his youth, from his 17th to his 28rd years, he led an abstem- 
ious life and never masturbated, although his sexual appetite made 
him very nervous and miserable. He led a regular life, did not 
smoke and drank very little. He was convinced that his violent 
mental struggles and suppression of the sexual desire during six 
years were the causes of his highly nervous condition. He had 
formerly been ccwnparatively well. As soon as he began to gratify 
his sexual appetite in a normal way, these nervous symptoms disap- 


peared, but when he was abstinent for some Iwigth of time the ner- 
vous pains in the small of his back returned and radiated to the 
abdomen, becoming colicky, and he had pains accompanied by 
vomiting, etc. Gratification of his desire always removed these 
symptoms and always made him well. — A. Moll: Die Kontraere 


From earliest childhood Therese used Colinnbel as the scape- 
goat and the sport of her caprices. He was about six months 
older than she. Therese was a dreadful child. Not that she was 
wild and uncontrolled, like the ordinary unruly child ; on the con- 
trary, she was extraordinarily serious with the outward aspect of 
a well-brought up young lady. But she had most remarkable whims 
and caprices. When she was alone, she would from time to time 
utter inarticulate cries or angry howls. From the age of six she 
began to torment little Colombel. He was small and weakly. She 
would lead him to a place in the park where the chestnut-trees 
formed an arbor; here she would spring on his back and make him 
carry her about, riding sometimes round and round for hours. 
She compressed his neck and thrust her heels into his sides, so that 
he could hardly breathe. He was the horse, she was the lady on 
horseback. When he was tired out and ready to drop {rom exhaus- 
tion, she would bite him till the blood flowed and would cling to her 
seat so tightly that her nails sank into his flesh. And the ride 
would thus start once more. The cruel queen, six years old, borne 
on the back of the little boy who served her as beast of burden thus 
hunted on horseback with her hair streaming in the wind. After- 
wards, when they were with their parents, she would pinch him 
secretly, and by repeated threats would prevent him from crying 
or complaining. Thus in secret they led a life of their own, very 
different from that which was apparent to the eyes of others. 
When they were alone, she treated him as a toy to be broken to 
fragments at her pleasure. Was she not the Marquise? Were not 
people on their knees before her? And when she was tired of 
tyrannizing over Colombel in private, she would take a peculiar 
pleasure when others were present, in tripping him up, or in run- 
ning a pin into his arm or neck, whilst at the same time she forbade 
him with a fierce glance of her black eyes to show even by the 
movement of an eyelid that she was to blame. Colombel bore his 


martyrdom with a dull resentment. Trembling, he kept his eyes 
on the ground to escape the temptation to strangle his young mis- 
tress. And yet, he did not dislike being beaten; it gave him a 
bitter delight. Sometimes even he sou^t for a blow, awaiting the 
pain with a peculiar thrill and feeling a certain satisfaction in the 
smart whte she pricked him with a pin. — Zola, Pour Une Nuit 



The faithfulness of the man springs from the purely masculine 
conception of truth, the continuity demahded by the intelligible 
ego; his faithfulness is a coercicm whidi he exercises on himself, 
of his own free will, and with full consciousness. He may not adhere 
to this self-imposed contract, but his falling away from it will seem 
as a wrong to himself. When he breaks his faith, he has suppressed 
the promptings of his real nature. For the woman unfaithfulness 
is an exciting game, in which the thought of morality plays no 
part, but which is controlled only by the desire for safety and • 
reputation. There is no wife who has not been untrue to her hus- 
band in thought, and yet no woman reproaches herself with this. 
For a woman pledges her faith lightly and without any full con- 
sciousness of what she does, and breaks it just as lightly and 
thoughtlessly as she pledged it. The motive for honoring a pledge 
can be foimd only in man; for a woman does not understand the 
binding force of a given word. The examples of female faithful- 
ness that can be adduced against this are of little value. They are 
either the slow result of the habit of sexual acquiescence, or a con- 
dition of actual slavery, dog-like, attentive, full of instinctive ten- 
acious attachment, comparable with that necessity for actual con- 
tact which marks female sympathy. — ^Weiningeh. 



Grenius and talent are nearly always connected in the popular 
idea, as if the first were a higher, or the highest, grade of the latter. 
This view is entirely erroneous. Even if there were different 
degrees or grades of genius, they would have absolutely nothing 
to do with so-called "talent.** A talent, for instance the mathemati- 
cal talent, may be possessed by some one in a very high degree {rom 
birth ; and he will be able to master the most difficult problems of 


that science with eas« ; but for this he will require no genius, which 
is the same as originality, individuality, and a condition of general 
productiveness. On the other hand, there are men of great genius 
who have shown no special talent in any marked degree; for 
instance, men like Novalis or Jean Paul. Genius is distinctly not 
the superlative of talent; there is a world-wide difference between 
the two; they are of absolutely unlike nature; they can neither be 
measured by one another nor compared to each other. Talent is 
hereditary ; it may be the common possession of a whole family (e. 
g. the Bach family) ; genius is not transmitted; it is never diffused, 
but strictly individual. . . .Weiningeb. 


• Bacon claims that ^^certainly the best works, and of greatest 
merit for the public, have proceeded from unmarried or childless 
men." Schopenhauer expresses himself to the same effect: "For 
men of higher intellectual avocation, for poets, philosophers, for 
all those, in general, who devote themselves to science and art, 
celibacy is preferable to married life, because the conjugal yoke 
prevents them from creating great works.'* In his "Life of Byron," 
Moore argues that "in looking back thru the lives of the most 
illustrious poets — ^the class of intellect in which the characteristic 
features of genius are, perhaps, most strongly marked — ^we shall 
find that with scarcely one exception, from Homer down to Byron, 
they have been, in their several degrees, restless and solitary spirits, 
with minds wrapped up, like silkworms, in their own tasks, either 
strangers or rebels to domestic ties, and bearing about with them 
a deposit for posterity in their souls, to the jealous watching and 
enriching of which almost all other thoughts and considerations 
have been sacrificed." Among the "strangers," Moore names New- 
ton, Gassendi, Galileo, Descartes, Bayle, Locke, Leibnitz, and 
Hume, to whom may be added Kant, Schopenhauer, Handel, Bee- 
thoven, Schubert, Plato, and many others. Quite as large is the 
list of "rebels to domestic ties." Says Moore: "The coincidence 
is no less striking than saddening, that on the list of married poets 
who have been unhappy in their homes, there should already be 
found four such illustrious names as Dante, Milton, Shakespeare, 
and Dryden. "The poet Dante, a wanderer away from wife and 
children, passed the whole of a restless life in nursing his immortal 
dream of Beatrice. The dates of the births of Shakespeare^s chil- 
dren, compared with that of his removal from Stratford, the total 
omission of his wife's name in the first draft of his will, and the 


bitter sarcasm of the bequest by which he remembers her afterwards 
— all prove beyond a doubt his separation from the lady early in 
life, and his unfriendly feeling towards her at the close. 

Milton's first wife ran away from him within a month after 
their marriage, disgusted with his spare diet and hard study ; and 
his later domestic misery is universally known .... The girl whom 
Haydn married turned out to be a shrew who had no sympathy 
whatever with his musical genius. Berlioz was one of the most 
passionate of lovers, but a few years after marriage he arranged a 
separation from his former flame and left her to die in solitude and 
misery. Handel was the wisest of the composers.. He was never 
in love and had an aversion to marriage. — ^Hbnbt T. Finck. 

Balzac observed "that the idea of taking a wife on trial will 
make more wise men reflect than the fools laugh.'* He was not 
aware that experimental marriage has been very extensively 
practised. In one of the aboriginal tribes of India marriages take 
place at a fixed period of the year, when all the candidates, male 
and female, live together for six days and then pair off. The 
young Turcoman cfiories off a girl and lives with her for six 
weeks, at the end of which time, if she has found favor in his eyes, 
his friends open negotiations with her parents for a marriage in 
regular form. In Ceylon marriages are provisional for a fort- 
night, and are then either annulled or confirmed. In the Andamon 
Islands marriage lasts only till a child is weaned, then each party 
seeks a new engagement. The Hussaniyeh Arabs have **three- 
quarters" marriages, a woman being expected to be faithful to her 
husband for three days out of four, but on every fourth day being 
free to do as she chooses. Among the tribes of Southern India a 
young woman of sixteen or twenty is married to a boy of five or 
six, but lives with some other adult male, usually a relative. Her 
children are fathered upon the boy, but he in turn, when he grows 
up, has the privilege of begetting children for some other youthful 
husband. In Japan it is no stain upon a girl's name or any other 
impediment to her marriage that she should hire herself out for a 
term of years to the keeper of a house of ill-fame, in order to 
retrieve her father's fortunes. The Hindu law does not recognize 
impotency as a bar to marriage. The wife of a Hindu Eunudi 
is allowed to have a son and heir by a male friend of the husbcmd's, 
duly appointed to represent him. — J. F. Nisbet, **Marriage and 
Heredity:' 1890. 


"I suppose the chief reason why I never married must have 
been an overmastering passion for entire freedom, unconstraint ; 
I had an instinct against forming ties that would bind me. — ^Walt 


The conservative tendency which women manifest in all 
questions of social order is to be sought in the immobility of the 
ovule compared with the zoosperm. Also in the fact that the fe- 
male on whom falls the larger share of the duty of bringing up 
the family, necessarily leads a more sedentary life and is less ex- 
posed than the male to the varying conditions of time and space 
in her environment. 


The old institution of marriage is bleeding from a thousand 
woimds as a result of the attacks of clear-sighted and inexorable 
critics. Inasmuch as legal marriage is based upon the fundamental 
principle of conjugal rights, or, to put the matter plainly, upon 
sexual coercion, it is not possible to avoid the danger that marriage 
may become an institution for the legalisation and official author- 
ization of rape — ^the only safeguard against this being that the 
individual's tact and good sense, and his recognition of the limita- 
tions of man's ethical right to sensuality, should restrain him from 
the exercise o